This report covers the year to December 31, 1992. It outlines the developments and undertakings of the Project for the Study of Violence during that period. In contrast to the annual reports of the Project in past years, this report will be streamlined to allow for easier reading. The report will therefore be shorter and somewhat less detailed than previous annual reports. At the time of drafting this report, the Project for the Study of Violence has changed its name to: The Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation. Although the new name only came into effect at the beginning of 1993, this report will refer to "The Centre" rather than "The Project" of old.
As in previous years, 1992, witnessed an expansion in the activities and size of the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation. This expansion matched the quantitative and qualitative increases in violence within the country - as the process of transition, heralded by a haphazard negotiations process, intensified.
Political violence during the year, both symbolically and practically, reflected the ebbs and flows of this political negotiation process. The year was almost defined by two particularly high profile massacres. The first was at Boipatong in March 1992, in which marauding residents of a single sex migrant hostel in the Vaal Triangle, attacked township residents killing almost 80 people. The second took place approximately three months later, when soldiers of the Ciskei Bantustan fired on a crowd of protesters on the outskirts of Bisho in the eastern Cape Province, killing scores of ANC protesters. Although these were just two particularly high profile events in a year filled with such incidents, they were particularly symbolic in their effects on the negotiation process. The first resulted in the suspension of negotiations as the ANC alliance withdrew from the process, whilst the second served to highlight the intensification of conflict within the country, and so ironically facilitated the return of the key parties to the negotiating table.
Political violence has tended to be the central focus of the negotiations process throughout the year. This was as true at the local level - where the National Peace Accord struggled to establish its local and regional dispute resolution committees - as it was at the national level. Successes in this endeavour varied from region to region, with the central points of tension and violence remaining in the urban Transvaal and in Natal.
The embryonic structures of the National Peace Accord became more and more crucial as the year progressed and as the broad process of political negotiations 'hiccupped' and then stalled. The growing importance of these 'peace structures' was related to the growing increase in lawlessness during this transitional phase, which resulted from the effective dismantling of the old forms of social authority which had existed under Apartheid, without the simultaneous establishment of new forms of consensus-based social regulation. The result of this process has been a window period within South Africa's history where the society appears to have been virtually devoid of any legitimate sources of authority. Negotiations had placed vital constraints on repressive tactics - essential to the unshackling of the political process - yet had failed to deliver credible alternatives. The structures being developed under the National Peace Accord were thus seen by many as the organisational vehicles necessary to fill this gap.
The consequences of this process of "deregulation of social control" were manifold. Firstly, it generated political instability conducive to increased levels of violence. Secondly, the stalled negotiation process undermined people's confidence in the process of negotiation itself. This in turn generated increased levels of frustration, particularly amongst a marginalised youth sector, which also added to the increase in the levels of violence. Thirdly, these heightened levels of social stress manifested themselves in deepening conflict within the social arena, as displaced aggression resulted in heightened levels of domestic, gender-based, generational, racial and workplace violence. Finally, the effect of a seemingly rudderless society was also to create greater physical and psychological space for the proliferation of violent crime in all arenas of society, and this increasingly blurred the already fine dividing line between political and criminal violence. The murder rate in South Africa increased by over 30% in 1992 and, according to police statistics, a total of 20 135 people were murdered in the course of the year. A further 24 812 women were reportedly raped during the same period.
Almost all of these developments posed direct challenges to the priorities for policing within this transitionary phase. As popular insecurity and fear escalated, the challenges to inadequately accountable police-community relations; to the training of police within the SAP; and to the strategic priorities to deliver a functional police service were all exacerbated. The proliferation of private armies and the free movement of devastating weaponry within the country further compounded these problems.
The processes outlined above generated:
an immediate demand for increased victim aid programmes in order to assist those who have been victims of political and criminal violence;
a call for training in the rebuilding of local level organisations;
a demand for more information and public education in relation to both political and criminal violence - especially in relation to the peace process and the structures intended to facilitate this process;
a need for a particular focus and input on the issues of community violence and its effects in the working arena;
a need for some ongoing scrutiny of the problem of violence within youth politics and specifically within the educational arena;
an urgent need to develop a credible, accountable and appropriately trained law enforcement agency, capable of taking the country into the future with confidence; and
a need and demand for the facilitation of dialogue and the generation of greater political tolerance within the society, in the interests of building long term national reconciliation.
This was the context for the activities of The Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation during 1992, which are described and analyzed in the pages which follow. It is to the social and strategic priorities outlined above that our activities and the Centre's energies were directed.
The Ford Foundation
The Netherlands Embassy
The Canadian Embassy
The Joseph Rowntree Charitable Trust
Fund for a Free South Africa
The Australian Embassy
In addition to those mentioned above, funds were received during 1992 from the following organisations and institutions and are reflected in the financial statements of the Centre, although they were resources allocated for use from 1993:
Royal Danish Embassy
Save the Children Fund (UK)
One World Action
The expansion of the Centre in 1992 placed an increasing burden on the administrative systems set up in the preceding two years. In particular, the Centre's administrative relationship with the University was becoming increasingly complex as a result of the increase in departments and bank accounts within the Centre, as well as the growing requirements for different accounting procedures. The administrative load was also dramatically increased towards the end of the year as it became apparent that the Centre would need to physically move off the University campus.
Apart from the need to secure new facilities and to expand our independent administrative capacity, the planned move scheduled for the beginning of 1993, also imposed the need to negotiate afresh the terms of the Centre's administrative and financial relationship with the University. It was eventually agreed that the University will be charging the Centre a levy of 6% on expenditure, as an administrative fee for the year. This deduction is reflected in the attached financial statement for 1992.
In all of these endeavours, the Centre was enormously indebted to Jill Huber - our full time administrator for the past two years. Jill's departure from the Centre at the end of 1992 (in order to further her studies) comes as a great loss, especially considering her achievements in paving the way for a smooth administration in the years ahead. However, we welcome Robin Lewis as our new administrator and feel certain that she will be well placed in dealing with our growing administrative burden in the coming period.
The Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation has, to all intents and purposes, operated with two parallel steering committees during 1992. Firstly, the Centre has, since its inception, had its own Steering Committee consisting of a mix of appointed academic and community-based representatives who have assisted in assessing the Centre's programmes, scrutinised our funding and expenditure and who have offered direction and advice in respect of the Centre's planning processes (this Steering Committee will be referred to below as the Centre Steering Committee). Secondly, the University has appointed an internal Steering Committee within the Research Division in order to assess our research and our publications by academic criteria, as well as operating as an additional check on our budgeting and expenditure from year to year (this Steering Committee will be referred to as the University Steering Committee). In the course of the year there was some evaluation of the role and composition of both Committees.
In respect of the Centre Steering Committee it was considered necessary to reconstitute the Committee with greater representation of the wider community. It was decided that this would be most appropriate in the new year, once the Centre was established in its new premises off campus.
With regard to the University Steering Committee, there was some evaluation of the role of the Committee conducted at the annual evaluation of the Centre, which took place in August 1992. It was recognised that much of the "action" or policy-based research, training, public education and victim aid work conducted by the Centre, could not appropriately be measured by the formal academic yardstick of accredited journal publications. Despite this, it was agreed that the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation should remain under the auspices of the Research Division of the University, but that its special status be recognised and that these formal academic criteria not be too rigidly applied in evaluating the achievements of the Centre.
The staff and management of the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation are once again indebted to all of the individuals serving on these two committees for their interest and their astute guidance and advice over the past years. We also look forward to the reconstitution of the Centre Steering Committee in the course of 1993.
The list of organisational contacts established by the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation has continued to grow during 1992. Over the past four years, a central dimension of the Centre's work has been the building of co-operative relationships with a wide range of organisations and the development of "networks" functional to both our research as well as to the education, training and the victim aid services which we offer. The accessibility of the Centre remains central to the organisation's objectives of serving as a conduit for inter-disciplinary research, whilst also fostering communication and reconciliatory dialogue. The development of organisational contacts is also vital to the Centre's delivery of quality services.
Although too extensive to list here, comprehensive networks of organisational contacts have been developed in most of the spheres of the Centre's work. This has been particularly important in the development of significant access to policing institutions by the Centre's Policing Research Project. Similarly, the Centre's Trauma Clinic has been active in generating a network of professional volunteers to staff the Clinic, as well as in building organisational co-operation in the delivery of effective victim aid. Emanating from new programmes and initiatives in both our research and our service work, the Centre has also instituted relationships and organisational links within the industrial and educational sectors as well as with the legal fraternity. The Centre has also maintained contact with a wide range of political interest groups.
The Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation has also continued to render a vital service to the commercial media and has provided materials, information, interviews, etc. to a wide range of electronic and written media representatives from South Africa and abroad.
The primary aim of the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation's education workshops programme, is to create a forum in which young people are able to express their opinions and feelings about the pervasive violence which dominates their lives. The workshops are designed to promote questioning and challenging of the prevailing 'culture of violence and intimidation', to provide a focus on alternative vehicles for conflict resolution and to facilitate dialogue in order to foster political tolerance. These are all dimensions of the wider, educative function of the programme.
The programme is aimed primarily at the youth constituency who are both the primary perpetrators, as well as the primary victims of violence in South Africa. The education workshop programme is directed at school-going youth, simply because this large sector is considerably more accessible to this sort of experiential learning programme than are unemployed or gang-based township youth. The schoolroom also offers a structure through which the programme can function effectively.
In the first two months of 1992, an introductory workshop on violence for high schools was developed and designed. The initial aim of the Centre was to create a vehicle which could easily be utilised at a large number of secondary schools. However, the pilot workshops at St. Barnabus College and the Witwatersrand Tuition Project, quickly demonstrated that longer term and more sustained intervention than that which we had proposed, was necessary.
As a result, we decided to concentrate our efforts on fewer schools and to deepen our involvement by running a series of workshops in four schools. The objective of these workshops was to establish a more intense and sustained relationship with the participants, where the emphasis was on utilising their own experiences and contextualising these within the current social and political framework.
Premised on an experiential learning method, the workshops allowed for an open discussion of violence. The students were encouraged to draw on their own experiences or on the experiences of those around them. This provided an opportunity for them to contextualise these experiences and to identify their own roles in the ongoing cycle of violence. In the course of these discussions, the students were encouraged to view violence from several different perspectives. An important aspect of the workshops was to develop the participants' analytical skills. In this regard, students were encouraged to look at the causes of violence, at those factors which maintain high levels of social and political violence, at the individuals who benefit from violence and at ways of reducing the current levels of violence. One central concern was to facilitate a more complex understanding of different types of violence.
Workshops were also held with teachers. These workshops had two primary aims: to allow teachers to explore their own fears and experiences of violence, as well as to foster teachers' insights into the types of violence experienced by their pupils. This would enable teachers to act as a primary support base for students traumatised by violence. An advantage of conducting the workshops with teachers is that they are in a position to implement some of the ideas and recommendations which emerge in the course of the workshops.
The workshops with teachers also alerted us to the prospect of training teachers to reproduce and implement the workshops themselves. This would overcome the problem of the Centre's own limited capacity to sustain in-depth programmes in several schools simultaneously. The prospect of training teachers would provide for much greater access to school-going youth and would also ensure the sustained involvement of the teachers with their pupils in relation to the thorny problems raised by violence. We hope that the future emphasis in this work will be on training trainers, instead of the rather limited direct involvement by the Centre with the pupils themselves.
Workshops with professional and lay counsellors were also run in conjunction with the Centre's Trauma Clinic. These workshops were aimed at enhancing the counsellors' understanding of the nature and causes of violence within a framework which encompasses both the socio-political and psychological explanations of violence. The counsellors were also introduced to the treatment methods for victims of violence.
This year, four Masters students from the University of the Witwatersrand Education Department assisted in implementing the workshop programme as a component of their Community Project. The students were graded on the basis of the workshops that they had run with students and with teachers under the auspices of the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation.
Amongst others, workshops were run at the following institutions:
The Centre owes thanks to Zane Dangor who occupied the position of Education Officer during 1992 and who left the Centre at the end of the year.
As part of the programme of facilitating dialogue and tolerance amongst youth, the Centre reproduced our Open Day on Violence which was pioneered in 1991. The Open Day was once again run as part of the Weekly Mail/Guardian Weekly Film Festival in October 1992.
The Open Day followed much the same format as that described in our 1991 Annual Report, and was attended by approximately 55 students in the 15-20 year old age bracket, from black and white schools in and around the Johannesburg region. Once again the aim of the day was to use the medium of film to explore the complex issue of violence, and to critically reflect on the role of art and the media in shaping attitudes to violence. The day began with the screening of the film "Mapantsula" which acted as a vehicle through which small group dialogue subsequently took place. At the end of the day, the Centre organised a video film crew to capture on video the small group presentations on the solutions to the problem of violence in South Africa.
The Open Day was a success and the students who attended appeared to learn a great deal and to enjoy themselves. Most importantly, it provided a relaxed environment in which to tackle the complex issue of "Violence in our Lives" and successfully contributed to building bridges between the young South Africans who attended - and who have traditionally been kept apart by Apartheid and the social engineering which it has sustained.
This workshop, aimed at leadership in black school-based student organisations, emanated from the year-long research project on violence in the schools run in the Centre during 1992. The workshop focused on the issues of inter-organisational conflict within the schools and the escalating pupil/pupil as well as teacher/pupil violence which this generated. The workshop was co-organised and co-facilitated by IDASA and was funded with the assistance of Revlon.
The objective of the workshop was to initiate a process of dialogue between student and teacher organisations and to begin to develop an explicit recognition of the need to build a democratic culture in the schooling context. It was hoped that the workshop would contribute to the development of conflict resolution skills amongst those who attended and that it would act as a stimulus to further initiatives by the participants. The workshop was attended by 22 representatives from six student and teacher organisations based in the East Rand.
The failure of one organisation to attend, despite being invited to the workshop, proved to be controversial and added to the tensions which had to be dealt with in an already conflictual context. However, this did not fundamentally compromise the success of the workshop and many of the objectives were still realised. The session on conflict resolution was exceptionally successful, and was in fact enhanced by its focus on the conflict in the group and with those not present. Ultimately, participants requested that a follow-up workshop be held at some stage in 1993, and that community organisations also be invited to participate.
The Centre's monthly seminar programme, designed to stimulate discussion, open debate and dialogue around various issues of violence, continued to attract great interest from a wide range of participants. Seminar papers and invitations are currently sent out to over 300 individuals and organisations.
Below is a list of the monthly seminars held in 1992:
|Paying for Stolen Kisses? Sexual harassment and the law in South Africa||Carla Sutherland|
|Violence in our Communities: An African American Experience||Renae Scott|
|South African Police Basic Training: A preliminary assessment||Janine Rauch|
|Violence: The role of the security forces||Jaques Pauw|
|Youth and Political Violence: The Problem of anomie and the role of youth organisations||Monique Marks|
|Restructuring the SADF: Integration of the Armed Forces||Abba Omar|
|Women, the Military and Militarisation: Some questions raised by the South African case||Jackie Cock|
|Crime and Victimisation in Alexandra||Vivi Stavrou|
The Centre's monthly seminar programme was exceptionally well attended and served as a dialogue forum on many contentious contemporary issues.
Many members of the Centre have been requested to give courses or guest lectures within a range of departments of the University of the Witwatersrand, as well as at other universities and colleges around the country. The full range of expertise of the Centre is drawn on in this respect.
Members of the Centre have lectured on policing issues to Post-Graduate Police Science Classes at the Universities of Venda and Bophutatswana. Lectures have also been given on a wide range of issues including: violence in industrial conflict, urban violence and the migrant hostel system, domestic violence and sexual violence. At Wits University alone, this has involved both post- and undergraduate students from departments and faculties as diverse as Psychology, Sociology, Medical School, Business School and the Engineering Faculty. Some of the lectures given are referred to in the list of presentations under Section 8 below.
Numerous students, particularly from the University of the Witwatersrand, are assisted with their research by the Centre. This assistance is mainly in the form of the provision of literature and access to the Centre's "mini" resource centre, but in some instances it also includes ongoing consultation and effective supervision. Once again, the students are drawn from a wide range of departments and faculties.
Khanya college offers a one year, pre-university bridging programme for post-matric students. As part of their training curriculum these students work for community organisations. The Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation has, for the past three years, taken on three Khanya College students per year in order to train them as part of our wider community outreach work. Our primary intention has been to impart some basic writing, research and administrative skills in violence-related fields.
In 1992 the Centre trained a further three students from Khanya College. The training program was designed to provide the students with an analytical understanding of a broad range of violence related areas, but particularly emphasised the role of the youth in violence. The areas of work which the students covered included youth involvement in political violence and in violence against women. The students were required to submit mini-essays focusing on aspects of the areas of violence studied.
The Centre makes provision for the placement of young black graduates as Trainee Researchers. This training programme is co-ordinated by the Education Officer and is designed to develop research skills, including writing, organisational, administrative, and computer proficiency. In particular, the internship programme seeks to develop these skills in relation to the particular issues of social and political violence and is aimed at producing skilled young black researchers or service workers who can then reinvest these skills into their communities or other organisations.
In the course of 1992, the Centre for the Study of Violence took on three such Trainees. Reuben Mogano was employed in one such post at the beginning of the year, and Isaac Mogotsi, mid-way through 1992. Another candidate selected for such a post, failed to take up the position at the last minute and was consequently not replaced. The areas of work which were prioritised as the focal points of these internship programmes were: violence in the schools (as a particular dimension of youth violence) and a project on reconciliation. Reuben Mogano was involved in the former project - which is discussed in more detail below - and Isaac Mogotsi began work on the Reconciliation Project.
Over the last few years The Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation has received an increasing number of requests for presentations, lectures and papers concerning the nature and psychological explanations of violence. As the centre is involved in researching diverse areas of violence, from the political to the criminal, and because we deal with both offenders and victims, we are in a unique position in terms of identifying some of the common features of these various forms of violence. To this end, we have undertaken a long term research project to develop a theoretical framework within which to understand violence, particularly that which is committed in crowds or groups. We aim to publish this material in book form by the end of 1994.
This broad model attempts to identify factors which are inherent in and contingent to acts of violence. The investigation will include an analysis of the aetiology of violence and also an exploration of the reasons why, in certain situations, violence does not occur, despite the existence of violence promoting factors. Furthermore, with respect to contingent factors, the model will try to establish why violence occurs when it does and why some individuals and not others commit violence despite shared political, social and economic conditions. This is an ongoing research project of the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation.
The problem of crime and crime control has reached epidemic proportions in South Africa. The dramatic increase in violent crime since 1990 has generated a wide range of explanations concerning the causes of, and protagonists in, the ongoing "crime wave". However, little is known about the public's perceptions of such crime and there has been insufficient attention paid to the attitudes and experiences of people living in some of the most crime-ridden communities in the country - the townships and squatter camps of the PWV.
The Centre responded to this issue by initiating research into violent crime in the course of 1991. This research reached fruition in the publication by the Centre of The 1991 Alexandra Community Crime Survey (ACCS). This research attempted to address broader questions concerning the nature, extent and impact of violent crime on a township community. This objective was achieved through a community-based study which explored the respondents' perceptions of, and reactions to, violent crime.
Interviews were conducted with key informants associated with community defense, policing, health and welfare, education and administration of the township, as well as with ordinary residents of a particular area of Alexandra. The ACCS investigated respondents' beliefs about violent crime; fear of crime; crime prevention awareness and behaviour; and victimization experiences. However, the survey deliberately shifted from a predominant focus on victimization, so as to include the respondents' assessment of the role, function and ability of the police, as well as attitudes towards the criminal justice system more generally.
The ACCS is a pilot study, aimed at providing base-line data from which to inform social policy. It appears to be the only crime study of its scope in South Africa to focus solely on a small, geographically defined community within a township - the neighbourhood. Whilst the limited sample of interviews prevents over-generalisation about the impact of violent crime on township communities, the data stands on its own within the parameters of a case-study of a "neighbourhood", as well as providing the starting point for further research.
The main themes dealt with in the publication are as follows:
The impact of a milieu of crime and violence on the neighbourhood:
The role of informal (individual and community protection strategies) and formal (the South African Police and the Criminal Justice System) methods of crime control and prevention:
Attitudes towards the Police:
Response to the research has been very positive thus far. Two report-back sessions have been held with civic and political structures in Alexandra. A community workshop is also planned in the area were the survey was conducted - utilising the publication as the basis for discussion. Emanating from the research, the Centre has also advised the Local Dispute Resolution Committee and the Alexandra Justice Centre on the issue of crime and has made recommendations to prevent and control crime in Alexandra.
The research has been presented in paper form at the Centre's monthly seminar programme and has also been presented at two conferences. (See Section 8 below).
In 1992, the Centre's Policing Research Project established itself as one of the key reference points on policing in a number of distinct spheres.
As in previous years, our networking activities focused on five groups:
As a result of a field trip to Namibia, a joint police/community field trip to Denmark (in which the Policing Project participated) and growing contact with international observers to South Africa who are involved in policing in their home countries, The Policing Project has also been able to build its international network in the course of 1992 and has consolidated an international comparative dimension to its work.
In 1992 there was an substantial increase in requests for information and service from the Policing Project, particularly from members of the police force and from the press. The researchers occasionally struggled to maintain a well-organised plan of action in the face of burgeoning new ad-hoc work opportunities. The volume of work, and our emphasis on establishing trust and credibility with the police force, sometimes led to deficits in our relationships with community organisations. This was further exacerbated by the policy-driven nature of the research, which tended to foster contact at a central level, as opposed to encouraging the developments of relationships at a local level.
However, as the structures of the National Peace Accord became operational in the course of the year, the Policing Project developed more systematic contacts at all levels. The Policing Project was utilised by and serviced the entire range of structures, including the National Peace Committee, the Goldstone Commission, the Peace Secretariat and the Local and Regional Dispute Resolution Committees. Our involvement in the policing aspect of the Peace Accord has recently been strengthened by interaction with the international observer missions, many of the members of which are themselves police officers.
Our major task for the year, in terms of the funding agreement between the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation and IDASA (which was responsible for funding the Policing Project for the course of 1992) was the organisation of an IDASA Conference on policing. For the researchers, this necessitated intensifying their existing relationships within the world of policing, broadening their range of contacts, and establishing a profile for the Centre for the Study of Violence's Policing Project as well as for IDASA in the area.
The IDASA conference, entitled: "Policing South Africa in the 1990's", was the first of its kind, in that it involved a gathering of police officers from South Africa and abroad, as well as members of community groups, political parties and experts in other fields. It was broadly focused on transitional and long-term policy issues, and the researchers played a key role in developing the programme and identifying the key participants. The conference was highly successful in rendering the debates around policing accessible to a wider audience, despite limited participation by the South African police.
IDASA funding for the Policing Project was discontinued at the end of 1992, although there was mutual agreement concerning the need for continued joint work in this area, particularly at a more localised level. The core Funding for the expanded work of Policing Project will be provided by the Royal Danish Embassy as from 1993.
The Policing Projects's major areas of work in 1992 were as follows:
Policing of Political Violence
This pivotal area of work serves to integrate the policing work with the Centre's other work on political violence. Increased contact with violence monitors, international observers and various structures of the National Peace Accord, has demonstrated the need for more focused research and training in the area of policing of political violence. Specific activities have included the following:
Janine Rauch's report on Basic Training in the SAP was the first independent assessment of police training in South Africa, and received wide publicity. It was based on four months of field work in the SAP Basic training Colleges. The report, published in June 1992, became one of the central points of debate both at the Police Board and within SAP training circles. Although initially there was an hostile and defensive reaction on the part of the police, many of the recommendations contained in the report have now been accepted by the SAP - at least in principle. Following the furore over this document, the Minister of Law and Order established an International Committee to examine the reform of police training in South Africa. Janine Rauch is a member of this committee, and remains a civilian member of the Police Board.
Transitional Issues in Policing
The Centre's Policing Research Project has made a substantial contribution to the debates and negotiations concerning the issue of transition of policing and the control of the police during the transition. Much of this work was effected through the Police Policy Group, an informal network of progressive policing experts. This forum was able to provide a working draft policy for the ANC policy conference and also prepared the earlier drafts of the ANC's approach to interim control of intelligence and policing policy.
The Policing Project, together with the Centre for Applied Legal Studies, organised a workshop on police policy issues for selected members of the ANC-Alliance negotiating team in late November. This two day workshop facilitated in-depth discussion of the key issues faced in the transformation of policing.
The two Policing Project Researchers are also collaborating to produce a book (approved in principle by Ravan Press) which deals with the subject of the transformation of policing.
Police-Community Relations and Community Policing
This area is related to the policing of political violence, and is one of the central themes in much of our work. The Centre's Policing Project convened an international working group on community policing and Etienne Marais presented the report to the Second Centre for Criminal Justice conference on policing in September. This report was a collaborative effort involving over 20 experts, and was recently taken up with the Minister of Law and Order and the SAP's new Division of Community Relations. We have continued to monitor the police-community liaison strategies adopted by the SAP, and have been commissioned to conduct a research project into these issues in Grahamstown in early 1993. We have also received an ever-increasing number of requests for information and education in the area of police-community relations.
As a result of some of the Policing Project's other work pertaining to police organisation, staff of the Policing Project entered into discussion with the Public & Development Management Programme (P&DM) of Wits Business School early in 1992. It became clear that there were major shortcomings in the management training presently being offered within the SAP. At the same time, the training of 'outsiders' to take on management positions within the Police appears to be one of the most urgent tasks of the transition phase, and the Policing Project has been requested to assist with such programmes by both the ANC and by POPCRU. The result has been the development of an "alternative" police management programme aimed at equipping police managers (selected from both within and outside the SAP) to work in a more participatory fashion and to master the necessary skills required to make the police force more cost-effective, accountable and community sensitive. This police management programme will be run in 1993 jointly by Etienne Marais of our Policing Project and the P&DM.
Re-Integration of the Homeland Police Forces
The Homelands policing research involved field trips to 7 TBVC states and 'self-governing territories'. In the course of this project a number of contacts in the homelands have been established and a number of issues relating to the integration of 'Bantustan' police forces during the transition have been examined. There have been numerous requests for lectures, workshops and conference presentations. The homelands remain significant because of their large numbers of black senior officers in comparison to the SAP, and the Policing Project has become well known within homeland policing circles.
Other Areas of Work
Janine Rauch as remained an active member of the Police Board which, despite some early reservations, has become more amenable to initiatives of the civilian members on the board. Another aspect of the Policing Project's work has been the developing contact with the international observers visiting South Africa, particularly the foreign policemen and women amongst them.
The work of the Policing Project has been integrated with the other aspects of the Centre's programmes, particularly with regard to the research done on violent crime and the Alexandra Community Crime Survey. The policing work has also been integrated with the research being done in the Centre on political violence more generally.
A final aspect of the policing work which requires mention, is the limited research which has been done on the private security industry and the issues related to private and public dimensions of policing. A paper on this subject was presented at the IDASA conference in October 1992.
The Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation has continued to produce regular publications and presentations on political violence to a range of interest groups. The research upon which these inputs are based remains the essential bread and butter of the Centre's work. The primary concern in this area is the production of sophisticated analysis which services all the other areas of the Centre's work.
Once again, the research of the Centre in this area has built on that which has been done over the past few years and is broadly encapsulated by the annual review of political violence published each year in the Human Rights and Labour Law Yearbook published by Oxford University Press.
It has been recognised, however, that there is a need to invest more resources in establishing a standing department within the Centre to further develop our research capacity in the sphere of political violence. Although this is an aspect of the work of all the different sectors of the Centre, it is likely to suffer from the pressure of excessive workloads unless it is more systematically built into the Centre's working structures. Some attention will have to be given to this concern in the course of 1993, due to the centrality of the political violence research to the image and effectivity of the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation as a whole.
In the course of the year the single sex migrant hostels remained a central flash-point of violence particularly within the urban Transvaal townships. The hostels were also one of the focal points of investigation of the Goldstone Commission of Enquiry into Violence and Intimidation. The Centre's research was incorporated in a package of material presented to the Commission by one of the legal teams involved. However, the Centre's failure to further develop this vital area of research during 1992, meant that we were unable to generate adequately informed policy recommendations for direct presentation to the Commission.
The limitations on further research into the hostels was largely the result of our failure to raise the necessary funds for this purpose, combined with the unavailability of staff with sufficient time or initiative to pursue this invaluable area of work. In the past, it was our foresight and anticipation of the centrality of the hostels issue which placed us so well and which enabled us to respond to the issue as the Transvaal war unfolded. The Centre remains convinced of the need to invest further energy and resources into this field, but will have to pursue this in the coming year, if and when possible.
Research into youth and violence continued to constitute a central part of the Centre's programmes during 1992. In the course of this year, dramatic incidents of violence within the township schooling system informed our decision to develop a research project focused on this specific area. As a result, in 1992 the Centre identified violence in schools as an area that needed urgent attention.
It was within this context that one of the Centre's trainees, Reuben Mogano, embarked on a research paper entitled "The Resurgence of Pupil Power: Explaining violence in African schools". This paper attempted to formulate an analysis of the causes of violence in black township schools. The research was directed toward identifying the roots of this problem, as a basis for the formulation of policy recommendations.
This research, completed in October 1992, fed into the organisation of a 'Leadership and Tolerance' workshop for leaders of the student and teacher organisations operating in the Witwatersrand region. Our decision to hold this workshop was further motivated by the fact that the paper focused exclusively on causes of violence between pupils and teachers, and did not adequately address the other forms of violence that occur within African schools. The workshop is dealt with in more detail above.
A new area of the Centre's work was the brief research conducted by Jill Huber (based on her Honours dissertation) on the psychological effects of long term imprisonment. This research was applied also to an examination of some of the problems of adaptation experienced by long-term exiles returning to South Africa in the wake of February 1990. This work was especially helpful to the counsellors working with returnees in the Centre's Trauma Clinic.
This project really developed within The Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation in the second half of 1992. As such, it is still very much a fledgling venture, but one which breaks new ground for the Centre. Despite being a new initiative, the Violence in Industry Project was rooted in the research of the Centre over the preceding four years. The new project has drawn on the research done on violence in industrial conflict, as well as integrating much of the other research into crime and political violence. As such, it is an implementation programme which is driven by the research component of the Centre for the Study of Violence as a whole.
As a reflection of the Centre's interest in both protecting and creatively utilising the relative peace of the working environment in South Africa, we have begun to investigate mechanisms for acting pro-actively within the workplace. Our aims in this sphere encompass not only the prevention of the intrusion of community violence into the work arena, but also attempts to actively "spread the peace" into the wider community.
Building on the analysis emanating from past research, the Violence in Industry Project developed a four pronged approach which advocated:
The Violence in Industry Project was therefore offering to business and trade unions, the integrated services of the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation. Through our Trauma Clinic, the Centre could offer a point of referral for victims of violence. The Centre could also offer a training facility for in-house training, and was able to design workshop programmes to facilitate joint problem solving communication forums within the workplace.
Premised on an assumption of the reciprocal relationship between the workplace and the community, the Violence in Industry Project attempted to mobilise resources from within industry, in an attempt to engage with the problems of community violence and its effects on workers at shop-floor level. Throughout, the Centre was advocating joint ownership of these programmes by employers and employee representatives, so as to ensure that the process effectively serviced the needs of the most prevalent victims and potential victims of violence - black township residents.
Initially the response to the programmes offered to business was cautious, many business organisations showing interest only in the "safe" arena of management education. Gradually, however, the Violence in Industry Project sold itself and a growing number of requests were received for more information, and eventually for workshops designed and facilitated by the Centre.
As the year progressed, the Centre was consulted by a range of companies including Adcock Ingram, Mercedes Benz, PG Wood and Joy Industries, amongst others. Initial seminars or workshops were also run at Southern Life on the issues of "violence in SA and its influence in the workplace and in workplace relations" and at JCI on "strikes and stress in the industrial context".
A full pilot programme was then initiated at Engen (formerly Mobil) beginning with two needs assessment workshops involving senior managers, supervisory staff, truck drivers and depot workers. The workshops were designed and facilitated by Graeme Simpson from the Centre and were extraordinarily successful in establishing a communication forum at plant level where these traditional adversaries were able to jointly problem-solve in a search for solutions. A further six workshops were run at Engen Depots in the PWV region and a national programme is planned for 1993.
This project has unique potential and the Centre will have to dedicate some energy to fund-raising so as to build the capacity to meet growing demand for our services in this area. In the longer term, the project also has potential to finance itself or to supplement the income of the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation.
The staff of the centre have continued to provide expert assistance in trials and legal cases involving violence, but our involvement in this area has had to be reduced, in part because of the time consuming nature of the work. The decrease in the number of trials involving political violence has been another contributing factor. Several of the Centre staff were nonetheless consulted by attorneys in connection with cases due to come before the courts, but were not required to give formal assistance in the form of expert testimony.
However, there was still one case of violence in the course of a strike in which Graeme Simpson was requested to give evidence before the Heidelberg Magistrate's Court. This matter involved the trial of 8 members of the Paper, Printing, Wood and Allied Workers' Union (PPWAWU) who were involved in an industrial dispute with the John Deere Furniture Co. In the matter of S v Tsagane and Others the eight were charged with assault and intimidation.
Two other notable cases in which Lloyd Vogelman was involved as a consultant were: the trial of Solomon Metsing and Nicodemus Molatudi - two Soweto youths charged with murder; and the case of Kathleen Brookstein - a young woman who was allegedly tortured by the police. In the latter case, a psychological report was drawn up detailing her psychological and psychiatric state as a result of her ordeal.
In lieu of the trials involving political violence, which were not uncommon in preceding years, much of the legal work of the Centre staff was focused on the Commission into Violence and Intimidation under Judge Richard Goldstone. Assistance was given to lawyers in the Goldstone Commission of Enquiry into events in Thokoza township on the East Rand and Janine Rauch and Etienne Marais submitted a report entitled: "Contextualising the Waddington Report" to the Goldstone Commission of Enquiry into events at Boipatong.
The Centre also submitted a range of its research papers to the International Hearing on South Africa held under the auspices of the United Nations in London in early July 1992.
Mogotsi, I. and Mogano, R. "A Lost Generation: Review of the black youth in crisis, Facing the Future", in Critical Health, No. 41 (December 1992), pp. 8-11.
Marais, ED. "Political Violence and the Struggle in South Africa, Edited by Chabani Manganye and Andre Du Toit", in Psychology in Society, No. 16 (1992), p. 78.
Simpson, G. and Vogelman, L., "Overcoming Violence: The role of Business" in The Innes Labour Brief, Special Brief (October 1992), pp. 2-10.
Vogelman, L., Haysom, N. and Strous, M. "The Mad Mrs Rochester Revisited" in Psychology in Society, No. 16 (1992), pp. 6-31.
Vogelman, L., Perkel, A. and Strebel, A. "Psychology and the Community: Issues to consider in a changing South Africa", in Psychology Quarterly, Vol. 2, No. 2 (1992), pp. 1-9.
Mokwena, S. "Living on the Wrong Side of the Law", in Ramphele, M. (Ed.), Black Youth in Crisis, Ravan, Johannesburg (1992).
Vogelman, L. "Violence, Human Rights Violations and Reconciliation", The First National Congress on Organisational Change and Renewal: 'From Turbulence to Excellence: Turning South African Organisations into World Class Players', Eskom College Auditorium, Midrand (November 1992), pp. 11-17.
Vogelman, L. "Comprehending Violence in Contexts of Transition", Conference on: 'Women, Power and Violence in Namibia', Rossing Foundation Education Centre, Windhoek, Namibia Peace Plan (May 1992), pp. 11-47.
Simpson, G. "The Real Results Behind the Referendum Roundabout", in Sunday Star (22/03/92).
Vogelman, L. "Slipping into Anarchy", in The Sunday Times (18/10/92).
Rauch, J. "War and Resistance" in Kraak, G. and Cawthra, G. (Eds.) War and Resistance: The Battle for Southern Africa as seen by Resister Magazine, Macmillan, London, forthcoming (1993).
Simpson, G. and Rauch, J. "Political Violence: 1991" in Boister, N. and Ferguson-Brown, K. (Eds.), Human Rights Yearbook 1992 Oxford University Press, Cape Town, forthcoming (1993).
Simpson, G. "Women and Children in Violent South African Townships", in Motshekga, M. and Delport, E. (Eds.), Women and Children's Rights in a Violent South Africa, Gutenberg, forthcoming (1993).
All of the Centre's research papers and seminar papers are made available in the form of published occasional papers under the banner of the Centre itself. These papers, plus a full publications list are available from our offices and are widely requested by academics, students, organisations and members of the public. A full resource list is appended to this report.
Through the Centre's Resource Centre, we have continued to supply a range of research and seminar papers and dossiers to interested parties who have requested them. Many individuals and organisations are on our mailing lists and automatically receive any resources produced within the Centre. These research packages and dossiers have been sent to numerous individuals and organisations overseas, as well as to academics, trade union organisers, youth groups, ordinary members of the public, women's organisations, businesses, members of the media, etc. The list of people who receive these publications is once again too great to reproduce in full here.
Dangor, Z. "A Fresh Look at the Youth and Political Violence", paper presented to NICRO, Johannesburg (April 1992).
Marais, E. "Policing the Periphery: Police and Society in South Africa's 'Homelands'", ASSA Conference Paper, University of Pretoria (June 1992).
Marais, E. "Police and the New South Africa", paper presented to the Police Science Honours Class, University of Bophutatswana, Mmabatho (June 1992).
Marais, E. "Community Policing in South Africa?", Report to the Community Policing Working Group, Cape Town (July 1992).
Marais, E. "The Police Community Relationship", paper presented at the HSRC Conference: Managing Crime in the New South Africa, Pretoria (August 1992).
Marais, E. "Report of the International Working Group on Community Policing", paper presented at the Centre for Criminal Justice Conference on: Policing in the New South Africa, Durban (September 1992).
Marais, E. "The Possibilities of Community Policing", paper presented at the IDASA Conference on: Policing South Africa in the '90s, Vanderbijlpark (October 1992).
Marais, E. "Issues in the Management and Organisation of Policing in South Africa", paper presented to the 2nd South African Public Administration Programme, Co-hosted by the Wits Business School Public and Development Management Programme and the UK Civil Service College, Johannesburg (October 1992).
Marais, E. "Transforming the Management and Internal Accountability Systems of the Police Force", paper presented at the Workshop on: Police Reform and Restructuring, Joint Centre for Applied Legal Studies\Policing Research Project Workshop, University of the Witwatersrand (November 1992).
Marais, E. "Models for Interim Control of the Police During the Transition", paper presented at the Workshop on: Police Reform and Restructuring, Joint Centre for Applied Legal Studies\Policing Research Project Workshop, University of the Witwatersrand (November 1992).
Marais, E. "The Integration of Homeland Police Agencies", paper presented at the Workshop on: Police Reform and Restructuring, Joint Centre for Applied Legal Studies\Policing Research Project Workshop, University of the Witwatersrand (November 1992).
Marais, E. and Haysom, N. "Academising the Police - A Critical Review of Police Studies", paper presented at the Symposium to Mark the 20th Anniversary of Police Science in South Africa, UNISA, Pretoria (October 1992).
Marais, E. and Rauch, J. "The Limits and Possibilities of Police Reform in South Africa", Briefing for Lawyers for Human Rights, Pretoria (May, 1992).
Mogano, R. "Bandaging the Bleeding Wound: An Overview of the Education Crisis in South Africa", paper presented at the Sowetan Nation Building Conference, Alexandra (April 1992).
Mogano, R. "The Resurgence of Pupil Power: Explaining Violence in African Schools", ASSA Conference Paper, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (January 1993).
Rauch, J. "Policing and Violence Monitoring", paper presented to Peace Action, Johannesburg (May 1992).
Rauch, J. "Policing Policy", paper presented to the African National Congress Policy Conference, NASREC (May 1992).
Rauch, J. "A Preliminary Report on South African Police Basic Training", Project for the Study of Violence Seminar Paper, No. 3, April 1992. [This report was also presented to senior officers of the SAP Training Division at the SAP Training College, Pretoria (June 1992), as well as at a Press Conference on the same day.]
Rauch, J. "Drill is the Means, Discipline is the End: Basic Training in the SAP", ASSA Conference Paper, University of Pretoria (June 1992).
Rauch, J. "Police Reform and Political Transition", paper presented to POPCRU Conference, Johannesburg (June 1992).
Rauch, J. "Women in the South African Police Force", Gender Forum Seminar Paper, University of the Witwatersrand (July 1992).
Rauch, J. "A Preliminary Assessment of the Peace Accord Code of Conduct on Police Behaviour", Centre for Criminal Justice Conference: Policing in the New South Africa II, University of Natal (Durban) (August 1992).
Rauch, J. "Policing the Violence", paper presented to the HSRC National Conference on: Managing Crime in the New South Africa, Pretoria (August 1992).
Rauch, J. "Policing the Transition", paper presented to NICRO Johannesburg (September 1992).
Rauch, J. and Marais, E. "Policing South Africa: Reform and Prospects", IDASA Conference Paper: Policing South Africa in the 1990's, Vanderbijlpark (October 1992).
Simpson, G. "Understanding Political Violence in South Africa: A Look at the Legacy of Apartheid", paper presented to a range of local government, SAP and SADF personnel, South African Communications Services, Nelspruit (February 1992).
Simpson, G. "Violence, Transition and the Domestication of Conflict in South Africa", Keynote Address at SANCA Annual Seminar, (March 1992).
Simpson, G. "Explaining Endemic Violence in South Africa of the 1990's", paper presented at Anatomy Department Luncheon Club, University of the Witwatersrand (March 1992).
Simpson, G. "Understanding Violence in Industrial Conflict" lecture to Industrial Sociology III Class (March 1992). This lecture was also presented to the Electrical Engineering II Class (March 1992).
Simpson, G. "Strikes and Social Stress: Implications in the Industrial Context" paper presented at JCI (March 1992).
Simpson, G. "Explaining Violence and Migrant Identities in the Single Sex Hostels on the 'Reef", lecture to Sociology III Class (May 1992).
Simpson, G. "Violence in the Community and in the Home: Some Implications for Family Mental Health", paper presented to 2nd Year Medical Students (Family Health) (May 1992).
Simpson, G. "The Fear Factor: Understanding Violence in South Africa", paper presented to the Market Theatre Laboratory Group, Johannesburg (May 1992).
Simpson, G. "Community Violence and its Effects on the Workplace: What is to be Done?", two papers presented to employees of Southern Life Association (May 1992).
Simpson, G. "Institutionalising Conflict in Industrial Relations - The Picket as a Case in Point", paper presented to students for the Certificate in Industrial Relations Programme at the Wits Business School (July 1992). [The students were mostly middle level managers in business and trade union organisers.]
Simpson, G. "Explaining Violence in the Industrial Context: What Business Can Do", paper presented to students for the Certificate in Industrial Relations Programme at the Wits Business School (July 1992).
Simpson, G. "Violence in the Community and Violence in the Home - Dealing with Trauma and Social Stress", paper presented at a FAMSA workshop (September 1992).
Simpson, G. "The Deregulation of Social Control: Understanding Violence in the Context of a Negotiated Political Process", paper presented to the Institute for the Study of Man in Africa (September 1992).
Simpson, G. "Private and Public Policing: Debunking Some Myths of Community Policing", paper presented at the IDASA Conference on: Policing South Africa in the '90s, Vanderbijlpark (October 1992).
Stavrou, P. and Huber, J. "Rape - Uncovering the Myths and Surviving the Consequences", paper presented to Psychology 1 students, Rand Afrikaans University (March 1992).
Stavrou, P. "Politics, Violence and Crime - South Africa in the 1990s", paper presented at Conference on: Crime - Possible Solutions, University of Venda (April 1992).
Stavrou, P. "Exploring the Culture of Violence in South Africa", FAMSA Seminar paper, TVL region, Johannesburg (May 1992).
Stavrou, P. "Exploring the Meaning and Experience of Fear", paper presented to the Market Theatre Laboratory Group, Johannesburg (May 1992).
Stavrou, P. "Assessing the Effects of Violence on Pre-school Children", HIPPY Seminar paper for community workers, Johannesburg (June 1992).
Stavrou, P. "Doing Community Mental Health Work under Conditions of Violence", Seminar for Psychology III students, University of the Witwatersrand (August 1992).
Stavrou, P. "The Alexandra Community Crime Survey: A Study of the Perceptions and Fear of Crime of the Residents in an Area of Alexandra", paper presented at the HSRC Conference: Managing Crime in the New South Africa, Pretoria (August 1992).
Stavrou, P. "Formal and Informal Methods of Crime Control and Prevention in Alexandra", IDASA Conference Paper: Policing South Africa in the 1990's, Vanderbijlpark (October 1992).
Stavrou, P. "The Alexandra Community Crime Survey", Project for the Study of Violence Seminar Paper, No. 8, University of the Witwatersrand (October 1992).
Stavrou, P. "The Effects of Crime and Violence on Children", paper presented at the Nation Building Youth Service, Soweto (November 1992).
Vogelman, L. "The Crisis in Education: The Role of Youth Violence", Opening Address, Southern African Association for Learning and Educational Disabilities (SAALED) Annual General Meeting, Johannesburg (January 1992).
Vogelman, L. "Reducing Political Violence in South Africa", paper presented to The International Committee of the Red Cross, Pretoria (February 1992).
Vogelman, L. "Understanding Violence in South Africa", YMCA International Seminar, Soweto (February 1992).
Vogelman, L. "Comprehending Violence in the Context of Transition", Namibia Peace Plan Conference on: Women, Power and Violence in Namibia, Windhoek, (March 1992).
Vogelman, L. "Handling Conflict in a Destabilised Socio-Political-Economic Climate", Malbak Conference paper, Johannesburg (April 1992).
Vogelman, L. "Understanding the Psychology of Violent Enactment", paper presented at Conference on: Trauma, the Aftermath: Does business have a role?, First National Bank and the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (April 1992).
Vogelman, L. "Violence in South Africa - Causes and Solutions", Opening address, Women For Peace Annual General Meeting, Johannesburg (May 1992). [This paper was also presented to: the Union of Jewish Women, Johannesburg (September 1992); to the Personnel Department of the University of the Witwatersrand (October 1992); and to a meeting of the Black Sash, Pretoria (July 1992).
Vogelman, L. "The Social psychology of violence in South Africa", paper presented to Security Association of South Africa, Johannesburg (August 1992).
Vogelman, L. "Violence and Reconciliation", Weekly Mail Book Week, Cape Town (October 1992). [This paper was also presented to the 8th Family Practice Congress on: One Family - One Future, Sun City, Bophuthatswana (September 1992).
Vogelman, L. "Political Violence: Its Development and Implications", paper presented to The Johannesburg Association of Candidate Attorneys, Johannesburg (October 1992).
Vogelman, L. "Police Treatment of Victims of Violence", paper presented at the IDASA Conference on: Policing South Africa in the '90s, Vanderbijlpark (October 1992).
Vogelman, L. "Violence, Human Rights Violations and Reconciliation", Society for Industrial Psychology of South Africa Conference on: From Turbulence to Excellence: Turning South African Organisations into World Class Players, Midrand (November 1992). [Also presented at the Institute for Personnel Management: Organisational Development Forum (November 1992).
Vogelman, L. "Overcoming Sexual Violence in South Africa", Centre for Women's Studies, UNISA, Conference on: Domestic Violence, Pretoria (November 1992).
Vogelman, L. and Simpson, G. "An Analysis of Political Violence in South Africa: 1990-2", International Peace Research Institute Conference, Kyoto, Japan (June 1992). [The paper was presented by Vogelman L.]
The staff of the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation were involved in providing briefing sessions on political violence, policing and victim aid for several international groupings. Such briefing sessions were extremely well received. In the course of the year these were provided for United Nations and European Community observers, for the Japanese-South African Trade Association and for an European Church Aid Delegation.
Staff members of the Centre also frequently briefed international visitors referred to us by the South African Visitors Service - a sub-division of the Department of Foreign Affairs.
Vivi Stavrou organized and convened a workshop entitled Exploring Explanations of Violence (26 Sept). The workshop was attended by 8 mental health workers involved in the area of analyzing and designing interventions to reduce violence, and treating victims of violence. The objectives of the workshop were to explore psycho-social understandings of violence both at the level of explanation and methodological inquiry, and to apply this discussion to the development of therapeutic intervention. A follow-up workshop is planned to focus on the development of intervention programmes.
Graeme Simpson was co-convenor of the ASSA working group on militarisation and security during 1992.
Etienne Marais and Janine Rauch were instrumental in organising the IDASA Policing conference at Vanderbijlpark in October, 1992.
Lloyd Vogelman is presently a member of the following management committees and boards:
During 1992 the project has continued to maintain a high media profile and great interest has been shown in the work that we have been doing. This has resulted in continued demands for interviews, information and consultations by members of local and international media, and various members of the Centre have featured on radio, television and the printed media. The staff of the Centre view this media contact as one of the ways in which we can contribute to informing public debate and education. The full range of media organisations and individuals which we have serviced in the course of the year is too lengthy to reproduce in detail here.
Not all of the workshops, briefings and contacts and consultations that were provided by the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation fall neatly into any of the categories above. Indeed, the range of organisations for whom we provided input and from whom we have drawn range from NICRO to the Urban Foundation, from the Sandton Town Council to the Paper Printing Wood and Allied Workers Union. Many of these contacts can only be hinted at here as they are too diverse to document in detail.
In the period from March to November 1992, the Trauma Clinic provided counselling services to an average of 5 new clients per week. In total in 1992, the clinic counselled 147 new clients as compared to the 60 clients that were counselled in 1991. This indicates a significant increase in public usage of our clinic this year. Sadly, this is also an indicator of the dramatic increase in the on-going violence in South Africa.
As a consequence of frequently random and arbitrary nature of much of the criminally and politically motivated violence, large numbers of people are affected. Much of the violence occurs in trains, at taxi ranks, in the schools and within the domestic environment. The family as a unit has been seriously affected, both directly and indirectly by the high levels of violence and fear - as most of the symptoms incurred due to trauma manifest in various ways that compromise cohesion within the family. The psycho-social effects of this violence are clearly evident in the lives of trauma clinic clients, a significant number of whom have lost spouses, children and other relatives as a direct consequence of escalating conflict.
Since the beginning of 1992, the Trauma Clinic has been operating from the Psychiatric Community Service in the city centre. The change of venue has benefitted both the clinic and the clients considerably. Because we are now more accessible than before, we are able to reach a larger number of people, and many more clients are using the clinic for both long and short-term intervention. We are also able to provide our clients with medication should the need arise.
The physical move of the Trauma Clinic has necessitated some structural changes. The M.A Clinical Psychology students are still servicing the clinic, but we have also recruited 5 professional volunteers to assist with the client over-flow. The development of a volunteer programme has facilitated the continuous availability of services during vacation and examination time when the students, who form the main body of counsellors at the clinic, are unavailable.
Since the beginning of 1992 the clinic has been open on Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday afternoons. However, contingent on the ability to recruit additional volunteers, the clinic looks forward to being able to offer counselling services on all five days of the week.
1992 saw most of the networking that was done in 1991 bearing fruit. The Trauma Clinic received referrals from most of the organisations with which we had initiated and maintained contact in the preceding year. We also rendered services to a wider network of organisations during 1992, most of which had become aware of our clinic through the increasing media coverage the clinic was receiving during the year. Several organisations requested that we present formal papers or presentations on violence and its effects on the community to their members. The clinic also ran a significant number of educational and training workshops to educate mental health and other community workers on how to identify and deal with traumatised survivors of violence. Our success in encouraging people to use our services has led to the planning of further outreach work in 1993.
Some of the outreach activities of the Trauma Clinic included: visiting Boipatong after the massacre to assess the psycho-social needs of the community and to offer on site assistance; running a needs assessment at the Zola Clinic in Soweto; and networking so as to facilitate the expansion of the Clinic's volunteer programme.
Workshops on identifying and treating victims of violence were run as part of the Sowetan Teachers Training Workshop as well as for the Sowetan Help-line Counsellors, the Katlehong Town Council Social Workers, Anglicare counsellors and for Centurion High School Teachers. A workshop was also run at Makro SA on "Violence in the workplace".
Nthabiseng Mogale also attended several conferences during the year, and the Trauma Clinic ran several debriefing sessions including those at Jet Stores branches in Roodepoort and in Westonaria.
The Clinic ran a training programme for the MA Clinical Psychology masters students on identifying violence related trauma and the treatment thereof. In addition, Nthabiseng Mogale and Lloyd Vogelman attended the Xth International Training Seminar on Rehabilitation of Torture Survivors and Their Families, from November 9-13, 1992, in Copenhagen, Denmark.
At the end of 1992, the clinic had only one fulltime staff member, Nthabiseng Mogale, who was unable to cope with the ever increasing workload. As a result, an additional staff member, Grant Maclean, was appointed in December 1992. He will help to co-ordinate some of the pressing needs of the clinic, both at a managerial and at an administrative level.
The dedication of the staff and management of the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation is, we ourselves believe, to be commended. Yet the social and psychological costs of working in this very demanding field are manifold. The rewards for hard work are not always self-evident and the overt achievements often seem difficult to trace. Despite this, the Centre's staff has shown itself to be dynamic, helpful and supportive.
1992 has been a challenging and fruitful year. We expect that 1993 will once again witness substantial expansion in the activities of the Centre and that we will once again make some small contribution to the quest for peace and reconciliation in South Africa.