This report covers the year to December 31, 1991. It outlines the developments and undertakings of the Project over the past year.
As noted in our half-yearly report, during the first six months of this year, the Project doubled in size. This seems to have been entirely appropriate in a year which saw further dramatic increases in the levels of violence throughout the society, including in violent crime, domestic violence, violent activities of youth gangs, a crisis in policing and pervasive political violence.
Equally inevitably, the growth, particularly of political violence in the past 18 months, has witnessed the development of several initiatives to both monitor the violence and to generate processes to resolve the problems through negotiation, dialogue and a search for reconciliation. In all these respects, the expertise of the Project for the Study of Violence has been drawn upon by a wide range of political interest groups and "peace agencies". The anticipation of the problem of violence in South African society (implicit in the formation of the Project at the end of 1988), coupled with the foresight that escalation of violent conflict would plague the process of change and the prospects for development in our country, seems to have placed the Project at the cutting edge of these developments. Our expertise is becoming widely acknowledged, and our credentials and impartiality accredited.
As noted in our June report, this has resulted in varied invitations to participate in forums and to make contributions, emanating from a wide range of political groupings as well as many politically non-aligned sources. From our attendance at the State President's initial 'Peace Summit' on 24-25 May 1991, to our frequent provision of information and resources to the African National Congress (ANC), we regard ourselves as having been involved intimately with the generation of dialogue as well as the peace process more generally. We anticipate that as the Convention for a Democratic South Africa (CODESA) develops, we will be making a substantial contribution through our submissions to its newly established working groups. In the course of the year, the Project for the Study of Violence has already offered critical advice and information on proposed peace accords between Inkatha, the ANC and government, we have addressed church groupings, business, trade unions, student and youth structures. We have continued to foster and assist initiatives to monitor political violence and to provide relief to its victims, as well as to generate public awareness of violence-related issues.
As was anticipated in the first six months of the year, 1991 has been a very busy year for the Project for the Study of Violence. We were in many respects well placed due to our anticipation of some of the key issues which were to dominate the early transitional phase of this society. In this regard, our work in the policing sphere, funded and commissioned by the Institute for a Democratic Alternative in South Africa (IDASA), has fed public debate on this vital area at a time when the social spotlight is firmly on the role of the South African Police in the process of transition. Similarly, our completed mini-project on the hostels and their role in township violence is widely regarded as innovative and crucial at a time when the hostels have been on the front lines of township battles. Our work with the youth - not only at a political level, but our focus and publication of research on youth gangs - has been widely acknowledged and drawn upon at a time when the experience of this marginalised generation of tomorrow's leaders is seen to be central to both the current violence and to the prospects for future social and economic development.
1991 has been a highly productive year. In the second half of the year we developed considerably our educational role and made some headway in developing our capacity to facilitate interactive forums which generate intergroup exchange, experiential learning, greater communication and, we believe, increased prospects for reconciliation in our society. We have not by any means achieved all our goals in these regards, but have developed a momentum which we hope will carry us into 1992. All these areas remain priorities for further growth and development in the new year.
The Project's central funders for various of our activities in 1991 were the following:
The Ford Foundation
The Netherlands Embassy
The Japanese Embassy (via the Kagiso Trust)
The Canadian Embassy
The Institute for a Democratic Alternative in South Africa (IDASA)
IDASA has funded and commissioned the work of he policing researchers within the Project for the Study of Violence.
Many of these donor agencies will continue to fund the Project in the coming year and in some cases have already made donations for the forthcoming period. In addition, however, our hard work on the domestic funding scene during 1991, has begun to pay dividends. Apart from the donations of R1 000 made by PG Bison and by Tusk Music Company, we have now also received our first substantive funding from a local company in the form of a R20 000 contribution from the Johannesburg Consolidated Investment Company (JCI). We hope to encourage further investment of domestic business interests in our Project in the coming months of 1992.
In the course of his fund-raising trip during 1991, Lloyd Vogelman met with all of the current overseas funders of the Project for the Study of Violence, as well as establishing direct contact with a wide range of other potential donors.
As noted in the mid-year report, the expansion of the Project for the Study of Violence has greatly increased the amount of administration involved in successfully running the Project. Jill Huber, employed as a full-time administrator since the beginning of February 1991, has worked wonders in establishing and developing new and more effective administrative systems which have rendered us effectively independent of the Psychology Department's administrative staff upon whom we initially relied.
Administrative tasks accomplished in 1991 include the following:
Compiling, computerising and continually updating a mailing list from which notices of seminars and seminar papers are sent to funders and various interested persons and organisations.
Re-organising the filing system. This was in fact a mammoth task which continued well into the second half of the year.
Organising the Project's resource centre. Jill Huber has managed to establish an effective (although limited) resource centre up and running. The Project also runs a limited press clipping service whereby articles relating to violence are collected and filed. Maintenance of the mini-resource centre and the compiling of information packages on request, comprises a substantial part of the administrator's working day.
Apart from the above, the administrator is constantly involved in general administrative tasks which do not require repeated description here. The most important achievement in this area in 1991, however, has been the achievement of virtually complete administrative self-sufficiency - except for our continued reliance on the University's accounts department. In all these areas, we are still looking to streamline our administrative systems through the utilisation of enhanced computer programmes etc.
The Steering Committee met formally twice in 1991. Steering Committee members have continued to act as a source of advice and consultation on an individual basis as well. Plans to expand the Steering Committee and to enhance its representative capacity will be put into practice early in the new year.
The staff of the Project wish to extend their thanks to the Steering Committee members and especially to Melvin Freeman and Rayna Tabak, for their contributions in the course of 1991.
The ongoing contact and co-operative working relationships which the Project has developed with a wide range of organisations, is essential to our own programmes and development. It is fundamental to our objectives of serving as a conduit for interdisciplinary research and education as well as of fostering communication, dialogue and reconciliation. It remains difficult to generalise the nature of these contacts, which may vary from "once off" provision of material or sharing of ideas, to ongoing education programmes, research commissions or co-operative projects. The list which follows is not exhaustive, but it gives some sense of the range of organisations with which the Project has engaged at various levels over the past year.
Centre for Intergroup Studies (University of Cape Town - UCT)
Institute of Criminology, (UCT)
Institute for African Alternatives
National Institute for Crime Prevention and Rehabilitation of Offenders (NICRO), Soweto
Greater Soweto Chamber of Commerce
Southern African Youth Clubs Association
Youth Alive Ministries
Joint Enrichment Programme (JEP)
Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC)
Community Agency for Social Enquiry (CASE)
Soweto Anti-Crime Initiative
South African Council of Churches (SACC)
Tembisa Peace Corps
Consultative Business Movement (CBM)
African National Congress (ANC)
Human Awareness Programme (HAP)
Market Theatre Laboratory
Alexandra Civic Organization
Sandton Town Council
SA Commercial Catering and Allied Workers Union (SACCAWU)
Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU)
ANC Yeoville Women's Group
ANC Women's League
Family and Marital Association of SA
Weekly Mail Film Festival Committee
Centre for Applied Legal Studies (CALS)
Wits Street Law Project
Home Instruction Programme for Pre-school Youngsters (HIPPY)
Orlando Youth Group
University of Venda, Department of Criminal Justice
HTE National Council of Swedish Youth
Neighbourhood Watch Association
Block Watch Association of South Africa
Democratic Party (DP)
Departments of Psychology and Education, University of the Western Cape
Department of Criminology, University of Durban-Westville
Industrial and Labour Studies, University of Natal, Durban
World Health Organisation
Peaceful Progress In South Africa
Amnesty International (Netherlands)
Amnesty International (Boston)
South African Police
Physicians for Human Rights
Church Human Rights Commission (Netherlands)
An area in which we have substantially improved contact, and which requires special mention in some detail, has been with the South African and other police forces. This has resulted from the work done by the policing researchers funded and commissioned by IDASA. The policing project has also engaged with a range of police researchers and other groups concerned with the issues of policing, and has established a national network of policing researchers. In the course of 1991, we have been invited to participate in SAP conferences and have channelled a range of information to members and planners within police forces. The Policing project has had contact with the following academics and organisations:
Institute of Criminology - UCT
Department of Criminology (Police Science) UNISA
Institute of Criminology (UNISA)
Centre for Criminal Justice, University of Natal
Department of Criminology, University of Zululand
Institute for Social and Economic Research (ISER), UDW
Legal Education and Action Project, UCT
Centre for Applied Legal Studies, Wits
School of Law, UWC
Project for Peace and Security, CIS UCT
Centre for Intergroup Studies, UCT
Lawyers for Human Rights, Jhb and Pietermaritzburg
Legal Resources Centre, Durban.
Centre for Policy Studies, Wits
Workplace-Community Interface Project, Wits Business School
Cheadle, Thompson & Haysom - Law Firm
Centre for Conflict Analysis, HSRC
Johannesburg City Council Management Committee
Methodist Order of Peacemakers
"Peace in Natal"
Independent Board of Inquiry into Informal Repression Inkatha Freedom Party
Consultative Business Movement
SA Chamber of Business
International Defence and Aid Fund, London
Gavin Cawthra, UK Policing Researcher
Jeremy Sarkin-Hughes, UWC
Elrena Van Der Spuy, Stellenbosch/IDASA researcher
Departments of Police Science & Criminology, Turfloop University
Department of Police Science, University of Venda
COSATU Department of Information
Investor Research & Responsibility Consultants, Washington
Amnesty International Fact-Finding Mission
National Peace Initiative
Black Sash, Johannesburg
Legal Resources Centre, Johannesburg
Police Forces and Departments
Ministry of Law and Order
SAP General Staff
Pretoria Police College
Chatsworth Training College
Bishop Lavis Training College
Advanced Training College, Paarl
Police Academy, Graaff Reinet
Riot Unit, Pmb and Durban
Security Police HQ, Durban and Pmb
SAP Public Relations, Durban, Pretoria and Johannesburg.
Kwazulu Police Force
SAP Efficiency Services
SAP Internal Discipline, Jhb
Jhb Traffic Police
Durban City Police
Dutch Police Delegation
SAP Security Branch, Johannesburg
SAP Security Branch, Headquarters
UK Police Foundation
Senior Staff College, Bramshill, UK
Metropolitan Police Training Centre, London
Police Training Division, Home Office, London
Chief J. Harding, Ontario, Canada
SAP Research & Planning Department, Headquarters
SAP Efficiency Services Division, Headquarters
SAP Forensic Science Laboratory, Pretoria
SAP College, Hammanskraal
SAP Atteridgeville Police Station
SAP Dept of Interstate Relations, Headquarters
The list of organisations with which the Project Trauma Clinic has developed contact is also documented separately here, as the nature of these contacts are specific to the work done within the Clinic.
People Opposing Women Abuse (POWA)
ANC Social Welfare Department
National Co-ordinating Committee for Repatriation of South African Exiles (NCCR)
National Medical and Dental Association (NAMDA)
Emergency Services Group (ESG)
The Independent Board of Inquiry into Informal Repression (IBIIR)
Hillbrow Hospital Social Work Department
St Luke's Senior College
Wits Law Clinic
School of Social Work, University of the Witwatersrand
NEHAWU - Wits Branch
The South African Council of Churches (SACC)
Concerned Social Workers
Counselling and Careers Unit, University of the Witwatersrand
Wits Student Representative Council
Community Psychiatric Services
ANC - Alex Women's League
Sexism and Sexual Harassment Committee, University of the Witwatersrand
Youth Alive Ministries
Transvaal Memorial Institute Child Abuse Clinic
Association of Ex-Political Prisoners
City Advice Centre
The second half of 1991 has seen the further development and expansion of education workshops conducted in schools and youth clubs in and around Johannesburg. Although these were discussed in our mid-year report, the centrality of these workshops to our programmes warrants some repetition in this annual report.
These workshops were initiated through recognition of the need to enable young people, who are living through extremely turbulent times in South Africa, to express their opinions and feelings on the violence. Although many people are concerned with the psychological impact of the violence on children and young adults, few initiatives have been undertaken to confront the issue with the children and youths themselves.
Despite this need, the workshops are not intended to make psychological interventions. Instead, their aim is threefold:
To provide information about the violence to schoolchildren to which they do not necessarily have access through the commercial media.
To give young people the opportunity to discuss their own attitudes on the causes of and solutions to the violence, as well as listen to opinions and attitudes of other people in their class, or from other areas or other schools.
To initiate a process in which they, as young people, start to question their role in South African society. We leave them with the question of what they can do to stop the violence either in their own communities, or in South Africa more generally, as well as hopefully assisting them in the search for solutions.
The workshops have been conducted in private, government and township schools as well as in youth organisations. The attitudes towards the causes of - and solutions to - violence in these different contexts have varied markedly.
The divergent experiences of particularly black and white groups typifies the distance between young South Africans who have grown up under Apartheid and whose lives differ vastly as a consequence. It points to the need to bring together different communities to break down prejudices that have been established and to seek reconciliation across the divides wrought by Apartheid.
The workshops were carried out in the following schools and youth clubs in the course of the year:
Because of the success of the workshops in the schools, we approached the "Learning Nation", an educational supplement in the newspaper the New Nation, to publish worksheets on violence in serial form. Four worksheets were published:
Apart from these youth-based workshops, the Project is concerned to expand further its education programme amongst factory based workers, who are directly affected by the high levels of violence in their communities. Our programme remains underdeveloped at this level and must be regarded as a priority for 1992.
The Project and the Weekly Mail Film Festival Committee co-hosted an all day workshop entitled "Violence on the screens and in our lives" (24 August). The highly successful day was attended by about 65 children between the ages of 16-18yrs from various schools and youth groups in the greater Johannesburg area. These kids represented a complete cross-section of South African youth, being drawn from entirely diverse racial and socio-economic communities.
The aim of the day was to use the medium of film to explore the complex issue of violence, and to critically examine the role of art and the media in disseminating information. The day began with the screening of the South African film "Dark City". This was followed by small group discussions, and the day ended with each group staging a 5 minute play dealing with ways to reduce violence - each play was video-taped a~d shown to the whole gathering. The Weekly Mail Film Festival Committee is presently attempting to secure funding to enable similar workshops to be held nationwide, which, should it be successful, would expand the Project for the Study of Violence's involvement in this area substantially.
The seminar programme has continued this year in much the same way as the previous years, namely, as a monthly programme in which papers and invitations are sent out to a wide range of academics and organisations. The seminar mailing list now includes over 250 names of individuals and organisations.
Although attendance at the seminar dropped slightly over the first two months of the year, this picked up again and attendance at Jeremy Cronin's seminar was the highest ever at the monthly seminar programme. It is also noteworthy that the last three seminars of the year (all of which were particularly successful) were all presented by Project members themselves. This provided a sounding board for Project-based research and also represented the fruition of this work.
Below is a list of the monthly seminars held in 1991:
|Black Responses to the Gulf War||Ameen Akhalawayo|
|The South African Police: Managers of conflict or party to the conflict?||Johan Olivier|
|For the Sake of our Lives: Guidelines for the creation of peoples' self-defence units||Jeremy Cronin|
|The Myth of Rehabilitation||Jo-Anne Stevens|
|The Indirect Effects of Political Violence on Children: Does violence beget violence?||Kerry Gibson|
|Police-Community Relations: The Natal conflict and the prospects for peace||Etienne Marais|
|The Human Face of Violence: Hostel dwellers speak||Lauren Segal|
|The Era of the Jackrollers: Contextualising the rise of youth gangs in Soweto||Steve Mokwena|
Many members of the Project have been engaged in giving guest lectures on their particular areas of expertise, especially at the University of the Witwatersrand. Lectures and conference contributions have also been given at other universities where requested.
Graeme Simpson and Vivi Stavrou presented a three week lecture series on "Violence in the Workplace and in Industrial Conflict" for Industrial and Labour Studies II students at the University of Natal (Durban) during August 1991. The class consisted of 98 sociology and psychology students and the course included setting and marking essays and exam scripts. This three week course was based almost entirely on the research done within the Project itself - although comprehensive reading packages and reading lists were also compiled drawing on as much expertise as possible from within and without the Project.
Lloyd Vogelman continued his teaching duties within the Psychology Department at Masters and undergraduate level.
The groundwork for many of the areas of research which are discussed below, was initiated in the past months and years of the Projects existence. Others are relatively new areas of work, and shall be dealt with in more detail.
The process of political transition anticipated by the unbanning of political organisations and the State President's speech of February 1990, heralded an escalation of political violence which has been at the heart of the Project's work for the past two years. Although primarily manifested in increased conflict in the country's black townships, 1991 has also witnessed a dramatic increase in organised right-wing violence and politically-rooted social violence. The research work done in this area in 1991 was therefore built substantially on the work done in the preceding year.
A request for a review of political violence in 1990 was made by Prof. Mike Robertson of the Centre for Socio-legal Studies at the University of Natal (Durban), for publication in the Human Rights and Labour Law Yearbook: 1991. This piece was written and was due for publication by the end of August, however, problems were encountered with the publishers and the book will only be published in the new year.
Much of the research work around political violence has also fed directly into our education workshops, seminars and presentations. Indeed, the levels of political violence and the public concern with this, resulted in extremely heavy demands being made of Project staff members with respect to speaking engagements, consultations and press interviews in respect of this dimension of our work.
This research project was initiated with the aim of researching the role of the youth in the recent violence. The youth are central participants in South Africa and they are key actors in the violence. More than any other social category, they represent the barometer of deprivation, frustration and impoverishment.
This year, the area covered has mainly related to youth involvement in criminal violence and the easy slide between political and criminal violence which has been on the increase in the past months.
This research can be divided into two main categories: Firstly, the research deals with the structural context which has claimed black youth as its key victims, and has consequently turned them into perpetrators of violence. The second focus is a more detailed examination of youth gangs and other forms of juvenile crime in the black townships.
The desperate need for such research and the Project's achievements have resulted in us being invited by a range of organisations to give input on topics around violence and the youth in South Africa. This work has also contributed substantially to the Project's education work. Following the establishment of the Youth and Violence Research Project, the Project was approached to give input at the national conference hosted by the Joint Enrichment Project under the auspices of the Southern African Catholic Bishops Conference and Kagiso Trust. The paper entitled "Marginalisation, Youth and Violence", written and presented by Steve Mokwena, was well received and has since sparked off considerable interest from a range of parties including the media, both local and overseas.
In the second half of the year, Steve Mokwena's work concentrated on research into youth gangs. This consisted of extensive fieldwork involving interviews with youth in the township and a range of consultations with key actors in this sphere. This research culminated in the paper presented in the last month of the Project seminar programme above. The vital need for this sort of research within different communities will result in it occupying a central position in the Project's research programme in the coming year as well.
The research conducted on violence against farmworkers was carried further in the first half of this year. The Project, together with the Black Sash, produced a booklet from the research paper completed at the end of 1990. Two thousand copies of this booklet were sent to various national and international organisations and embassies. The booklet has served both an educational function as well contributing to the campaign around the rights of farmworkers in a "new South Africa".
The media were also quick to pick up on the issue. The Project's research was used as the basis for the programme "Carte Blanche", a news and actuality programme on M-Net Television. The "Carte Blanche" team went to the South Eastern Transvaal to interview some of the farmers and farmworkers that the Project had written about. The John Robbie Show, a talk-show on Radio 702, also did a one hour "phone-in talk-show" on the subject of violence against farmworkers. Lauren Segal, together with Geoff Budlender, a lawyer from the Legal Resources Centre, were the guests on the show. The booklet, as well as the television and radio programmes, have ensured that the issue of violence against farmworkers has reached a wide audience. We would like to believe that we have thus contributed to the lobby which has recently seen farmworkers win their demand to be included under the Labour Relations Act. It is hoped that these legislative mechanisms will assist in further protecting these workers.
This fulfilled the Project's aim that the research conducted here does not simply remain restricted to an academic environment. Proof of this is the fact that the Project was approached by the Eastern Transvaal Regional Services Council, along with a group of 12 farmers from the area examined in the report, to attend an information session and discussion on the issue of violence against farmworkers. The farmers from the area were initially highly defensive and extremely hostile to the Project members (Graeme Simpson and Lauren Segal) who attended. However, after a day of dialogue we left feeling that a great deal had been achieved and that the entire experience vindicated our belief in practically-oriented research which is fed back into the affected communities. Without being naive or suggesting that behaviour in the area will change overnight, we do believe that we have made an impact - and perhaps some small contribution to challenging existing norms and confronting human rights abuses in the district.
The hostel research was initiated in September 1990 as a result of the violence which erupted in hostels across the Reef. As noted in our mid-year report, our aim to conduct in-depth interviews regarding hostel dwellers' attitudes and perceptions of the violence was hindered by the inaccessibility of these hostel residents in the ensuing conflict. Other issues initially confronted included: issues of trust and suspicion as to our motives, as well as the safety of the interviewers in the politically volatile climate.
We decided therefore to approach a factory on the East Rand which employed a large number of hostel dwellers as an alternative means of gaining access to these people. After very protracted negotiations with the Hostel Dwellers' Committee, we were given permission to conduct the interviews. With the help of research assistants, nineteen in-depth interviews were completed, transcribed, translated, and analyzed. The interviews reveal a host of complexities and nuances that have been overlooked by the mass media as well as many of the political interest groups in explaining the hostel war. The findings were presented at a Project seminar in the form of a paper entitled, "The Human Face of Violence: Hostel dwellers speak" and which is due to be published in the Journal of South African Studies in the new year.
Late in the year, the Project was approached to submit a report on the role of the hostels in the Thokoza violence to the Goldstone Commission of Enquiry into Violence and Intimidation. We anticipate that this will also be done early in the new year and thereby that this project will contribute to a deeper understanding of the motives behind the violence and will provide some sort of voice for the hostel dwellers themselves who are often seen on the front pages of the commercial media, but who are seldom heard.
The problems of crime and crime control, particularly in respect of violent crime, has reached epidemic proportions in South Africa. Yet despite the heightened incidence of crime, especially violent crime, there is no substantial, multi-pronged South African anti-crime programme. The present government does not have one and the opposition parties and liberation movements do not appear to have developed any comprehensive policy on the subject either.
The problem of burgeoning violent crime is inseparable from the specific history of Apartheid's social structure and the power relations inherent therein. As a result, we predict that rocketing crime figures during this transitionary phase of our history, will impact on the political process in a fundamental way. South Africa has witnessed the dual processes of criminalization of politics and the politicisation of crime in the context of enormous disparities between different sections of the population and different areas of the country. The popular notions of a 'culture of violence' and citizen fear and insecurity, have made a significant impact on the "South African psyche", and will in turn impact on areas like legislation, policing and neighbourhood formation. These factors severely complicate the research objectives of developing policy and designing interventions that will benefit both the individual and the state.
Furthermore, there is very little systematic information on the ways in which violent crime affects the everyday lives of people or on what their attitudes are to criminal violence, to criminals, or to the police or law enforcement strategies. We know very little of what resources people mobilize in order to cope with crime or what crime-prevention strategies they prefer. Instead, it appears that current policies and practices with regard to forms of policing, crime prevention, or retribution and justice, are determined more by the experiences and requisites of the various agencies providing the services, than by the needs of the people who are supposedly thus serviced.
The Project for the Study of Violence has thus initiated a pilot-study, which involves:
Conducting community based research in the black township of Alexandra and in the affluent white neighbouring suburb of Sandton. The research focuses on the attitudes of a Neighbourhood Watch committee in Sandton and a Block Defense Committee in Alexandra towards violent crime, etc; and the crime control and prevention strategies employed within each community.
Interviewing key informants (eg: city councillors, civic representatives, police, party politicians, business leaders) in both communities about national and civic policy with regard to their understanding of the upsurge in violent crime, and proposed crime control and prevention strategies.
The key informant interviews and the neighbourhood-based Alexandra interviews have already been completed and the raw data is presently being analyzed. Difficulty is being experienced in gaining access into the block watch formations operating within Sandton.
Some of the central issues being dealt with in the research findings include:
The Policing Project began in January 1991 as the result of a commission by the Institute for a Democratic Alternative in South Africa (IDASA). Two researchers, Etienne Marais and Janine Rauch, were employed to work full-time on policing. The original aims of the Policing Project were to develop alternative policy considerations on the issue of policing and to contribute these to IDASA's work in creating and facilitating public debate about policing.
What distinguishes this research from other studies of policing in South Africa is our commitment to independent research which is conducted in a co-operative fashion with the South African Police. The success of this approach is demonstrated by the ever-improving access which the researchers are granted to the various departments of the SAP, and the overtures which have been made by members of the SAP towards the Project for the Study of Violence. This co-operative style of work has also involved substantial interaction with other academics and researchers in the field, and the Policing Project has been able to play a national co-ordinating role in this regard. The researchers have also been consulted by a number of foreign researchers to supply information on policing in South Africa and have provided briefings to a number of political parties and interest groups. The interactive nature of the Policing work has generated a useful network of contacts on issues of violence as well as policing.
Because the scope of the Policing Project is so vast, two areas were initially identified as priorities, and publications thus far reflect these. The central issue in most debates about policing is the notion of "accountability" of police forces to the public they serve. This concept is crucial for successful policing of both crime and political conflict, and must be central to formulation of future police policy. Accountability in the context of political conflict was explored through an analysis of policing during the "Natal War". The other area has been an analysis of the structure and operation of the SAP and, in particular, recent reforms of the police force. These initial focuses have enabled the researchers to acquaint themselves with general debates about policing, as well as the specific complexities of the South African situation.
The relationship between the commissioning organisation, IDASA, and the Policing Researchers was renegotiated and redefined during the second half of the year. Although this process took up much valuable research time, it has resulted in a stronger relationship with IDASA and more focus for the research project.
The relationship between the Policing Project and the SAP has greatly improved in the course of the year, particularly with their Research & Planning Department, who are facilitating access to other branches of the force. The researchers were invited to attend an SAP conference on Standards and Affirmative Action at the Graaff-Reinet Police Academy, where further contacts were established.
Three major areas of work were pursued in the latter half of 1991:
The National Peace Accord
The researchers were asked to prepare a briefing document on police accountability for the Task Group on Security Forces which was responsible for drafting Policing sections of the Peace Accord. At a later stage, they were asked to comment on various drafts of the National Peace Accord, and their written comments were forwarded to political parties as well as to the Task Group. The Policing Researchers wrote an early assessment of the Peace Accord, which was reproduced in a Project for the Study of Violence Seminar and for publication.
Training in the SAP
After brief visits to selected police training institutions in the early part of the year, the researchers felt that training should be isolated as a key area for policy development. It was decided that the Policing Project would approach the SAP to request permission to conduct a survey of current training practices. This permission was granted in November, and the fieldwork will begin in 1992, after the racial integration of the SAP Basic Training Colleges. The SAP's training department has indicated interest in utilising our recommendations on completion of the research.
Integration of Homeland Police Forces
The re-incorporation of Homeland forces into the SAP is the subject of top-level political negotiations, and will impact on the racial composition of the SAP. For these reasons, the researchers felt that a survey of the state of homeland police forces and their attitudes to re-integration would be useful in shaping policy. Initial fieldwork was conducted in the latter part of the year. Because major difficulties were encountered in gaining access to members of homeland forces, it is proposed that the research be restricted to case studies in two or three homelands. This research will continue in the new year.
The researchers' understanding of policing issues is successfully being fed into other areas of work in the Project for the Study of Violence and brings a new dimension to much of the work on crime and policing of political violence. Another current area of work is the co-ordination of an International Working Group on Community Policing in South Africa. Because of the urgent need for sound policy-oriented research on policing, the Project is keen to continue work in this field for at least the next year.
As part of the Policing project the issue of the Natal violence was examined and further developed. This research focused on the policing of the Natal conflict and the specific question of what changes could be made to policing practices in the context of the policing of violent political conflict.
The following articles by various members of the Project have either been completed for publication in the past year or are currently under review:
Marais, E., "Closing the gap between police and community", Democracy in Action, June/July 1991.
Marais, E. and Rauch, J., "Another dent in SAP image", in Sunday Times, 28 July 1991.
Marais, E. and Rauch J., "Policing the accord", in Work in Progress, No. 78, Oct/Nov 1991.
Rauch J, "The Limits of Police Reform", in Indicator SA, Vol. 8, No. 4, Spring 1991.
Segal, L, "A Brutal Harvest: The roots and legitimation of violence on farms in South Africa", Published by the Black Sash, March 1991.
Simpson, G., Mokwena, S. and Segal, L., "Political Violence: 1990", in Robertson, M. and Rycroft, A. (eds.) Human Rights and Labour Law Yearbook 1991, Oxford University Press, Cape Town (1991).
Vogelman, L. and Eagle, G., "Overcoming Endemic Violence against Women", in Social Justice, Vol. 18, Nos. 1-2, pp. 209-229.
Webster, E. and Simpson G., "Crossing the Picket Line: Violence in industrial conflict", in Industrial Relations Journal of South Africa, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 15-32 (1991).
Vogelman, L., "Some Causes and Solutions to the Violence in South Africa", (November/December 1991), Child Welfare, Vol. 16, No. 2.
Haysom, N., Strous, M. and Vogelman, L. "The Mad Mrs Rochester: Involuntary confinement of the mentally ill in South Africa", South African Journal on Human Rights, Vol. 6, Part 3, pp. 341-362.
Vogelman, L. and Simpson, G., "A Legacy of Youth Violence Haunts Apartheid", Psychology International, Vol. 2, No. 1, Winter 1991.
Mokwena, S., "Marginalisation, Youth and Violence in South Africa", for a Penguin Forum Publication.
Mokwena, S., "Black Youth and Violence in a Changing South Africa", for German Quarterly Magazine, "Der Überblick".
The provision of research packages and information dossiers is a very extensive part of the service provided by the Project. The material provided varies greatly, depending on the source of the request and the needs being serviced in any particular instance. For this reason it is not practical to provide a full list of materials supplied with the details of all the requests. What follows is merely a brief sample to give some idea of the role being played by the Project in disseminating information generated through our research. Many of the consultations referred to below also serve this purpose and usually involve the dissemination of papers and other written-up research.
Material was provided for Mandate, an industrial relations consultancy, on violence and how it affects employees. Similar material was given to South African Breweries.
A package on various aspects of the Project's work on violence was sent to the Centre for Intergroup Studies of the University of Cape Town.
Material was supplied to a person from the ANC Social Welfare Department on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and the effects of long-term political imprisonment.
Material was provided to South Newspaper, the Farmer's Weekly and Video News Service on violence against farmworkers.
Material on gun control was provided to a person from the Methodist Order of Peacemakers.
A journalist from Personality magazine and a researcher from Lawyers for Human Rights were supplied with packages on violence against women.
Information was provided to the ANC Youth League who were in the process of compiling a paper on crime and violence.
Submission by Graeme Simpson of a report in mitigation in the matter of State v Smith and Mailane to the Klerksdorp Magistrate's Court. This was a trial of two youths from the Vaal Triangle charged with the attempted murder of a municipal policeman in the course of an attack on the Lekoa Town Council's offices in Sharpeville. Although evidence in chief was given in November 1990, further evidence and cross-examination took place in January 1991.
Assistance provided to two attorneys from Cheadle, Thompson and Haysom in preparation of a petition to the State President for indemnity on behalf of four convicted murderers in an incidence of strike violence (June, 1991).
Graeme Simpson was consulted by Advocate Gordon Aber in regard to the extenuation case of two youths, allegedly members of the ANC Youth League, accused of brutally murdering an Inkatha member in Soweto.
The Project was approached by attorneys from Bell, Dewar and Hall and was requested to prepare evidence for later submission to the Goldstone Commission of Enquiry into Violence and Intimidation. Expert testimony will be submitted to the Thokoza Commission (local sitting of the Goldstone Commission) on the role of hostels in the Thokoza violence, and further evidence will be prepared on aspects of policing with specific reference to public order policing of a political nature.
The Project was asked by a representative of Lawyers for Human Rights to assist in securing psychological assistance for one of their clients on death row at Pretoria Central Prison.
Graeme Simpson supplied research materials and a package of papers on violence in industrial conflict to an attorney from Bernard, Vukic and Potash to assist in constructing expert evidence in extenuation in a labour conflict-related trial.
Marais, E., "Police Accountability and Political Conflict", paper presented to 3rd year Engineering Students, University of the Witwatersrand, (April, 1991).
Marais, E., "Police-Community Relations and the Natal Conflict", presented at Association of Sociologists of South Africa Annual Conference, University of Cape Town (July 1991).
Marais, E., "Policing Political Violence", paper presented at Venda University Symposium: The Image of the Police in a Changing Society (August 1991).
Marais, E., ""Police-Community Relations and the Natal Conflict and the Prospects for Peace", Project for the Study of Violence Seminar Paper (August, 1991).
Marais, E. & Rauch, J., "The Police in the New South Africa", paper presented to the course on Public Service in South Africa, Wits Business School (December 1991).
Mogale, N., "The Impact of Community Violence on Children", paper presented to South African Council of Churches Conference on Children (May 1-3, 1991).
Mogale, N., "Group Dynamics", paper presented at the Vuleka Trust Conflict Resolution Research Workshop, Wilgespruit (June, 1991).
Mogale, N., "Family Violence", paper presented at the Institute of Family Therapy Seminar on Family Violence (August, 1991).
Mogale, N., Gibson, K., and Friedlander, R., "Some Preliminary Ideas about the Meaning of Inkatha Violence for Children living in Alexandra", paper presented at the 8th National Congress of the South African Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, University of the Witwatersrand (September 12-14, 1991).
Mokwena, S., "The politics of Youth Crime in Black Communities", paper presented to the Southern African Association of Youth Clubs, Alpha Training Centre (April, 1991).
Mokwena, S., "Addressing Youth Crime and Violence", paper presented at the Soweto Crime Convention hosted by the Soweto Chamber of Commerce and the Soweto Civic Association (April, 1991).
Mokwena, S., "Political Violence in South Africa: A review of 1990", presented at Rhodes University by invitation from the National Union of South African Students (May, 1991).
Mokwena, S., "Violence and Black Youth in South Africa", paper presented at the YMCA National Youth Leadership Training (June, 1991).
Mokwena, S., "Living on the Wrong Side of the Law: Marginalisation, Youth and Violence in South Africa", paper presented at the Joint Enrichment Project National Conference on Marginalised Youth (June, 1991).
Mokwena, S., "Understanding Youth Violence In Black Communities", paper presented to the Advice Centres Association, Soweto (August, 1991).
Mokwena, S., "Youth Culture and Violence: Some Methodological Considerations", paper presented to the Psychological Association of South Africa's Annual Conference, University of Pretoria, (8 October, 1991).
Mokwena, S., "The Era of the Jackrollers: Contextualising the Rise of Youth Gangs in Soweto", Project for the Study of Violence Seminar Paper (October, 1991).
Mokwena, S., "Aspects of Youth Violence in Black Townships", paper presented at the Transvaal Memorial Institute (December, 1991).
Motsei, M., "Violence Against Black Women in South Africa", paper presented to the Seminar on Women Abuse, The Black Staff Association of the University of Turfloop (28 August, 1991).
Rauch, J., "Policing the violence", paper presented to the Black Sash, Pretoria (May, 1991).
Rauch, J. "De-constructing the SAP", paper presented to Association of Sociologists of South Africa Annual Conference, University of Cape Town (July, 1991).
Rauch, J., "Policing Violence in the Transition", paper presented at Intervarsity Law Conference on the Role of the Police, University of the Western Cape (September, 1991).
Rauch, J. "The Challenges for Policing in the New South Africa" paper presented at American Society of Criminology Conference, San Francisco (November, 1991).
Segal, L., "Fear and Farmers", talk presented to the Market Theatre Laboratory Group as part of an improvisation theatre project (April, 1991).
Segal, L., "Explaining the Current Violence", talk for the National Union of South African Students at the University of Cape Town (May, 1991).
Segal, L., Workshop on the Current Violence held at the Men's Residence, University of Cape Town (May, 1991).
Segal, L., "Violence in Our Society", paper presented to tutors of STEP, an Education Project on Wits campus (June, 1991).
Segal, L., "Farmworkers and Violence", paper presented at Psychology Department Research Day, Psychology Department, University of the Witwatersrand (June, 1991).
Segal, L., "The Role of the Hostels in Urban Political Conflict in South Africa in the 1990s", paper presented to the Sociology Honours Class, University of the Witwatersrand (September, 1991).
Segal, L., "The Human Face of Violence: Hostel Dwellers Speak", Project for the Study of Violence Seminar Paper (September, 1991).
Simpson, GN., "South Africa's Culture of Violence: Political and Social Violence in a Time of Transition", seminar given to the Transvaal Memorial Institute, 22 February, 1991.
Simpson, GN., "Violence in Industrial Conflict", lecture to the Industrial Sociology III class, University of the Witwatersrand (March 19, 1991).
Simpson, GN., "Some Sociological and Psychological Explanations of Strike Violence", lecture to the Industrial Psychology III class University of the Witwatersrand (March 27, 1991).
Simpson, GN., "Violence, Fear and Change in South Africa in the 1990s", presented to the Market Theatre Laboratory Group (April, 1991).
Simpson, GN., "Violence in South Africa Today", paper presented to a public seminar at the Johannesburg Hospital, organised by the Tara Community Interaction Group (April 24, 1991).
Simpson, GN., "South Africa in Transition - Violence at a Time of Negotiations: In Search of Solutions", paper presented to the Southern African Methodists Bishops' Conference, Alpha Training Centre (May 14, 1991).
Simpson, GN., "Political Violence in South Africa in the 1990s", paper presented to attorneys and support staff of Bell, Dewar and Hall Law Firm (May 15, 1991).
Simpson, GN., "Explaining Violence in the Workplace", lecture to the Electrical Engineering III class, University of the Witwatersrand (May 21, 1991).
Simpson, GN., "Political Violence in 1990: The Year in Review", paper presented to the Association of Sociologists of South Africa Annual Conference, University of Cape Town (July 1991).
Simpson, GN., "Explaining Township Violence", Education Seminar presented to a NICRO (Johannesburg) Workshop (July 5, 1991).
Simpson, GN., "Violence During Transition - The Search for Solutions", address at a public meeting hosted in Lenasia by the Democratic Party (July 22, 1991).
Simpson, GN., "Violence in the Workplace : What Business and Employee Assistance Programme (EAP) Practitioners Can Do", paper presented to the National EAP Committee of the Institute for Personnel Management, Conference on: The Role of the EAP in Managing Trauma, Johannesburg Sun Hotel (August 6, 1991).
Simpson, GN., "The Causes of Township Violence and Its Effects in the Working Environment", input to Management/Shop Stewards Workshop at Tusk Music Company (September 3, 1991).
Simpson, GN., "Women and Children in Violent South African Townships", paper presented to The UNISA Centre for Women's Studies and The Community Law Centre of the Institute for Public Interest Law and Research, Conference on: Women and Children in a Violent Society, UNISA (September 21, 1991).
Simpson, GN., "Political Violence in 1990: The Year in Perspective", paper presented to the Wits Psychology Department Journal Club, Wits University (September 23, 1991).
Simpson, GN., "Constructing and Researching Mitigation and Extenuation Reports in Respect of Violent Crimes Coming Before the South African Courts", paper presented to Advocates of the Johannesburg Bar Association, Innes Chambers, Johannesburg (October 3, 1991). [Presentation was requested by the Society for the Abolition of the Death Penalty in South Africa.]
Simpson, GN., "Township Violence and its Effect on the Working Environment - What Business Should Do", paper presented to the Institute of Personnel Management (Lowveld Branch) Mini-Convention (November 20, 1991).
Stavrou, P., "Violence, Political Conflict and Transition in South Africa : 1990-1991", paper presented at The Mechanical Engineering Forum, University of the Witwatersrand (March, 1991).
Stavrou, P., "Exploring the Meaning and Experience of Fear", workshop run for the Market Theatre Laboratory Group (April, 1991).
Stavrou, P., "Violence, Political Conflict and Transition in South Africa : 1990-1991", paper presented at The Femina/Bonny-Bird Self-Protection Programme (April, 1991).
Stavrou, P., and Huber, J., "Rape - Uncovering the Myths and Surviving the Consequences", paper presented to all 1st year students at the Rand Afrikaans University (April, 1991).
Stavrou, P., "Exploring the Culture of Violence in South Africa - 1991", seminar given to FAMSA Social Workers, Transvaal Region (May, 1991).
Stavrou, P., "Politics, Violence and Crime, South Africa 1990-1991", paper presented at Conference on: Crime - Possible Solutions, University of Venda (May, 1991).
Stavrou, P., "Assessing the Effects of Violence on Pre-school Children", seminar given to HIPPY community workers (June, 1991).
Stavrou, P., "The Importance for Mental Health Workers of Understanding the Culture of Violence in South Africa", paper presented to intern psychologists, Tara Hospital (June, 1991). Also presented to the Clinical Psychology Masters students, University of the Witwatersrand (September 1991).
Vogelman, L., "Preconditions for Violence and Some Solutions", paper presented to the Industrial Social Work Project at Anglo Alpha (February, 1991).
Vogelman, L., "Violence in South Africa: What Business can Do", presented at the Transnet Labour Conference (March, 1991).
Vogelman, L., "Transcending antagonism: Towards a Culture of Non-violence", presented at the Institute of Futures Research (March, 1991).
Vogelman, L., "The Current Political Violence in South Africa", Oxfam seminar, Oxford University (April, 1991).
Vogleman, L., "Understanding Violence in South Africa", ANC Social Welfare Conference, London (April, 1991).
Vogelman, L., "Developing a Theory of Violence", Input Workshop, London (October, 1991)
Vogelman, L., "Solutions to the violence in South Africa", United Nations Committee Against Apartheid, New York (May, 1991).
Vogelman, L., "Who Benefits From the Violence in South Africa?: An Examination of the Different Political Actors", Council for Foreign Relations, New York (June, 1991).
Vogelman, L., "Therapeutic Treatment for Victims of Violence", Johannes Weir Stichting, Antwerp, Netherlands (September, 1991).
Vogelman, L., "The Current Violence in South Africa", Kairos, Antwerp, Netherlands (September, 1991).
Vogelman, L., "Overcoming a Culture of Violence", Amnesty International, Amsterdam, Netherlands (September, 1991).
Vogelman, L., "Concluding Address: Understanding Violence", Conference on Violence in Southern Africa, Oxford University, England (June, 1991).
Vogelman, L., "Problems in Providing Therapy in Economically Deprived and Violence-torn Communities", Medico Foundation Conference, University of Frankfurt (September, 1991).
IDASA requested assistance in the structuring of a proposal for a conference on "The Building of a Culture of Peace". A draft proposal of subject matter, potential invitees etc. was provided for use by IDASA.
Graeme Simpson represented the Project on the University of the Witwatersrand Committee of Enquiry into Sexism and Sexual Harassment on Campus and submitted a written report which was included in full in the Deputy Vice-Chancellor for Student Affairs' Report to the Vice Chancellor.
Graeme Simpson and Vivi Stavrou of the Project for the Study of Violence attended a workshop on "Conflict Resolution and Mediation", hosted by The Committee for Conflict Intervention, Hanger Restaurant (May 17, 1991).
The Project's Policing Researchers attended a Lawyers for Human Rights Conference on Policing (May 18, 1991).
Graeme Simpson represented the Project for the Study of Violence at the State President's Peace Summit, CSIR (May, 24-25, 1991).
The Policing Project researchers organised and hosted a Cape Town Policing Researchers Workshop (April 6, 1991), attended by prominent experts in the field from the Universities of Cape Town and the Western Cape as well as some foreign policing experts. The objective of this workshop was to centralise resources and to facilitate networking and greater access to work being done in this field.
A similar workshop to the one described above was also hosted by the Policing Project for Johannesburg-based Policing Researchers (May, 1991).
The Project participated in the Soweto Lawyers for Human Rights Workshop on the "Role of the Police", (May 1991).
Project staff participated in the Soweto Crime Convention organised by Soweto Chamber of Commerce, Nicro (Soweto) and the Soweto Civic Association (May 8, 1991).
Project members participated in the one day Conference on Civil Society, Centre for Policy Studies, University of the Witwatersrand (May 5, 1991).
Project members participated in the Centre for Criminal Justice Conference: Policing in the New SA, at the University of Natal (Pmb.) (June 4-6, 1991). This conference brought together local and international experts on policing and addressed the central question of police reform in the "New South Africa".
The policing researchers participated in a Natal IDASA forum on Policing, (February 5, 1991) involving the SAP, Kwazulu Police and various legal groups. The forum addressed and agreed on various measures to improve police-community relations in Natal and contribute to a climate of peace in the region.
Etienne Marais helped plan and convene the CIS Conference (June 17, 1991) on Monitoring and Researching Political Violence, which was the first of its kind and addressed the role of research and monitoring in preventing political violence.
The Project Policing researchers both attended the South African Police Academy (Graaff-Reinet) Conference on "Standards in the SAP" (September, 1991).
Graeme Simpson chaired the session on Violence at the 8th National Congress of the South African Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines (September 12-14, 1991).
Vivi Stavrou organized and convened a workshop on "Exploring Explanations of Violence" (September 26, 1991). This was attended by 8 mental health workers involved in the area of analysing and designing interventions to reduce violence, and to treat the victims of violence.
Details are only given of those post-graduate students who were assisted with their research and programmes by the Project. Full details of our assistance to undergraduate students are too lengthy to reproduce here. The following students were assisted with their research projects through consultation, provision of information, dossiers or through ongoing supervision:
Other students from the following departments or faculties were assisted with research and projects relating to some aspects of violence in South Africa:
The Trauma Clinic supervises MA Clinical Psychology students as well as a Social Work IV student.
Khanya College offers a one year pre-university bridging programme for post-matric students. As part of their training curriculum, these students work for community or other organisations for at least one afternoon per week. The Project personnel believe that the training of pre-university students is a very important community contribution which we are able to make, especially in regard to developing skills in violence-related research and writing amongst community-based black youths.
In 1991, the Project for the Study of Violence undertook to take on three students from Khanya College: Mandla Shabalala; Maurice Nchabeleng and Aaron Vilakazi. We embarked on a training programme focusing on the issues of researching violence. They were involved in an oral history project on violence in Tembisa, attended all the Project's monthly seminars, were set weekly tasks to develop their research and writing skills, and learned basic interviewing techniques and some administrative skills.
The success of the 1991 programme was reflected by the fact that the "internship" at the Project for the Study of Violence was rated in the top three such programmes amongst Khanya students during the year. We anticipate repeating this programme in 1992.
The Project has developed a fairly high public profile over the last year to eighteen months and this has resulted in continued demands for interviews, information and consultations by members of the media. Various members of the Project have featured on radio, television and the printed media. Great interest has been shown in the work and insights of the Project by both local and international media networks. As a form of public education and as a means of informing public debate, we feel that this is a very productive process which should not be underestimated in its potential effect. Once again, it is not possible to detail all the interviews etc. that have been conducted, so below is simply a list of the various newspapers that we have serviced and some of the radio and television networks and programmes that have sought out the Project's expertise in the course of the period under review:
Interviews have also been given to the following radio and television stations in 1991:
The following are a selection of consultations which do not fit into any of the categories above and which give some of the flavour of the spectrum of contacts and requests for assistance that the Project is entertaining. This is not an exhaustive list of such contacts and consultations.
Susan Collins of the Centre for Intergroup Studies (University of Cape Town) consulted the Project on a national opinion survey of attitudes to violence and negotiations.
Chris Nunns of the Industrial Psychology Department was provided with a package on the psychology of racial attitudes and racism.
Graeme Hayes (Psychology Dept. - University of Natal, Durban) consulted various members of the Project on the subject of youth violence in the South African black township context.
The South African Communications Service (part of the Department of Foreign Affairs) requested that Graeme Simpson meet with Dr. Gustav Soler a prominent Argentinean academic, journalist and politician who is being hosted on a visit to the country by the Foreign Affairs Department. (11/06/1991) The South African Communications Service has subsequently referred a number of their guests to the Project, including:
Two NICRO social workers consulted with Vivi Stavrou on gun control policies, both for a paper to be written by them and for the development of NICRO policy.
Vivi Stavrou met with Shelley Zuk of the Children's Foundation and helped them to draw up a programme for the individual and group treatment of the children of women living in women's shelters in the PWV area.
Graeme Simpson, Janine Rauch and Etienne Marais were consulted by the Bloemfontein branch of IDASA on issues relating to violence and policing.
Graeme Simpson was consulted by Nomsa Daniels of the Council on Foreign Relations (New York) (19/07/1991).
Graeme Simpson was consulted by Alan Scotland (Chairman) of the Institute of World Concerns (UK).
Members of the Project were consulted by University of Cape Town researchers into sexual abuse on campus. The possibility of running workshops in the University residences was considered and a paper on contextualising violence against women in Transitional South Africa was provided.
Lt.Col. AZB Gous of the South African Police (SAP) made contact with the Project for the purpose of requesting co-operation and the sharing of material at a research level between the Project for the Study of Violence and the SAP.
Members of the Project held discussions with members of the Department of Community Psychiatry concerned with cooperating and rationalising the provision of counselling and other forms of victim aid.
The Project was consulted by Hans Hartman of Kairos, who was also provided with some material.
Alan Morris (lecturer in Wits Sociology Dept.) consulted Graeme Simpson on developing and Honours Seminar on the role of single sex migrant labour hostels in urban political conflict.
In 1991 due to the increase in violence directed at individuals and communities in the PWV area, the Trauma Clinic's work with both victims and perpetrators of violence has increased. The current political changes in the country have also confronted the clinic with new challenges in the form of demands for counselling in respect of different areas of work.
Since February 1st 1991, the Project has employed Nthabiseng Mogale as a full-time coordinator of the clinic. This has enabled the clinic to fulfil its research and education functions more thoroughly. Nthabiseng has given presentations at a number of forums and has completed a pilot study on the effects of political violence on children. A detailed study will be undertaken in 1992.
There have been 10 student counsellors placed at the clinic this year - 9 M.A Clinical Psychology students and 1 Social Work student. The clinic continues to serve as a learning and training platform for these trainee counsellors.
The total number of clients seen during the period of 1st February to 30th November 1991 is 57, 10 of whom have gone into long-term therapy. During this period the clinic has set up a network with a number of community-based, legal, educational and political organisations. The clinic is also consulting on an on-going basis with a number of other organisations and university departments.
The clinic's referral sources are substantial and varied and we continue to receive referrals from institutions such as: People Opposing Women Abuse (POWA), the Independent Board of Inquiry into Informal Repression (IBIIR), Wilgespruit Fellowship Centre, and Wits Law Clinic. In addition, we have provided information to organisations and have given talks to a variety of audiences on trauma and its effects.
It is also implicit in the clinic's educational function, that greater accessibility and effect can be achieved through moving beyond simple service provision. Thus the Trauma Clinic anticipates reaching as many communities as possible through giving educational talks to groups in the communities and at various workplaces. It is hoped that special community educational programmes focused on identifying and dealing with trauma will also be run by the Clinic in conjunction with the Project's education and training programmes in the coming year.
A community-needs assessment was carried out by the Trauma Clinic co-ordinator in order to assess the effectiveness of the service being provided. Outlined below are some of the suggestions that arose from this exercise.
The Trauma Clinic is developing as a progressive psychological service. On-going evaluation of the clinic by the Project for the Study of Violence and the Psychology Department reveals that the Trauma Clinic is structurally inadequate to effectively serve the needs of the broader community. After numerous deliberations and consultations it was agreed that the clinic would be more viable if it:
was physically more accessible;
enlisted the help of professional volunteers;
developed skills training in various communities.
The clinic has established a working relationship with Community Psychiatric Services. In 1992 we hope to relocate to their city-centre offices, which appears to be a more accessible location. The clinic also hopes to link up with the Legal Aid Bureau so as to further enhance the effectiveness of our service.
In an attempt to address the inadequacies of the clinic, the participation of volunteers in the functioning of the clinic has been found to be crucial. A meeting with potential volunteers has been scheduled for early 1992. The involvement of volunteers will not only facilitate the on-going availability of the service, but will also enhance its quality through the expertise the volunteers will bring.
The clinic hopes to get involved in this area through training community groups in the areas of different life skills. The clinic also hopes to run workshops and trauma presentations at schools and other community forums.
1991 has seen a number of new staff being employed, as well as some staff leaving the Project. Janine Rauch and Etienne Marais have been employed to conduct research into policing in South Africa, Steve Mokwena was employed as a Trainee Researcher, Vivi Stavrou was employed as a Researcher, Nthabiseng Mogale as the Trauma Clinic coordinator and Jill Huber has now been employed on a full-time basis as an Administrator/Research Assistant. Unfortunately, two of our staff members have left us. Lauren Segal left the Project in order to study in London. Her position as Education Officer has been taken by Zane Dangor who began work in November. Steve Mokwena left the Project at the end of his one-year as a trainee. Reuben Mogano was appointed as the new trainee.
1991 has been demanding and challenging for the Project for the Study of Violence. As was anticipated in our mid-year report, despite the increased staffing complement, the year was hectic and all of us felt overstretched. However, in the course of the year, the expertise developed and offered by the Project for the Study of Violence has increasingly been recognised and acknowledged by political and community groupings across the spectrum.
The Project has also gone some of the way towards building its education function and, although we still have further to go, we feel that this has substantially enhanced the qualitative impact of our work in the research sphere.
The climate within the country over the past year has further heightened awareness of the urgency of seeking non-violent processes of reconciliation - as a pre-requisite - if our country is to set off on the path of socio-economic development. This, it seems, is symbolized by the end of year formation of the Congress for a Democratic South Africa (CODESA) and the beginning, in earnest, of the negotiation process.
As the country creeps towards a peace process amidst ongoing devastating social, political and criminal violence, we anticipate further increased demands being made on our Project and feel confident that we will be able to meet any new challenges or demands that may come our way.