Annual Report:



Financial Report


Steering Committees

Contact with Other Groups and Organisations

Education and Training Department

Policing Research Project

Trauma Clinic

Violence and Industry Project

Violence Against Children

Additional Research Projects

Consultations, Briefings and Supply of Resources

Staffing and Staffing Problems



Presentations, Seminars and Conference Contributions


1993 began with a change of name and location for the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation (CSVR). In large part this anticipated the dramatic, although haphazard processes of transition taking place within the country as a whole during the year. In the context of such dramatic change, levels of social conflict and of violence, both political and criminal were continually increasing - despite the steady process of negotiations which led ultimately to the setting of an election date for April 1994 and to the adoption of a negotiated interim constitution on December 6 1993.

In this context, the CSVR had a vital role to play in reflecting, analyzing and pro-actively intervening in the historic process of change, in order to strengthen the organs of civil society, to empower marginalised and victimised communities and to build a culture of tolerance and human rights to support the negotiated constitutional arrangements.

As the country moves towards the April election, there are few guarantees. This understandably extends the agenda of organisations such as ours and places a high premium on accessing target communities, generating critical debate and dialogue, and training, treating and empowering those upon whom a successful democratic dispensation will ultimately stand or fall. Ours is therefore a concern for "human development" as a precondition for any future economic development and upon which real change at a grassroots level will depend. This is the context of the report on the Centre's activities for 1993 which follows.

Financial Report


A range of institutions have made generous contributions to funding the various activities of the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation in 1993. We remain indebted to those listed in alphabetic order below:

Anglovaal Group of Companies
Energos Foundation
The European Union (Via SA Catholic Bishops' Conference)
The Ford Foundation (US)
ICCO (Netherlands)
The Joseph Rowntree Charitable Trust (UK)
Medico International (Germany)
One World Action (UK)
Oxfam (UK)
RCT/IRCT (Denmark)
The Royal Danish Embassy
The Royal Netherlands Embassy
Save the Children Fund (UK)
Standard Bank

Although the majority of the Centre's funding continues to depend on the generous contributions of non-South African donors, we welcome the interest in our work which is beginning to emerge within the South African business community. It is our firm belief that the work being done in the Centre will benefit all South Africans and that this work should increasingly be sponsored and supported by South African interest groups.

Narratiave Notes to the Financial Statement


The Centre again pursued a conservative financial policy in 1993, apart from the extraordinary costs incurred due to the move off the University campus which were anticipated in the additional financial notes to our 1992 audited financial statement. These costs were incurred during the course of 1993, covering both the move as well as our planned staff expansion. (This expansion is detailed in the body of the 1993 Annual Report).

The balance at 31 December 1993 reflects certain monies donated during that year, but allocated for specific expenditure in the course of 1994. Furthermore, it should be noted that the breakdown of donors excludes the names of some of our larger long term contributors, ICCO and the Royal Netherlands Embassy. This is simply because donations were made by these donors either late in 1992 or early in 1994 and therefore no deposits were made from these sources during 1993 itself. However, both ICCO and the Royal Netherlands Embassy are included in the list of donors in the narrative report.

The total received from grants and donations during 1993 is down to R751 344 as compared with R886 351 in 1992. Due to other sources of income, particularly from interest earned, the total income for 1993 is approximately the same as in the previous year (R1 043 715 in 1993 as compared with R1 042 615 in 1992).

Despite our conservative financial approach, the Centre's expenditure increased dramatically to R1 141 155 during 1993, more than double the expenditure of the previous year. Although there were some extraordinary expenditure items such as the educational video (R70 458), this increase was primarily due to the doubling of our salaries and staff costs from R311 095 in 1992, to R640 776 in 1993. This increase was anticipated, due to the expansion of staff numbers.

Of critical importance is the closing balance at the end of 1993 (R1 138 476) which is lower than the closing balance at the end of 1992 (R1 235 916). Although the balance is still healthy, this does reflect a limited drawing on our reserves during 1993. Furthermore, considering our substantial increase in staff numbers and in staff salaries and costs, the fact that the closing balance has not increased means that the Centre's financial position at the end of 1993 is somewhat less secure than at the end of 1992. Although we are satisfied with our funding situation for 1994, this means that we will have to secure additional funding over the next two years in order to assure the funding of our current projects and staff members in the years that follow.

Explanation of Specific Income and Expenditure Items

Administration Fees (University of the Witwatersrand)

Wits University charges the Centre a 6% administration fee. This percentage is calculated on the amounts credited to the CSVR current accounts, rather than on our interest bearing accounts into which all donor deposits are made. This 6% levy is charged to all independently funded University-based units. The Centre negotiated a separate agreement with Wits which was directly related to our planned move off campus and the high expected expenses. Furthermore, it was agreed that the Centre would not pay the levy on any expenses which, were it not for our relocation of the campus, the University would have borne in any event. Due to this agreement we were re-imbursed with an amount of R22 500 (itemised in the income section of the audited financial statement) and the total amount paid to the University for 1993 was R29 418, compared to R23 100 in 1992.

We are reassured by the University that this fee is less than that charged by other Universities in South Africa and elsewhere in the world and that it does not fully cover the costs borne by the University in administering the Centre's accounts and personnel requirements. Nonetheless, the University has been generous in under-charging us over the past two years and we anticipate considerable increase in the cost of the levy in 1994.

Private donations

These monies have been received from private individuals in the United States. It has been decided to allocate this amount of R4 930 as some form of a prize in a creative writing competition for young black South Africans on the subject of violence, with a specific emphasis on solutions.

Interest Received

Interest received in 1993 totalled R215 233, of which an amount of R46 366 is interest payable to the Royal Danish Embassy (itemised in the expenditure section of the audited financial statement) in terms of the funding criteria set out by the Embassy. The balance of the interest is accrued to the Centre Core Account.

Advertising (staff)

This amount is considerably higher than the R2 908 expended in 1992. This relates directly to number of new staff recruited in 1993, due to expansion of the Centre. It remains critical that such advertising takes place if we are to recruit the right people and for the sake of procedural fairness in recruitment.

Disbursement to P & DM

The development of a training course in Police Management was jointly undertaken by the Policing Research Project within the Centre, and the School of Public and Development Management at the Wits Business School. The disbursement to this organisation of R49 500 covered their participation in delivery of the course and in the development of the course design.

Salaries and Staff Costs

At the end of 1992 the Centre had 11 members of staff. By January 1994 there were 20 staff members employed. As budgeted, all annual salaries were also increased by 15% in 1993.

Special Printing and Promotional Expenses

These expenses were incurred by the necessity to advertise our change of name, address, logo and the establishment of new services, as well as the associated cost of designing and printing new CSVR letterheads, stationary and pamphlets.

Temporary Transfer to Projects

The Centre's core account occasionally makes temporary transfers of bridging funds to specific projects while they await funds which have been donated. Two such bridging finance "loans" were made in 1993, one to the Policing Research Project and one to the Trauma Clinic. Repayment was made to the core account by the Policing Project during 1993 and this amount therefore does not appear in the consolidated statement. However, the repayment of the Trauma Clinic bridging funds will only take place in 1994 and this explains the expenditure item: Temporary transfer to Trauma Clinic project.

Educational Video Production

This expense was incurred by the Centre in the production of an educational video, "Perspectives on Violence", funded by Medico International.


Further expansion during 1993 placed an enormous burden on the administrative systems of the Centre. An increase in the staff complement from 11 at the beginning of 1993, to 20 by January 1994, when combined with the need to accommodate our physical move off the university campus at the beginning of 1993, demanded heroics from the Centre's Administrative Officer, Robyn Lewis.

By the end of the year (1993), considering further planned expansion of the staff, it became apparent that the Centre would need to expand its administrative staff substantially and that this would require additional funding from both our core funders and from within the various departmental activities. To this end it is planned to commission an outside consultant to evaluate the Centre's needs and administrative systems to ensure strategic future planning and to rationalise the Centre's core and departmental administrative and secretarial needs. This will be done in the first half of 1994.

Steering Committees

The past arrangement whereby the Centre has operated with two separate Steering Committees (one university-based and one community-based) became unworkable in 1993. For this reason a decision was taken to rationalise the process and to attempt to merge the two Committees into one. This required negotiation with the University in order to ensure that adequate community representation was secured on the University Steering Committee, as well as to obtain a representative gender and racial profile within this Committee. It was decided that there was no longer a purpose in the community-based Steering Committee meeting, until such time as the two committees had been merged.

At the University Steering Committee's annual evaluation of the CSVR, the above proposal was put forward and was accepted in principle. It was minuted that nominations should be submitted for new Committee members who could then be incorporated into the University Steering Committee in the course of 1994. The Centre management and staff proposed a list of such community representatives, but few of the proposed list were considered acceptable by the University. As a result, the new Steering Committee which has been reconstituted, although an improvement on the past Committee, still does not meet the requirements of the CSVR. Further negotiation is therefore taking place with the University and this matter will be resolved in the course of 1994. Should it prove impossible to secure the participation of the requisite individuals through such negotiation, then the CSVR will re-activate the community-based Steering Committee before the end of 1994.

No comment made here should in any way be taken to reflect on the contributions made by current or past members of the University Steering Committee - or on those newly appointed to this Committee for 1994. On the contrary, the CSVR staff and management would like to extend a message of gratitude to all those who have generously given of their time and advice in order to guide the CSVR in the past year. In particular, Professor Sellschop, who has chaired the University Steering Committee, has been accessible, flexible and tolerant of our needs throughout, and has made an invaluable contribution to the success of the CSVR.

Contact with Other Groups and Organisations

The significant public profile which the CSVR has occupied over the past year is reflective of the successful "networking" achieved in the course of our various activities over this period as well as in the past. Through our research, our organisational networks in the fields of victim aid, policing and education and training, as well as within our target constituencies more generally, the CSVR has sustained its accessibility, fostered its role as a conduit for multi-disciplinary "action" research, developed its implementation strategies, and continued its role in the generation of debate and dialogue.

The demands on the various CSVR staff during 1993 for input on policy formation and implementation, the facilitation of dialogue, as well as for consultation and advice, has been the result of networks and lobbies established over the past years. Such demand on the Centre has in turn generated further organisational contacts, which quickly translate into still further demand and which have ultimately severely taxed the capacity of the Centre to meet the demand we have generated. If the contacts, commissioned work and co-operative relationships with other organisations (both within and outside the state) continues to grow at its current rate, the capacity and infrastructure of the CSVR will be severely tested and may have to be substantially enhanced in coming years.

Apart from the growing organisational contacts in all the fields discussed above, the CSVR has also continued to render a vital service to the commercial media and has provided materials, information, interviews, etc. to a wide range of electronic and written media representatives from South Africa and abroad. In all of this the Centre has not only built its own profile and credibility, but also that of the University of the Witwatersrand.

Education and Training Department

Over the past two years there has been an increasing demand on the CSVR to deliver educational workshops and training programmes which can assist people in dealing with social conflict and the effects of violence. In this context, it became crucial to use the Centre's research and policy development expertise to service disadvantaged communities more directly. One vehicle through which we have sought to achieve this objective has been through the running of a number of education and training programmes and, to this end, the CSVR established an Education and Training Department.

Training Programmes

The high levels of violence in 1993, coupled with uncertainty over the pending political settlement and the future election of a Government of National Unity, gave rise to widespread insecurity within South Africa's communities. Not surprisingly amidst these prevailing socio-political conditions, the demand for education and training related to the issues of criminal and political violence, increased dramatically during the year under review. The primary demand was for education and training which would help and empower victims of violence. This included the need to develop an understanding of the complex dynamics leading to the increase a range of different types of violence - from political to family violence. Therefore, most of the education and training embarked upon by the Centre was ultimately borne of an attempt to contain and deal with the high levels of violence-induced trauma and stress that most South Africans were experiencing.

The content of the programmes centred around understanding and coping with sustained violence, training lay counsellors to counsel victims who had been traumatised, assisting with the development of victim support schemes and contributing to victim aid policy formulation. The training programmes serviced a wide range of constituencies, mainly targeting people in the community who were working with and administering to traumatised victims. This included Advice Centre staff, victim support groups, school teachers and pupils, health and welfare workers, human resource personnel within industry and the South African Police.

The programmes were tailored to suit each of the different constituencies and, although the training was informed by the ongoing research undertaken in the Centre and by trends observed in the CSVR Trauma Clinic, most of the programmes were designed in close co-operation with those being trained. This programme development methodology was both a strength and a weakness: on one hand the training was guaranteed to meet the direct needs of the participants, but on the other, it proved to be very time consuming and often difficult to re-produce or sustain on a wider scale. This limited the Centre's capacity to respond to the overwhelming demand for this type of training.

The training programmes were successful in equipping participants with the knowledge of the dynamics of violence in South Africa and how it impacted on their personal, community and working lives. Part of this understanding included the psycho-social effects of violence and the principles and practices of crisis intervention, trauma counselling, support work and supervision.

The methodology used in the training programmes was participatory and experiential. Theoretical and practical knowledge was deepened by building on the experience and learning of the participants. This proved to be a highly successful way of imparting new skills and knowledge, while at the same time affirming and deepening the skills and expertise that the participants brought with them to the programmes.

The most far reaching and extensive training initiative was that run in schools in the PWV region. The programme focused on the empowerment of teachers, parents and pupils and aimed at equipping these groups with a deeper understanding of the dynamics and impact of violence. The programmes certainly reached a wide range of schools which were in need of victim aid intervention and provided them with the skills to help victims of violence to cope with trauma.

However, after an internal evaluation, it was concluded that the schools programme had failed to develop an adequately sustainable influence within the affected schools. This was due to the primary focus on the pupils themselves, which, although being the target population, posed problems through the need to continually reproduce the programmes from class to class. The CSVR simply did not have the capacity to sustain this level of input. For this reason it was concluded that there was a greater need to train teachers to run and sustain the CSVR's programmes, so that they would be able to service the needs of school-going youth without the direct and constant intervention of Centre staff. In pursuit of this strategic objective, the focus of the education and training department shifted towards the end of 1993 and two clear priorities were identified: firstly, the target group in the schools environment became the teachers; and secondly, the development of educational and training materials for use by these teachers became a priority concern.

Educative Materials Development

In the interests of sustainability, it became necessary to supplement the training programmes with training manuals and information booklets. Building on the experiences of the training programmes, two types of educative materials were initiated:

Rape Booklet: Dealing with Rape

This booklet focuses on theoretical and practical issues around rape as one of the dominant forms of violence to emerge from the preceding education programmes. During 1993 the booklet was conceptualised through research and wide consultation with experts in the field. Most of the chapters in the booklet were completed by the end of the 1993 and the booklet is due for publication and distribution in the middle of 1994. The booklet provides practical and theoretical information to assist anyone who is raped or who deals with rape survivors. It is the first book of its type in South Africa and is eagerly awaited by nurses, doctors, lawyers and social workers in a variety of institutions.

Video: Perspectives on Violence

This video, completed in 1993, is based on the popular school's programme undertaken by the Education and Training Department during 1992 and 1993. The video is aimed at helping teachers, students, youth and religious leaders to run workshops with young people. It explores the causes, impact and solutions to different types of violence. The Centre plans to develop a booklet to accompany the video in order to deliver a comprehensive educational package that can be used, without the direct or ongoing intervention of Centre trainers.

The process of making the video was itself innovative and important because, for the first time, black South African youth actively took part in shaping and documenting their own experiences of violence within this medium.

Evaluation of the Education and Training Programmes

There have been many strengths of the training programmes initiated by the CSVR. The programmes themselves have provided an invaluable service in directly assisting victims of violence and transferring skills to key people within target constituencies who have been involved in victim aid. They enabled many agencies to contain the high levels of violence-related stress and trauma and were important in assisting these people to access other institutions offering additional assistance. The training programmes have led to the increase in client in-take in the CSVR Trauma Clinic, as well as to a demand for assistance with setting up trauma facilities in many of the townships around Johannesburg.

Furthermore, the volume of the training completed in the course of the year served to enhance the profile and credibility of the CSVR and of the Trauma Clinic. Through these training programmes the Centre became known as an agency which not only contributed to research and policy development, but which also provided a direct service to victims of violence and those involved in working with these victims.

Through the running of the programmes, the Centre has also developed a body of workshop and training materials which address the nature of violence and trauma in South Africa and which are rooted in the direct experiences of victims. This will provide a firm foundation for the ongoing development of accessible educative materials and sustainable and reproducible training courses.

However, the Centre simply did not have the capacity to respond to all the requests for education and training. This meant that many requests had to be turned down and there was inadequate time to consolidate our experiences through the development of accessible educative materials and course curricula. This was primarily due to the under-staffing of the Education and Training Department, but was also partly a result of the way in which some of the programmes were conceptualised. By responding continually to ad-hoc requests, and designing courses in response to specific individualised needs, the success of the programmes was restricted. Developing and running regular and systematic training courses in a pro-active way, and targeting key individuals and institutions who were in a position to reproduce the skills and knowledge, therefore became a challenging priority for 1994.

Internal Training and the Trainee Development Programme

The Training Department attempted to meet some of the internal training needs of the Centre as a whole. It was envisaged that this would involve co-ordination of internal staff skills development - particularly the co-ordination of the Trainee Internship Programme - as well as facilitating other CSVR work which may involve training. Whilst some of this work was undertaken, it was found to be a substantial drain on the department, primarily due to the fact that the department consisted of one person for most of the year. As a result, the coordination of the trainees' supervision fell to individuals outside of the Education and Training Department during 1993, but will revert to the Department once it has built up its staffing complement.

In spite of this, the CSVR's Trainee Development Programme continued to function effectively during 1993. Reuben Mogano completed his internship early in 1993 and submitted a paper based on his research to the CSVR's Monthly seminar Programme. He subsequently secured employment in a non-governmental organisation which enabled him to apply his new skills for the benefit of the community. Isaac Mogotsi's internship contract was cut short due to an offer which he received to enter the diplomatic corps. His work at the Centre will also stand him in good stead in this new field. Two additional trainees were employed in 1993: Wandile Zwane, employed as a trainee in the Education and Training Department; and Edmund Buys, a Namibian research intern tasked with developing comparative work on reconciliation in South Africa and Namibia.

Quite apart from the Trainee Development Programme, the area of internal staff development is remains critical to the CSVR considering the need for internal capacity building as well as the vital requirement of professionalisation within the non-governmental organisation (NGO) sector over the coming period. Once the CSVR's Education and Training Department has been expanded, it will be critical to develop an ongoing strategy for dealing with this requirement. This will also require that additional funding is obtained to sustain such staff development.

Seminar Programme

The CSVR's monthly seminar programme continued to generate debate and dialogue and to attract interest from a wide range of interest groups who either subscribed to the seminar papers or attended the programme. As a public education initiative, the Monthly Seminar Programme continues to tackle key current issues and remains a great success. The following is a list of the monthly seminars held in 1993:

Date Title Presenters
No. 1
The Resurgence of Pupil Power: Explaining Violence in African Schools Reuben Mogano
No. 2
Evaluating the Foreign Observer Missions in South Africa Panel Discussion
No. 3
Gun Control: The Current Agenda Tefo Raditapole and Richard Spoor
No. 4
Communities, Conflict and Negotiated Development Julian Baskin
No. 5
South Africa's Youth: A Presentation of the Results of the JEP Youth Survey David Everatt
No. 6
Community Safety and Community Policing: Bottom-Up and Top-Down Accountability Initiatives Victor Nell, Mohamed Seedat & Gerald Williamson
No. 7
South Africa's Youth: A Follow-up on the JEP Youth Survey Sheila Sisulu
No. 8
Confronting Race and Racism as a Crucial Element of the Conflict in South Africa Frank Meintjies
No. 9
Drive-by Shootings in 1993 Janine Rauch

Education and Training Department Structure and Staffing

The Education and Training Department liaises very closely with the other service-oriented projects offered by the CSVR, such as the Violence and Industry Project and the Trauma Clinic, and plays an important role in the co-ordination of joint projects and programmes. In addition, the Education and Training Department has undertaken joint projects with other organizations involved in similar work, for example with IDASA's Democracy School and with NICRO. We have found that such partnerships extend and strengthen our work and we therefore intend to continue working co-operatively with complimentary agencies and consultants.

The Training Department employed only one person for most of 1993, the departmental co-ordinator, Vivi Stavrou. She was assisted by a trainee deployed in the department in the second half of the year. It was apparent that the existing staffing was inadequate and this was compounded by the loss of Vivi (who was relocating to Durban) towards the end of the year. For these reasons, Tracy Vienings was employed as co-coordinator of the Department shortly after Vivi's departure, along with Adele Kirsten who is due to begin employment in the Centre early in 1994.

Future Direction

During the course of 1993 the Centre's training programmes were largely shaped by a need for victim aid amidst increased levels of violence and social conflict. While the ongoing need for education and training around victim aid has certainly not disappeared, there is a need to shift the programmes in a number of ways. The four main areas where this shift needs to take place are: 1. in expanding the content and skills being offered; 2. carefully selecting the target groups; 3. offering the training courses on a regular basis; and 4. providing education and training to facilitate institutional reform.

The shift in content reflects the need for participants to develop a wider understanding of social conflict and reconciliation in the process of dealing with trauma. A need to develop a vision of the future which explores other ways of dealing with conflict is one example. The issue of political tolerance and the link between development and social conflict are another two key areas. Participants are expressing a need to develop new roles for themselves in the "new South Africa" and this involves dealing with past conflict and redefining their roles within civil society. A better understanding of the meaning of reconciliation, involvement in human rights redress and in the development of a human rights culture, have become burning issues - especially in the context of politically negotiated amnesty arrangements. Other factors such as racism and ethnicity, which may have the potential to lead to conflict in the building of a new nation, need to be incorporated into the education and training programmes offered by the CSVR.

These programmes need to target key players in institutional reform and those that are in a position to reproduce and sustain the skills and knowledge gained from the training programmes. We believe that the Centre, with it's multi-disciplined approach to the study of different forms of violence, the treatment of the victims of violence and the reconciliation process, is particularly well placed to provide such education and training. Indeed, the research that CSVR is conducting provides a uniquely comprehensive context from which to develop such training programmes.

Policing Research Project

1993 witnessed major developments within the Policing Research Project as it overcame some of the problems of access to the SAP which had been experienced in the previous two years. The Project also simultaneously built its programme at the community level, thereby overcoming an important programmatic deficit identified in the last annual report.

The questions of policing policy and reform remained at the cutting edge of transformation within the country as a whole and were central to the dominant themes of violence during 1993. The anticipation of this issue by the CSVR and the Policing Project over the previous two years, served to position the staff strategically, not only in terms of research and policy development, but also in terms of the capacity to service implementation programmes. As such, the Policing Research Project has provided an important model within the CSVR for forward planning and for the development of a programmatic approach which integrates research, policy formation, lobbying, consultancy and implementation functions.

Expansion and Recruitment

Perhaps the greatest challenge for the Policing Research Project in 1993 was to find resources for expansion in order to meet growing demand - and to develop a team capable of doing so effectively. This needed to be done whilst continuing to respond to requests and maintaining influence in the burgeoning debates around police reform in South Africa. This necessitated the development of managerial and training procedures within the Policing Project, in line with organisational developments planned for the Centre as a whole.

A process of strategic planning in the Policing Project in early 1993 identified the need for greater research and administrative capacity, due to the rapidly increasing demand for our services. Funding was successfully sought from the Royal Danish Embassy to cover the period 1993-1994, and a number of new staff were employed in mid-1993:

Nadia Levin Researcher: Police Management Training
Melanie Lue Researcher: Policing the Elections
Kindiza Ngubeni Research/Field-worker: Community Policing
Lindi Nxumalo Administrative Assistant

Etienne Marais, one of the founding researchers of the Policing Project, left the Centre in April 1993 to work in the area of police management training at the University's Graduate School of Public and Development Management (P&DM). Although his departure was a loss to the Centre, it has allowed us the opportunity of developing new and substantial organisational links with the P&DM. Etienne remains a Research Associate of the Policing Project.

Areas of work

The Policing Project's main areas of work in 1993 were as follows:

Community Policing

The first major project undertaken by the Policing Research Project in 1993 was a survey of police-community relations in Grahamstown, commissioned through the structures of the National Peace Accord. The research, completed over a four month period, involved three researchers. The final report is one of the most comprehensive surveys of the problems of policing in South Africa, and had a significant impact on debates around community policing in both police and academic circles. The Grahamstown project also involved a follow-up visit, during which the researchers facilitated workshops between police and community which led to the establishment of a successful police-community consultation forum.

The Policing Project has an ongoing relationship with IDASA (previously the funders of the project), through its Pretoria office, and have jointly carried out a number of police-community relations projects. In 1993, IDASA and the Policing Project co-operated on the organisation of a national workshop on police-community relations, commissioned by the Police Board and the National Peace Secretariat, and local and regional workshops in the Vaal Triangle and the Eastern Transvaal. In all cases, these workshops have been held in conjunction with the structures of the National Peace Accord.

Ongoing work in researching and facilitating police-community relations in the Vaal Triangle is the responsibility of Kindiza Ngubeni, who has developed effective working relationships with political and community organisations, police, monitors and peace workers in the area. Already, progress in this work is visible in Evaton, previously one of the most conflict-ridden townships in the area.

Policing of the Election

This project was identified as a strategic priority, and Melanie Lue was appointed to conduct research and facilitation. The focus of the project in the early months was to identify the various frameworks for policing of the upcoming election, which have been identified by bodies such as the SAP, the IEC, the Goldstone Commission, as well as in legislation. The objective of this research is to identify possible problem areas and to develop research or facilitation interventions to address them. Good relationships have been established with the International Observer Missions. The SAP, despite an initial reluctance to engage with us around these issues, have come to accept the researchers' inputs, and we anticipate involving them in a number of workshops concerning the policing of the elections in early 1994.

Policy Work

The Policing Project has continued to actively contribute to police policy debates. One major channel for such contributions has been through the Police Policy Group which advises the ANC. The researchers have also been involved in drafting the terms of reference of the Transitional Executive Council (TEC) SubCouncil on Law and Order, and the policing clauses of the Interim Constitution. At the end of 1993, the Policing researchers prepared briefings and a resource file for various members of the TEC Sub-Council on Law and Order.

Police Training

The major focus of our work in this sphere, shifted in 1993 from basic training to managerial training. Etienne Marais and Nadia Levin were responsible for the planning, development and delivery of a course entitled "Police Management in Transition" - a joint initiative of the Centre's Policing Project and the Graduate School of Public and Development Management. (This initiative is also funded by the Royal Danish Embassy). The target groups for this course are middle to senior police managers from all the South African Police Agencies.

The objectives of the course are to equip the participants with specific skills and knowledge to assist them in managing policing in the transition - to empower committed police officers as "agents of change". A subsidiary objective is to offer an entirely new methodology in police management training as a challenge to outdated training practice in the SAP. This objective began to be realised from mid-1993 onwards, as a result of a process of negotiation and consultation conducted between ourselves, the P&DM, the police and other groups, concerning management training in the SAP. Although most of the work was done, negotiations with the police authorities concerning the course took somewhat longer that anticipated, and the course was postponed to early 1994.

In addition to preparing for this course, the researchers were involved in the police training area in a number of other ways. Janine Rauch was involved in assessing a new police training initiative for dealing with rape cases (in which the CSVR's Training Officer was also involved). This assessment was presented in paper form to a Conference on Women in the Criminal Justice System, hosted by the Centre for Criminal Justice. The researchers were also invited by the head of the SAP's Corporate Planning Division to participate in a day-long workshop concerning future plans for police training, as well as being invited to the SAP College in Pretoria (in October 1993), to discuss reform of police training with the College's student representatives.

Furthermore, the Policing Research Project staff have developed relationships with senior functionaries at the Technikon RSA, especially in those departments which are concerned with police training. It is likely that the Policing Project will be contracted by the Technikon to provide research reports in future.

Relations with key groups in the policing field

International Observers

The Policing Project has developed co-operative working relationships particularly with the police members of the International Observer Missions, and provides regular briefings on police reform to various of the missions.

Durban City Police

In early 1993, at the invitation of the Durban City Police, the Policing Research Project submitted a tender to the Durban City Council for a large research project concerning policing in the Durban Functional Region. It was envisaged that this project would be carried out with Data Research Africa, and would provide an information base for police reform in the region. The project was not approved by the Durban City Council for the current financial year, due to lack of resources. It is envisaged that the project proposal will be reviewed and re-submitted in conjunction with the Durban City Police, probably after the 1994 election.

Goldstone Commission

The Policing Project researchers have assisted lawyers appearing before the Goldstone Commission on a range of issues including the killing of police officers, and the control of firearms. We also maintain contact with Judge Goldstone and other members of the Commission.

Peace Accord Structures

The Wits Vaal Regional Peace Committee invited Janine Rauch to sit on its sub-committee on Police-Community relations. This improved our relations with the Peace structures in the region and allowed for co-operation in a number of areas, including the community policing workshops mentioned above. We have consulted to the National Peace Secretariat concerning both training and community policing work. The Policing Project has also developed a strong working relationship with the Police Reporting Officer for the Witwatersrand Region, which has ensured that we are well informed of developments concerning police misconduct in the region.

Janine Rauch was involved in the curriculum design group of the Wits-Vaal Regional Peace Structure's Training Subcommittee, for the Marshall Training Programme.


As in previous years, the Policing researchers attempted to maintain good working relationships with other academics working in the policing field. The institutions with whom we have had most contact are:


Our relationship with the SAP was strengthened during 1993, although contacts with homeland police agencies became less regular than in the previous year. The police's co-operation with research projects is generally far more easily secured than in the early years of the Centre's work in the policing area. This is due, at least in part, to the reputation which the researchers and the Centre have built, as well as to the growing openness of the SAP.

The police have specifically invited our researchers to participate and assist in various reform process. These include assessments of police planning for the transition, police selection procedures, police training and developing community policing methodology. The researchers were the only South African researchers invited by the SAP to a "bosberaad" on community policing in April 1993. This conference was attended by community policing officials from all regions of the SAP, and police members of the International Observer Missions. It formed part of the SAP's consultation around its new community policing strategy.

Participation in official bodies

Police Board

Janine Rauch, co-ordinator of the Policing Project, continues to serve as a civilian member of the Police Board. (The Police Board is a National Peace Accord structure which advises on police policy matters). The areas of work in which she has been involved this year are: police-community relations; police training; and the development of a lay visiting scheme.

Janine was one of the members of a Police Board group who visited Britain in June 1993 at the invitation of the British Embassy. During the course of the visit, she made useful contacts in the Home Office, Metropolitan Police, Northumbria Police, and the UK Police Foundation. On behalf of the Centre's Policing Project, she also visited the Howard League, Amnesty International, the Home Office Equal Opportunities unit, and the Police Research Group.

International Training Committee

Janine Rauch was appointed to the International Training Committee in December 1992. This Committee, which now falls under the authority of the Police Board, is responsible for making recommendations concerning the reform of all aspects of police training. By the end of 1993, this Committee had completed its deliberations on basic training in the South African Police and its recommendations were accepted by the Police Board. The Police Board will also be creating a multi-national implementation team to ensure the delivery of new basic training by mid-1994.

Development of the CSVR Prisons Project

It is our view that the area of prison reform could be crucial in the development of mechanisms to deal with high levels of criminal violence in South African society. We have also come to view the criminal justice process as crucial to the broader project of social rehabilitation and reconciliation in the country. Yet the prisons in South Africa face a period of crisis and, in many respects, have the potential to become another major flash-point of violence if current trends are not reversed.

Based on this motivation, a "Prisons Project" was conceptualised during the CSVR's planning for 1993, and funds sought for the project. The conceptualisation of the project involved discussions with key groups such as NICRO, SAPOHR, the ANC and POPCRU. All these groups will be represented on a "consultative group" which will be formed to give guidance to the researchers on this project.

This project will be funded by the European Community, through the South African Catholic Bishops Conference, and the Royal Danish Embassy. It is envisaged that two researchers will be employed to start work in early 1994.

Trauma Clinic

As a service provider, as well as a unit involved in conceptualising victim aid policy, the Centre's Trauma Clinic was placed under enormous pressure by the weight of demand in an increasingly violent environment during 1993. Victim aid, a critical mechanism for intervening in the cycle of violence and an indispensable vehicle of individual rehabilitation and social reconciliation, remains one of the most important interventive dimensions of the CSVR's work.

The primary problems faced by the CSVR Trauma Clinic in the past, have related to the need to generate awareness of the Clinic's services through publicity etc., on one hand, and the need to build the capacity required to deal with the potential of resultant unlimited demand on the Clinic' services, on the other. In seeking to establish a balance between these two priority concerns, the Trauma Clinic has made some important advances in the course of 1993.

Trauma Clinic Relocation

Significant expansion in the clinic's service capacity was initiated during the year. The Trauma Clinic has been operating from its new premises in Jorissen Street, Braamfontein since February 1993. This move has been a positive one for both the usage and image of the Clinic.

Public Usage

The relocation to new premises has been fruitful for the clinic, and this is reflected by the increase in public usage. However, there was some delay before this trend became apparent as the relocation temporarily disrupted the Clinic's networks. In addition, some time was lost in the chaos, strikes and the extended period of mourning following Chris Hani's assassination, resulting in several important and strategic meetings being postponed. However, during this difficult period clinic staff were increasingly relied upon by the media and concerned interest groups for analytical input.

From June until September, a major networking and advertising campaign was embarked upon on the basis of our expanded capacity. By September 1993 the intake of new clients was up to 37 clients in the month. During October and November, the average new client intake was 30. In December only 15 new clients were seen, however this decrease is expected at this time of year. The clinic nonetheless remained open throughout the festive season.

Accessibility and Image

The Clinic's new location is significantly more accessible to clients than the old clinic offices based at Wits University. It is within easy reach of all the main routes and within walking distance of public transport pick-up points. Psychologically, it has also become accessible to the majority of users who are fairly unsophisticated and intimidated by the previous location on the University campus. As a result of these improvements, the Trauma Clinic's image has changed, and we are now perceived as a more community-based organisation.

Staffing and Capacity Building

Due to the ever-increasing demands on the Trauma Clinic for psychological services and the concomitant administrative burden over time, it became clear that the Clinic would be unable to meet these demands without additional staff. In January 1993 an additional psychologist, Grant McClean, was employed on a temporary contract. He acted as the Clinical Director and in addition to his role in counselling and debriefing, focused on the administrative restructuring of the Clinic, the development of a new funding proposal, the launching of a Voluntary Worker Programme and the organisation of student training. In some of these tasks he was operating in conjunction with the clinical staff of the Psychology Department of the University of the Witwatersrand.

It had also become impossible for the two staff members to cope with the multifarious demands of presentations, workshops, client intake, general office administration, the co-ordination of the volunteer programme, counselling, advertising and outreach work, etc. This enormous workload necessitated administrative back-up within the Clinic and Kim Rautenbach, a part-time administrator, was employed. She is responsible for client intake and assistance with referrals to other sources. The administrative assistant has also been responsible for the booking of appointments for MA Clinical students and Trauma Clinic volunteers, as well as for other Clinic staff. The Clinic has also been restructured administratively, in order to rationalize management functions and the development of new procedures.

During the second half of the year, Palesa Makhale-Mahlangu, a personality psychologist, replaced Nthabiseng Mogale as clinic Co-ordinator. The Centre regrets the loss of Nthabiseng, who had played a key role in building the Trauma Clinic in the preceding two and a half years. However, the additional skills provided by the new staff, particularly in the clinical sphere, have helped to enhance the smooth running and capacity of the Clinic.

The Voluntary Workers Programme

In 1992 the Clinic used some volunteer professional counsellors to service clients. However, this approach was found to be difficult to sustain. Due to professional work commitments, five out of seven original volunteers were unable to continue their service.

In order to expand the service facility, to effectively manage the client load, and to provide the capacity for on-going needs assessment within the communities that the Clinic serves, it was undertaken to continue using volunteers as an adjunct to the clinic's professional services.

In April 1993, from an initial pool of over 90 applicants (responding to newspaper advertisements), and after an intensive and lengthy screening process and a five-week training programme (in which clinicians from the University were involved), a core group of 12 volunteers were recruited. The primary criteria for selection of the group was: the ability to speak an African language; and the volunteer's commitment to be available on at least one afternoon a week. In addition, 10 of the group had significant counselling experience.

The group of volunteers now assist the clinic in counselling, outreach work in communities and general administrative tasks, according to their level of expertise.

Expanded Clinic Times

Due to the growing demands for counselling services and as a result of an enlarged service capacity, the clinic extended its service and was soon open on all 5 days of the week, 8 hours a day.

Community Outreach Projects

The Clinic soon developed to the stage where it could confidently engage in more in-depth outreach work than in the past. In 1993 a significant number of workshops were run at schools and at community centres, as well as training workshops in communities and within the business sector. By the end of the year it was apparent that some thought would have to be given to employing a full-time outreach worker in the course of 1994. With the development and completion of the Voluntary Workers training programme, and with the hiring of additional administrative support staff, the Trauma Clinic clearly has an enhanced capacity to reach communities in need.

Administrative Re-structuring

It was also necessary to reorganise the Clinic's administrative infrastructure, both in order to cope with the increased service demands, as well as to service new Clinic staff. During the 1993 there was thus a redefinition job descriptions, an extensive process of delineation of tasks, as well as the development and streamlining of procedures. Amongst other things, this included the establishment of a regular meeting schedule, the creation and testing of client intake and referral procedures and the writing up of telephone-answering routes and procedures. In addition, a full range of the associated forms was designed, as well as a new client data base which provides the automated capacity to efficiently recall relevant client information and also offers a comprehensive information pool for research purposes.


On the back of this capacity-building exercise, the Clinic could embark on a substantial public awareness campaign, including the cultivation of agency contact persons, the development of a contact data base, presentations at institutions and to other professionals and the wide dissemination of advertising literature.

Our publicity material was improved and upgraded. This entailed the production of a large poster advertising our services, as well as a brochure outlining these services for helping professionals and other agencies to whom we look for referrals. A leaflet was also designed and produced and was intended for potential clients. This leaflet, apart from advertising the services of the Clinic, also described in outline traumatic events and typical symptoms of violence-induced trauma. These materials continue to constitute a important dimension of our augmented advertising campaign.

The National Co-ordinating Conference to Establish the Human Rights Foundation

In 1993, the CSVR Trauma Clinic was an integral part of the working committee which hosted the National Co-ordinating Conference at Wits University on July 2nd - 4th. The conference focused on the issues of trauma and violence in the wider South African community and sought to consolidate mental health services in this field in an attempt to minimise and, where possible, prevent the adverse effects of violence. The involvement in the working committee planning this conference was a first attempt on the Clinic's part, as mental health service, to work jointly towards achieving an holistic and consolidated approach to trauma crises intervention.

The conference was attended by representatives of 43 national organisations and structures, as well as observers of the International Rehabilitation Council for Torture Victims (Denmark). Highly positive results were achieved, beginning with unanimous agreement on the need for a national body to coordinate regional and local activities in the victim aid sphere, with the objectives of: facilitating mutual skills transfer; establishing systems for sharing information and resources; creating a national information data base; and the co-operative organisation of educational conferences and workshops.

The proposed national structure was tentatively given the title: The Human Rights Foundation. The conference also established a national working committee tasked with developing a draft constitution and organising follow-up regional conferences to consolidate the processes set in motion. The clinic's co-ordinator serves on this working committee.

Organisational Networks

Service Network

The Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation remains one of the few organizations providing a counselling service to trauma victims in the Johannesburg area. However, networking has been continued and developed with community organisations, women's structures, youth groups and other mental health organisations (nationally), too numerous to list in detail here. It is worth specifically noting the significant expansion of the Trauma Clinic's organizational links which have resulted from participation in the National Co-ordinating Conference.

Association with SAHSSO

Late in 1992 the Trauma Clinic, together with the ANC Health Department, convened a meeting of organisations working in the area of rehabilitation and treatment of victims of violence. At this meeting a committee was set up comprising the CSVR Trauma Clinic, the ANC, the South African Health and Social Services Organisation (SAHSSO), the Family Institute and community representatives. Following this meeting, the Trauma Clinic and SAHSSO met and formally established a working relationship under which it was agreed to work jointly in the Johannesburg area. It was also agreed that SAHSSO would use the Trauma Clinic as their Johannesburg treatment venue and work together with us in setting up further projects.

Human Rights Foundation

The Human Rights Foundation comprises 11 organisations working nationally in the area of violence and victim aid. It is a positive development for the clinic to be part of this collective, as it will not only ensure on-going communication between the CSVR Clinic and sibling organisations around the country, but also on-going evaluation of the quality and relevance of our services.

Community Psychiatric Services

Since March 1992 the Clinic has been running a satellite service every Thursday afternoon from the premises of Community Psychiatric Services. The clinic's clients are primarily seen by M.A.(Clin.) students from the Wits. Psychology Department. Accessibly situated in the centre of Johannesburg, this organisational arrangement has become a very positive stepping stone in the CSVR Trauma Clinic's outreach work. This project also provides a comprehensive service in that there is provision for medical intervention for clients should the need arise.

Psychology Department, University of the Witwatersrand

The Clinic's relationship with the Wits Psychology Department goes back a few years. The Department, together with Community Psychiatric Services, form part of the Trauma Clinic's clinical management committee. The Department continues to use the Clinic as a vehicle for the training of MA (Clin.) students in trauma counselling. This is an important relationship as it allows the Clinic to fulfil part of it's training function whilst simultaneously facilitating the University's provision of a much needed service to the broader community.

Violence and Industry Project

1993 saw the expansion of the Violence and Industry Project which had been initiated in the second half of 1992. This intervention programme, based on ongoing research conducted at the CSVR into violence in industrial conflict, sought to engage with the workplace as a point of access to the wider community. The objectives of the Project were to utilise the relative peace of the working environment in order to develop pro-active strategies for dealing with the effects of violence beyond the factory gates.

Ultimately, the Project was concerned to market a series of strategic interventions aimed at harnessing resources in industry for the purposes of victim aid. However, as it developed, the programme broadened and sought to offer more direct benefits to employers and employees within the context of industrial relations. The Violence and Industry Project also provided a conduit for the co-ordinated involvement of the CSVR's Trauma Clinic and Education and Training departments in the delivery of in-house victim aid services, education programmes and training schemes. As such, it was an important vehicle for developing the CSVR's consultancy function in industry, in designing better communication between employers and employees - at least as regards the issue of violence and its impact on workplace relationships. Throughout, the Centre was advocating (indeed insisting on) joint ownership of these programmes by employers and employee representatives, so as to ensure that the process effectively serviced the needs of the most prevalent victims and potential victims of violence - black township residents.

Initially concerned to provide victim aid services in industry, the project quickly developed to the point where it was designing and facilitating in-house communication forums between senior managers, line level supervisors and shop floor workers. Based on these cross-sectional needs-assessment workshops conducted within companies, the CSVR was able to recommend the training of in-house trauma counsellors, the development of mechanisms to monitor the effects of violence on the workplace, and to motivate corporate social investment in violence-related spheres. In all these respects, the CSVR could also offer the services of its training facility and its psychological counselling expertise.

The initial pilot programme was implemented in Engen, beginning with cross-sectional workshops at depots in the PWV late in 1992. In 1993, in response to a request from the company, this pilot programme was extended nationally and further workshops were run at Durban, East London, Port Elizabeth, Bloemfontein and Cape Town. Trade union shop stewards were actively involved in every workshop. All the workshops were consolidated into a written report which was finally presented as a series of proposals in seminar form to the Engen Board of Directors.

The Engen pilot provided the springboard to further work in other companies in the course of the year, in part as a result of the presentation of the results at various forums and conferences, such as at the Institute for Personnel Management, the Johannesburg Chamber of Commerce and Industry etc. By the end of 1993, the CSVR had been consulted by over 14 different companies, including: Nestle SA, Southern Life, Spar, Pick 'n Pay, Adcock Ingram, Standard Bank, Metal Box Glass, Eskom, Genref and PG Bison. In some of these companies, similar cross-sectional needs assessments were conducted, and written reports submitted containing recommendations. In others, only management education workshops were conducted, whilst in still others, no actual in-company programmes materialised although there were often ongoing consultations.

The Project had varying degrees of success, but clearly tapped into a crucial need within the wider industrial community. However, concern to win managerial support for such programmes may have resulted in inadequate attention being given to soliciting support for the programmes within the trade union movement at regional and national level. More significant, however, was the problem experienced in meeting the demand elicited by the early successes of the Violence and Industry Project. This lack of capacity within the CSVR will need to be remedied if the programme is to meet its full potential in the coming years. This seems especially important considering the reputation and expertise which has been built up in the CSVR over the past year and a half.

One of the significant assets of the Violence and Industry Project has been its apparent potential in generating income for the CSVR. This was never a programme for which funds were raised, yet it sustained itself, even to the point where, at the end of the year, an additional staff member could be employed on the money earned, in order to supplement the capacity of the programme. Grant Mitchell, an Industrial Sociology Masters graduate, was employed on a short-term contract in order to assist in both research, as well as to plan a one day conference on Violence and Industry, scheduled for January 1994.

The Violence and Industry Project appears to have unlimited potential to service not only the development of victim aid strategies in industry, but in the development of in-company communication strategies more generally, the generation of participative management programmes, as well as broader mechanisms for managing (often violent) transition at the corporate level. However, there is an urgent need to raise some bridging funds in order to develop the capacity within the CSVR needed to sustain this creative programme. In the interim, due to demands on the time of Graeme Simpson - who initiated and, in large part, co-ordinated the Project - it has become necessary to integrate the Violence and Industry work into the Education and Training Department.

Violence Against Children

The increasing prevalence and profile of children as direct and indirect victims of violence in South Africa, demanded that the CSVR seek to establish a programme in this sphere. Although the Centre has been involved in ongoing research on youth and violence over the past years, and despite our investment in schools-based education programmes, it was felt necessary to initiate a specific intervention programme aimed at children. To this end, a proposal was submitted to The Save the Children Fund (UK) who, through the assistance of Comic Relief, generously made funds available for this purpose.

However, once the funds became available, it proved impossible to secure an incumbent to fill the position advertised. It was only after advertising for the post on a third occasion that a suitable candidate, Dorothy Mdhluli, became available. For this reason, the development of this programme was delayed until the beginning of 1994.

Additional Research Projects

The independent research conducted by the CSVR has, throughout the organisation's existence, serviced the most creative intervention programmes conducted by the Centre. Within many of the Departments and Projects, the specialised research function has been aimed at serving precisely this purpose. However, at the Centre's annual internal assessment at the end of 1993, it was noted that there was a growing need to invest energy in enhancing the analytical capacity of the Centre so as to extend the "action" research and "rapid response" capabilities which have been the CSVR's major strength over the past years. This remains a priority for 1994. Nonetheless, the Centre staff generated considerable important innovative research during 1993. These research projects, many of which are ongoing and trace themes established over the past few years, are outlined briefly below.

Towards a Theoretical Model of Violence

Because the Centre is involved in researching diverse areas of violence, from the political to the criminal, and because we deal with both offenders and victims, we are in a unique position to identify some of the common features of these various forms of violence. To this end, we have continued our research project to develop a theoretical framework within which to understand violence, particularly that which is committed in crowds or groups. The research includes an analysis of the aetiology of violence and an exploration of the reasons why, in certain situations, violence does not occur, despite the existence of factors which appear to promote it. The model of violence will also attempt to establish why violence occurs when it does, and why some individuals and not others commit violence, despite shared political, social and economic circumstances. Amongst other things, this model is designed to:

This work is expected to be published in book form by the end of 1994.

Research on Political Violence

The Centre continued to generate research on political violence during 1993 and specifically focused on the upsurge in violence related to the haphazardly unfolding negotiation process. Much of this research was integrated into the work being done by the various departments in the Centre.

Although the product of research conducted during 1992, the timeous publication, in early 1993, of the annual review of political violence by Simpson and Rauch, fed into developing public debate about the nature of this violence. Graeme Simpson also updated this research in a piece eventually published in German in September 1993, which traced and identified trends in the violence in the negotiation context. Janine Rauch also followed up her research through important work relating to "third force" activities, focused on drive-by shootings.

The analytical work of the CSVR in this sphere remains central to the profile and reputation of the Centre. The political violence research conducted has serviced the consultancy function of the Centre and has generated considerable demand for public education work, as well as constituting the essential content of most of our specialist briefings to interested groups as well as our media consultations.

Youth and Violence

Some of the research in this sphere reached fruition in late 1992 and early 1993, but new areas of research were developed in the course of 1993. Reuben Mogano completed his paper on violence in the schools and presented this at a CSVR Monthly Seminar. Graeme Simpson also published material on women and children in violent South African townships, but this research was largely completed in 1992. However, the youth focus was sustained in 1993 by Vivi Stavrou, who completed work on the psychological effects of violence on youth and children.

The Centre monthly seminar also provided a conduit for the presentation of research conducted by other institutions relating to youth and violence. Two such seminars were devoted to elaborating a research agenda based on the most extensive youth survey thus conducted in South Africa. This research was conducted by the Community Agency for Social Enquiry (CASE) and was commissioned by the Joint Enrichment Programme (JEP).

Cumulative research conducted in this sphere by CSVR staff continued to feed directly into the education programme in the schools, the framing of the Violence and Children Project and directly facilitated the production of the video by the Education and Training Department.

Reconciliation Research

Considerable pro-active policy research was conducted during the year under the broad heading of "reconciliation". Edmund Buys, a Namibian trainee, devoted his time to examining strategies for reconciliation through comparative work on the South African and Namibian contexts. He conducted field work in Namibia examining the Namibian legislation and Programme of Reconciliation and was engaged in writing up this research towards the end of the year. His paper is due for completion early in 1994.

Considerable work was also generated relating to the social and psychological aspects of past human rights abuses and the implications for future reconciliation strategies. In this regard, Lloyd Vogelman wrote a policy piece on the social and psychological implications of "forgiving and forgetting", and Graeme Simpson began to address the controversial issues of amnesty and indemnity for those responsible for past abuses of human rights.

In respect of this latter issue, an important contribution was made in the sphere of access to information - particularly to security police records - through comparative international research. Graeme Simpson completed an investigation into German legislation and practice shaped by the Stasi Records Act of 1991, which regulated public access to security files both for the purposes of national acknowledgment and reconciliation, as well as for the rehabilitation of individual "victims" of covert police activities. This international research was complemented by an investigation of local attempts to secure similar access through the courts in South Africa. Albeit somewhat excessive, the German experience offers some lessons which are of great importance to future public knowledge of abuses committed in the name of Apartheid and to the related issues of amnesty/indemnity and a possible future Truth Commission in South Africa. This work will be continued and developed in the course of 1994.

Elections Research

With the proposed election of April 1994 looming, it became important for the Centre to directly address the research agenda relating to potential violence surrounding the electoral process. One critical area of research was embarked upon within the Policing Research Project and was focused on policy issues relating to the policing of the election. This provided a classical example of the Centre's "action research" as the project engaged directly with the police, both examining proposed practice, whilst simultaneously informing it. This work will continue up to and including the election period.

A further unique research opportunity presented itself when Graeme Simpson was invited by the National Democratic Institute (US) to participate in an election studies programme travelling to Cambodia to observe the election in that country during May 1993. Graeme was accredited by the United Nations as an international election observer, giving him unique access to the entire electoral machinery established by the international body. His experiences were written up and presented on his return, with a specific focus on the lessons for the pending South African elections. Apart from its value to local groups concerned with voter education and election monitoring, this research also proved to be of great value in the briefings provided for the range of international observers who began to arrive in South Africa towards the end of 1993.

Gender and Violence

Over the past years the CSVR has established a reputation and profile in respect of research conducted into gender specific violence, particularly sexual violence. The research generated in the past, continues to inform many of our intervention programmes in the education and training spheres, as well as in the arena of victim aid. This research was developed in the course of 1993 and manifested itself in the production of a rape booklet and a video on violence, within the Centre's Education and Training Department.

However, it was internally assessed that it would be desirable to generate a broader gender profile within the research conducted in the Centre. To this end, considerable work was conducted in drafting a proposed research and intervention programme on women as victims of war in South Africa and Mozambique. We were particularly motivated by the regional comparisons and the reciprocal lessons that could be learned and implemented in both countries. Despite our enthusiasm, and based primarily on the problems of implementation in the Mozambiquan context, it proved impossible to raise the funds necessary for this project.

Publications, Presentations and Conference Contributions

A list of the Centre's publications for the year appear at the end of this annual report, as well as a list containing the Centre's research and occasional papers, as well as the monthly seminar papers is also attached. All these papers are available from our offices and are widely requested by academics, students, organisations and members of the public.

An in-exhaustive list of many of the staff's presentations, seminars and conference contributions also appear. This constitutes a major input by the Centre in the realm of public education and academic debate and is in our opinion a vital aspect of our work.

Consultations, Briefings and Supply of Resources

In 1993, as in previous years, the Centre has played an important role as a resource provider and consultant to a wide range of interest groups, organisations and members of the media.

Press and Media Consultations

During 1993 the Centre has continued to maintain a high media profile and great interest has been shown in the work that we have been involved in. This has resulted in continued demands for interviews, information and consultations by members of local and international media, and various members of the Centre have featured on radio, television and in the printed media. The staff of the Centre view this media contact as one of the ways in which a contribution to informing public debate and education can be made. The full range of media organisations and individuals, which the Centre has serviced in the course of the year, is too lengthy to reproduce in detail in this report.

Briefing Sessions

The staff of the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation were involved in providing briefing sessions on political violence, policing and victim aid for several domestic and international groupings. Such briefing sessions were extremely well received. In the course of the year these were provided for visiting academics, international observers from the United Nations, the Commonwealth, the European Union, the Ecumenical Monitors and the National Democratic Institute, as well as for a range of other interested groups and individuals. Included amongst these was the Netherlands Minister of Development Aid, Minister Pronk, who subsequently referred to the briefing by the Centre in the Dutch parliament in August 1993. Staff members of the Centre also frequently briefed international visitors referred to us by the South African Visitors Service, a sub-division of the Department of Foreign Affairs.

Research Packages and Dossiers

The CSVR, through our expanding Resource Centre, has continued to supply a range of research papers, seminar papers and dossiers to interested parties on request. Numerous individuals and organisations subscribe to the Centre's publications and automatically receive any resources produced. These research packages and dossiers have been sent to individuals and organisations abroad, as well as, to academics, trade union organisers, youth groups, ordinary members of the public, women's organisations, businesses, members of the media, etc. inside the country.

The substantial increase in demand on our "mini" Resource Centre by the end of 1993, in turn demanded that we expand and develop this resource. It is intended to employ a dedicated staff member to run the resource centre and to respond to requests in 1994. It is also imperative that the Resource Centre management is located within the Education and Training Department, considering the pressure already placed on our administrative infrastructure. The realisation of these plans will also require that specific funds are raised to sustain the activities of the Resource Centre.

An additional advantage of these developments in 1993, has been that the Resource Centre has earned some (albeit limited) additional finances, which can be ploughed back into this service.

Miscellaneous Contacts and Consultations

Not all of the workshops, briefings, contacts and consultations provided by the CSVR fall neatly into any of the above categories. Indeed, the range of organisations for whom we provided input and from whom we have drawn, range from consultations around the development of a Winter School for youth trainers, to para legal advice on hostels violence and consultations by lawyers appearing before the Goldstone Commission of Enquiry. We have been consulted by domestic violence monitoring agencies, by Peace Line, by the structures of the National Peace Accord, as well as by a range of undergraduate and post-graduate students from various universities, including Wits. Many of these consultations can only be hinted at here as they are too diverse to document in detail.

Staffing and Staffing Problems

Most of the detailed staffing changes have been dealt with in the other sections of this report and will not be repeated here. However, some general developments do require mention. Firstly, despite a commitment to an affirmative action staffing policy, because of the relatively low salaries paid by the Centre, we have often struggled to recruit black South Africans who are adequately qualified. The main problem in this regard is an enduring one, in that we simply cannot compete with the packages and benefits offered in the private sector. This is likely to be exacerbated once a democratic government is in place and is also providing employment opportunities.

Our approach to this problem has been to seek to incorporate some of the trainees emerging from our internship programme. However, where these individuals have been suitable, they have inevitably been "poached" by other institutions offering better packages.

This issue is one which will continue to challenge the NGO sector in the future and which will have to be frankly negotiated with donors - at a time of shrinking resources. Thusfar CSVR has been lucky in retaining some extremely talented and dedicated staff.


1993 witnessed a substantial expansion in the activities of the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation. The dedication of the staff and management of the Centre, once again, need to be commended, as the psychological and social costs of working in such a demanding field are manifold.

As South Africa's first democratic election confronts us, we look forward to dedicating our time in the coming years to building the reconciliation which we hope for and which this country so badly needs. Yet, we are not prone to any false sense of security and are busily preparing ourselves for the challenge which lies ahead in ensuring that post-Apartheid South Africa is peaceful. Formal political change, although an important step, does not guarantee this, and we believe that it is up to organisations such as the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation to build a human rights culture, to transform state institutions and ultimately to empower an historically victimised civil society. There is little doubt that 1994 will be at least as challenging as 1993.


Chapters in Books

Accredited Publications

Simpson G & Rauch JA
"Political Violence: 1991", pp. 212-239. In Boister NB & Ferguson-Brown K (Eds.), South African Human Rights Yearbook 1992, First Edition, Oxford University Press, Cape Town, 1993.

Non-Accredited Publications

Simpson G
"Women and Children in Violent South African Townships", Chapter 1, pp. 3-13. In Motshekga M & Delport E (Eds.), Women and Children's Rights in a Violent South Africa, Institute for Public Interest, Law and Research, Pretoria West, 1993.

Conference Proceedings

Non-Accredited Publications

Marais ED
"Police and Policing in the New South Africa", Managing Crime in South Africa: A Practical and Affordable Approach, Pretoria, 4-6 August, Managing Crime in the New South Africa: Selected Readings, pp. 90-154, 1993.

Stavrou PEA
"Perceptions and Fear of Crime: The Alexandra Community Crime Survey", pp. 3-9. Managing Crime in South Africa: A Practical and Affordable Approach, Pretoria, 4-6 August. In Glanz L, Managing Crime in the New South Africa: Selected Readings, 1993.

Academic Journal Articles

Non-Accredited Publications

Mitchell GB
"South Africa's Young People: Are They Lost? Are They Maligned?", Manpower Brief, June: pp. 1-20, 1993.

Mitchell GB
"Much Affirmative Talk (and a Little Action)", Productivity SA, 19 (1): pp. 28-30, 1993.

Simpson G
"Gewelt in Südafrika", Weltfriedensdienst Quersbrief, 3: pp. 10-15, 1993.

Stavrou PEA
"Psychological Effects of Criminal and Political Violence on Children: Part 1", The Child Care Worker, 11 (7): pp. 3-5, 1993.

Stavrou PEA
"Psychological Effects of Criminal and Political Violence on Children: Part 2", The Child Care Worker, 11 (8): pp. 7-9, 1993.

Vogelman L & Lewis S
"Illusion der Stärke: Jugendbanden, vergewaltigung und kultuur der gewalt in Südafrika", Der Überblick, 2: pp. 39-42, 1993.

Vogelman L
"It's Hard to Forgive - Even Harder to Forget", Work in Progress, August: pp. 14-16, 1993.

Media Articles

Simpson G
"La Politica y la Violencia", El Pais, 7 (35): p. 6, 1993.

Simpson G
"Despite hiccups, elections breathe life into democracy", Weekly Mail & Guardian, 9 (23): p. 18, 1993.

Simpson G
"Blanket amnesty poses a threat to reconciliation", Business Day, 22 December, 1993.

Vogelman L
"Forgotten victims of violence", The Star, 25 February: p. 18, 1993.

Research Reports

Rauch J & Simpson G
The Grahamstown Police-Community Relations Survey, April 1993.

Rauch J
State, Civil Society and Police Reform in South Africa, August 1993.

Presentations, Seminars and Conference Contributions

Lue, M. "Policing the Elections", POPCRU Annual Conference, Johannesburg (December 1993).

Makhale-Mahlangu, P. "Violence Related Trauma", Women and Aids Conference, Eskom Centre, Johannesburg (October 1993).

Makhale-Mahlangu, P. "The Scourge of Rape", Conference on the Rights of Women in a Modern World, University of Bophuthatswana, Mmabatho (November 1993).

Mogale, N. "Identifying Victims of Violence within the Workplace", National Chemical Product Staff Seminar (March 1993).

Mogale, N. "The Psycho-social Effects of Trauma", Anglo American Spinal Injury Unit Multi-disciplinary Team, Johannesburg (April 1993).

Mogale, N. "Management and Running of a Crisis Service", Medunsa Community Health Department, (May 1993).

Mogale, N. "Violence and Substance abuse", SANCA Annual Conference (April 1993).

Mogano, R. "The Resurgence of Pupil Power: Explaining Violence in African Schools", Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation Monthly Seminar Paper, No. 1, University of the Witwatersrand (24 March 1993).

Rauch, J. "SAP Basic Training for handling rape cases", Centre for Criminal Justice Conference on Women and the Criminal Justice System, Pietermaritzburg (February 1993).

Rauch J
Drive-by Shootings, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation Monthly Seminar Paper, No. 9, (24 November 1993).

Rauch, J. "Community Policing and Police Reform", Khanya College Civics Training Programme, Johannesburg (March 1993).

Rauch, J. "Police Reform and Community Conflict", IMSSA Conference on Community Conflict Resolution, Midrand (May 1993).

Rauch, J. "Aspects of Informal Justice", discussion paper presented at IDASA Conference on Community Courts, Port Elizabeth (May 1993).

Rauch, J. "Police Organisation at Regional Level", Centre for Policy Studies Workshop on Regions, Midrand (July 1993).

Rauch, J. "The South African Police and the Transition", discussion paper presented at Centre for Policy Studies follow-up workshop on Governability in the Transition, Johannesburg (September 1993).

Rauch, J. "Community Policing", ANC Youth League Conference, Esselen Park (October 1993).

Rauch, J. "Ways of Impacting on Police Policy", Centre for Criminal Justice workshop on Gender and Policing, Pietermaritzburg (November 1993).

Simpson, G. "Violence and Social Change in South Africa", Visions in Action Volunteers Programme (US), Johannesburg (January 1993).

Simpson, G. "Guidelines on the Conceptualisation and Construction of Extenuation Reports in Respect of Violent Crime", NICRO Johannesburg (March 1993).

Simpson, G. "Politics and Crime: De-constructing Violence in South Africa", Khanya College Civics Training Programme, Johannesburg (March 1993).

Simpson, G. "Getting to Grips with Endemic Violence in South Africa", Keynote Address at the Department of National Health and Population Development Conference: 'World Health Day Symposium - Prevent Violence and Negligence in South Africa', Johannesburg (March 30, 1993).

Simpson, G. "Violence and Industry: Some Creative Strategies for Managing Violent Change", Johannesburg Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Johannesburg (April 1993).

Simpson, G. "Violence and Social Change in South Africa: The Search for Solutions", Soroptimist International (Johannesburg Branch), Johannesburg (May 1993).

Simpson, G. "Understanding Violence and Negotiated Change in South Africa: 1990 and Beyond", presentation to the Department of Anatomy and Human Biology Public Interest Seminar Programme (Wits Medical School), Johannesburg (May 1993).

Simpson, G. "The Impact of Violence on Business: Limits and Possibilities for Interventions at the Local Level", Association of Marlboro Businesses, Sandton (June 1993).

Simpson, G. "Evaluating The Cambodian Election: Lessons for South Africa", Independent Mediation Services of South Africa (IMSSA), Johannesburg (June 1993).

Simpson, G. "Violence and Transition in South Africa: Explaining Some Recent Trends", Visions In Action Volunteers Programme (US), Johannesburg (July 1993).

Simpson, G. "Community Violence and Industrial Relations", 6th Annual Labour Law Conference: Labour Law and Economic Reconstruction, University of Natal (Durban), Durban (16 July 1993).

Simpson, G. "Getting to Grips with Community Violence: The Engen Experience", Institute for Personnel Management Conference on: 'A Company's Strategy for Survival: An Effective Employee Assistance Programme', University of Pretoria (August 10 1993).

Simpson, G. "South Africa in Transition - Strategies Against the Heritage of Apartheid", public meeting, House of the Cultures of the World, Berlin (2 September 1993).

Simpson, G. "Violence, Democracy and Transition in South Africa", public meeting, Stadtgarten, Cologne (21 September 1993).

Simpson, G. "Understanding Endemic Violence in South Africa", this paper was translated into German and was delivered at the following venues:

Simpson, G. "Violence in the Workplace and What to Expect in the Run-up to Elections", Printing Industries Federation of South Africa One Day Seminar, Honeydew (7 October 1993).

Simpson, G. "Understanding Racism, Sexism and Violence", address to standard 9 pupils at Saheti High School, Johannesburg (October 1993).

Simpson, G. "Spreading the Peace: Utilising the Workplace to Deal with Violence", The South African Society of Occupational Health Nurses conference on: 'Health for Africa', Durban (November 11, 1993).

Stavrou, P. "The Alexandra Community Crime Survey - Politics and Crime", Association of Sociologists of South Africa (ASSA), University of the Witwatersrand (January 1993).

Stavrou, P. "Family Violence", NICRO (Johannesburg) (March 1993).

Stavrou, P. "Violence", Khanya College Civics Training Programme (March 1993).

Stavrou, P. "The Effects of Criminal and Political Violence on Children", presentation to the East Rand School Principals Symposium (March 1993).

Stavrou, P. "Violence Prevention Strategies and Interventions", paper presented to Masters Clinical Psychology Students, University of the Witwatersrand (March 1993).

Stavrou, P. "The Psycho-Social Effects of Violence on Children", paper presented to the teaching staff of Sacred Heart College (April 1993).

Stavrou, P. "Helper Stress: The Case of Monitors and Mediators", IMSSA Conference (May 1993).

Stavrou, P. "The Effects of Political and Criminal Violence on Children", SANCA (June 1993).

Stavrou, P. "The Alexandra Community Crime Survey", Tara Hospital (June 1993).

Stavrou, P. "The Effects of Violence on Pre-schoolers", presentation given to the Sacred Heart College Nursery School Parents (July 1993).

Stavrou, P. "The Effects of Violence on Children", presentation given to the King David High School Parents (July 1993).

Stavrou, P. "The Effects of Violence on Children: Therapeutic Interventions", paper presented to the Wits M.Ed and Guidance Teachers students (July 1993).

Vogelman, L. "Theories of violence: Do They Help us to Understand Violence in South Africa?", Jewish Benevolent Society, Johannesburg (February 1993).

Vogelman, L. "Overcoming violence in South Africa", De Paul University Seminar, Chicago (April 1993).

Vogelman, L. "Political violence in South Africa, 1990-1992", De Paul University Open Lecture, Chicago (April 1993).

Vogelman, L. "Political violence in South Africa", The Chicago Centre for Peace Studies, Chicago (May 1993).

Vogelman, L. "Reconciliation in South Africa", Standard Bank Arts Festival, Grahamstown (July 1993).

Vogelman, L. "Coping with Violence", Standard Bank Working Women's Week, Johannesburg (August 1993).

To Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation Home Page

eXTReMe Tracker