Annual Report:
1996

Contents

Background

Message from the Director

Financial Report

Administration

Education and Training Department

Trauma Clinic

Truth and Reconciliation Department

Criminal Justice Policy Unit

Youth Department

Additional Projects and Programmes

Publications

Presentations, Seminar Papers and Conference Contributions

Background

The Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation (CSVR) is an independently funded South African non-governmental organisation, affiliated to the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. Since its inception in 1989, the CSVR has been dedicated to making a meaningful contribution to peaceful and fundamental transformation in South Africa and hence, in the Southern African region. The CSVR is committed to:

In pursuit of these broad objectives, the CSVR engages in:

The CSVR works with a wide range of organisations, constituencies and stake-holders in both the governmental and non-governmental sectors. These include (amongst others):

The CSVR is a multi-disciplinary unit, engaging the services of sociologists, psychologists, criminologists, social workers, lawyers, educationalists, historians, etc. - all under one roof. The Centre's spheres of expertise relate to a wide range of forms of violence and conflict, including criminal, political, domestic and gender violence, violence against children, violence emanating from the processes of development, violence in industry as well as within the educational sphere.

Through our programmes, it is the CSVR's mission not only to service the processes of transition and democratisation, but to help generate peace and reconciliation essential to the long term prospects of sustainable socio-economic development in South Africa and in the sub-continent.

Therefore, the primary goal of the CSVR is to utilise its expertise in building reconciliation, democracy and a human rights culture within Southern African governance and society. However, because the CSVR's work is rooted in an analysis of the shifting forms of conflict and violence within societies enduring a transition to democracy, much of the Centre's work is drawn upon in the wider international context as well.

Message from the Director

"The Challenge of the State in Transition: From Policy to Delivery"

For the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation (CSVR), as well for South Africa as a whole, 1996 presented most of the anticipated challenges of a society in transition from the autocracy of Apartheid, to constitutional democracy. For those concerned to drive and consolidate this transition and transformation, although there is still some magic left in the South African experience, there is considerably less romance associated with any notions of "miraculous" change. Many of the problems which presented themselves in the course of the past year, were anticipated and analyzed in the corresponding section of the CSVR's 1995 Annual Report. That report pointed to the changing nature of conflict in post-electoral South Africa - resisting any euphoric assumptions of a "post-conflict" utopia. 1996, like the preceding year, did not provide the intense political or racial conflict characteristic of the "backlash" which many commentators expected was inevitable at some point in the South African transition. Yet the year certainly did witness the consolidation of new forms of social conflict in the form of burgeoning violent crime.

In seeking to come to terms with the enduring and changing nature of violence and conflict in South African society nearly three years after the 1994 election, we must once again appeal for recognition of the fact that neither the formal constitutionalisation of South African politics, nor the process of economic development alone, will automatically achieve the "human development" necessary to re-building the social fabric and to entrenching a human rights culture. This is most evident in the harsh reality of increasing violent crime in post-apartheid South Africa.

In many respects, this sustained violence highlighted the ongoing impact of some of the less publicised features of South Africa's negotiated transition. Central amongst these was the inheritance of state institutions and bureaucracies from the former regime, along with a legacy of public mistrust - particularly with regard to the criminal justice system.

In this, as well as in other respects, 1996 was a year which drove home some harsh realities about government's capacity to deliver on the expectations of a large number of wishful South Africans - particularly in the human and hard developmental fields which are so crucial to the historical redress of past inequities, to sustaining peace, to breaking the cycle of criminality and to developing an embryonic human rights culture. However, the virtual demise of the Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP), the limping performance of the Masakhane Campaign and the overloaded expectations of delivery placed upon new and vulnerable local government institutions (to mention just a few examples), rather than being attributable to any lack of commitment on government's part, are all in fact symptomatic of a more fundamental - yet subtle - tension in the process of transformation of inherited state institutions.

For analysts such as Dr. Steven Friedman of the Centre for Policy Studies, this fundamental problem has been identified as "the limited reach of government". It ultimately amounts to an inability on government's part to match the demands of visionary new policy formation with the technical and financial capacity to implement these policies.

There are two essential components to this fundamental problem. On one hand, since its incumbency, the ANC government - in large part drawing on its traditional intellectual power-base within the NGOs, the trade unions and the universities - has recruited into the ranks of government, a uniquely powerful intellectual capacity for creative and innovative policy making. Government has thus developed a remarkable ability to generate visionary policy pertaining to virtually every dimension of its operations and political concerns. However, on the other hand, government's capacity to implement these policy visions has been entirely dependent on either inexperienced new recruits into government departments - who have frequently proved to have little capacity to drive and operate state bureaucracies - or inherited bureaucrats from the old order, who themselves have often been either passively or actively resistant to implementation of the policies of a new political leadership - or simply incapable of doing so.

Added to this are the sustained budgetary constraints which demand an uncomfortable process of prioritisation (both at the policy-making level, as well as in implementation strategies) if the massive task of redressing historical inequities at the social, political and economic level are to be undertaken, bit by bit, in manageable chunks.

There have been important implications of this fundamental tension. Firstly, the substantial dis-juncture between government's capacity to generate sophisticated policy visions and its capacity to implement such policy, may in fact contribute significantly to frustrated popular expectations associated with the perception that government has failed to deliver on its promises. Secondly, this gap between the vision and expectations which government policy-making has generated, and its technical capacity to deliver, may also reflect a fundamental problem with government's approach to policy-making itself. Such policy development, although visionary, may have failed to adequately prioritise short term, deliverable objectives which resonate closely enough with grass-roots needs and which are realistically operable within tight budgetary constraints and cycles. Thirdly, in some instances these tensions also arguably reflect a growing gulf between voters and their public representatives and an inability to influence or effect the recall of elected representatives or government bureaucrats who do not perform. The danger inherent in this latter perspective is that it limits the role of the organs of civil society to a rather indirect lobbying and advocacy function, which in turn accommodates the spectre, at worst, of growing unchecked corruption and mismanagement within government administration, or at best, of decreasing accountability and increased failure to perform.

In varying ways, this gap between government's policy-making capacity and its technical ability to implement has impacted either directly or indirectly on most areas of the CSVR's work in the past year.

Nowhere has this been more evident than in the CSVR's crime prevention work - and particularly our direct role in policy formation as consultants to the national Ministry of Safety and Security in the drafting of the National Crime Prevention Strategy (NCPS). The NCPS, which was passed by Cabinet in May of 1996, presents several fundamental challenges to government. It seeks to develop a victim-centred approach to crime prevention, it demands that violent crimes against women and children are given priority, it highlights the central role of firearms in violent crime, it places the youth constituency at the heart of any crime prevention initiatives, and much more. The NCPS argues for a long-term developmental approach to crime prevention, which is essentially resistant to short-term crime combatting interventions (or "quick-fix" solutions) restricted to the realm of the criminal justice departments alone. Perhaps most importantly, the NCPS therefore also advocates an integrated, cross-cutting approach from the various departments of government.

Yet in all these respects, it is arguable that precisely because it is far-sighted, the NCPS ultimately represents the kind of ambitious policy making which a government in transition is probably incapable of implementing effectively. Firstly, in demanding the establishment of programmes and policies which cut across various government departments (and which therefore demand a degree of horizontal accountability between these departments), this approach ignores the extent to which a new political leadership is actually struggling to assert vertical lines of accountability within individual departments and bureaucracies which were inherited from the former government. Furthermore, budgetary constraints also foster intense competition between various departments over finances and budgetary allocations - and this often motivates against such cross-departmental cooperation. Secondly, in framing long-term developmental solutions to the crime problem, the NCPS developed a vision which consciously anticipated media and popular political pressure for immediate solutions from government. Nonetheless, however sound this vision may be, its authors could not anticipate the extent to which an embattled and defensive government - in responding to this popular political pressure - would ultimately retreat from the principles which underpin the NCPS as a strategy document. Despite explicit warnings within the NCPS document itself, it fell victim to the extent to which violent crime became a political football during 1996.

A further related problem, was the extent to which any crime prevention strategy was ultimately dependent on the key processes of internal transformation of government's criminal justice institutions - a concern recognised by the NCPS in its emphasis on the need to re-engineer the criminal justice system. This has also been a central concern of the CSVR's Criminal Justice Policy Unit during the past five years. Yet this objective presented government with competing needs which were difficult to prioritize, because effective crime prevention was dependent on institutional transformation, but at the same time, popular confidence in the processes of transformation were equally dependent on successful crime fighting.

Finally, the commitment within the NCPS to partnership between government and civil society in seeking to develop effective crime prevention, was also inadequately sensitive to the disproportionate influence which could be brought to by specific, well-resourced and interest-based lobby groups. As a result, it is arguable that by the end of 1996, the implementation of this partnership-based approach had not realised any significant expansion in capacity-building partnerships between government and the NGO sector, resulting in many of the noble constituency-based objectives of the NCPS - amongst women, children, the youth and victims - being substantially neglected or under-utilised.

This may appear to be a rather cynical and premature judgement of government's inability to match implementation plans to the deep and insightful policy analysis which underpins the NCPS. However, it is in fact a view which is considerably more self-critical of the role of policy makers and lobbyists (including ourselves) in generating vision-based policy approaches, rather than more conservatively engaging in defining resource-driven policy priorities. It is ultimately these human, financial and technical resources which often define and probably pre-determine the limits and possibilities of governmental strategy innovation.

Whilst an example has been made here of the NCPS, variations on the themes outlined above have played themselves out in relation to most areas of work in which the CSVR has been involved during 1996. Certainly the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) has confronted similar problems in seeking to fulfil its elaborate mandate. In part, the TRC's problems resulted from financial and technical constraints, but in part they were also the consequence of over-ambitious policy objectives, which were contained in legislation, rooted in political and constitutional compromise and which at a practical level, remained substantially detached from the needs and expectations which had been generated at a grass-roots level as a result of the TRC process.

By the same token, it is arguable that because of practical and financial constraints, some of government's most symbolic institutional and constitutional gestures may flatter only to deceive. The Human Rights Commission and the proposed Gender and Youth Commissions may well all suffer from an irreconcilable gap between their elaborate policy mandates and the resources with which they are expected to fulfil these mandates. Yet at the same time, they all run the risk that unless they quickly establish objectives which in practical terms contribute to redress and to delivery on the needs and expectations expressed by ordinary South Africans, these very South Africans may begin to question whether the limited investment could not have been better spent.

Similar problems dominate the arena of social services where the chasm between policy and delivery continues to plague both the educational arena and the social welfare services. This is most striking in relation to the services provided to victims and survivors of violence - whether criminal, domestic or political. These victims, especially but not exclusively women and children, are the primary focus of the CSVR's Youth Department and Trauma Clinic. They are also ostensibly at the heart of the objectives of both the NCPS and the Truth Commission. Yet it is still primarily through the isolated, under-resourced and often uneven activities of NGOs that these target constituencies find their voice and are best serviced. Whatever its commitment in principle to supporting and sustaining the NGO sector, the welfare service sphere is perfectly illustrative of government's sustained failure to translate policy into practice - through simply putting its money where its mouth is!

Implicit in much of what has been said here is a recognition of the fact that - at least in part - the challenges and constraints debated, revolve around access to resources. This is even more true for NGOs such as the CSVR, than it is for government. Yet in the context of shrinking foreign donor contributions, like government, South Africa's corporate community - with some striking exceptions - has still failed to seriously invest in this sector. To some extent this is attributable to the absence of a tax-based enabling environment which is supportive of domestic corporate contributions to non-governmental agencies. However, it is ultimately more the consequence of a real failure to recognise the vital social returns achieved through such investment. Thus, whilst business has become a particularly vocal and powerful lobby group in relation to the problems of crime the business community has nonetheless demonstrated a quite remarkable reluctance to invest any resources in victim aid and empowerment. As a result, with the withdrawal of Danish support for the CSVR's Trauma Clinic at the end of 1996, the Clinic faces closure if at some point soon South African corporates don't realise the folly of their ways. This is merely symptomatic of a dangerous potential trend: as foreign support for these NGO services dries up and government and local corporates continue to resist substantial investment in the sector, the gap between policy and delivery may well grow wider as a result of the demise of these vital NGO services!

In the final analysis, much of the critical evaluation of 1996 which is presented above - and many of the challenges implicit in it - has served to reinforce and consolidate the commitment and approach of the CSVR. In our unique ability to marry grass-roots intervention strategies with a sophisticated policy research function, we offer great potential in assisting to fill the gap between policy and delivery which currently appears to plague government. It is precisely in generating policy on the back of hard lessons learned in direct grass-roots interventions, that we recognise our greatest strength. It is through this vehicle that the CSVR can best assist in rendering audible the voices of marginalised women, children and all victims within our policy proposals and advocacy approach. It is also as a consequence of this perspective, that we can once again reassert the vital role of South Africa's NGOs with pride and integrity.

Financial Report

Donors and Contributors

The management and staff of the CSVR once again wish to express our gratitude to the full range of embassies, institutions and foundations which have made such generous contributions in support of the various activities, projects and programmes of the CSVR during 1996.

In particular, we remain indebted to those long-term donors who have provided the organisational and occupational stability which has allowed the Centre to flourish over the past eight years. It is the sustained commitment of our core funding partners which has enabled the CSVR to consolidate and expand our organisational roles and to achieve the reputation which is our best insurance for the future at a time when the NGO sector is under considerable pressure.

The full list of the Centre's financial supporters during 1996 - either through donations or through substantial commissioned work - is provided in alphabetical order below:

Action for People's in Conflict (United Kingdom)
Anglo Vaal Group (SA)
Archipel 33 (France)
BAOBAB (Germany)
Belgian Embassy (Belgium)
Bread for the World (Germany)
Charity Projects (via Save the Children Fund (UK))
European Union (via SACBC)
The Ford Foundation (USA)
FOS - Fonds voor Ontwikkelingssamenwerking (Belgium)
Interfund
ICCO (The Netherlands)
Embassy of Ireland (Republic of Eire)
Institute for Victims of Violence (USA)
Joseph Rowntree Charitable Trust (UK)
Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium)
Charles Stewart Mott Foundation (USA)
NORAD (via Interfund - Norway)
One World Action (UK)
OXFAM (UK)
Royal Danish Embassy (Denmark)
Royal Netherlands Embassy (The Netherlands)
SIDA (Sweden - via Justice in Transition)
South African Druggists (SA)
St. George's United Church (SA)

Financial Status

The CSVR continued to operate with a conservative financial policy during 1996 and in no department did we overspend on projected budgets.

However, the spectre of decreasing donor contributions in some sectors does place the organisation under pressure in planning for the period 1997-1999. In particular, the withdrawal of funding by the Royal Danish Embassy (due to internal decisions relating to shrinking transitional funding for South Africa) has very serious implications, particularly for the CSVR Trauma Clinic. At the time of writing, the Swiss Agency for Development Co-operation has generously undertaken to step in and will cover approximately 30% of the Clinic budget for the next three years - but this still leaves the Clinic in a very vulnerable position. Of particular concern here has been the reluctance of over 175 domestic corporations whom we have approached to step in to assist the Trauma Clinic.

Further financial pressure will also result from the CSVR's commitment to attempting to close the gap between NGO and state/private sector salaries, which is essential to retaining key staff as a strategy for the future. This will undoubtedly result in an increased salary bill in 1997, but the organisation is committed to avoiding any job losses as a result of these policy decisions.

The CSVR Criminal Justice Policy Unit will also be seeking additional support in the coming year, and the Youth Department will be in the funding market to supplement its budgets for 1998 onwards.

Due to the most generous commitment from SIDA (via Diakonia - Sweden), the CSVR's Education and Training Department is largely financially secure until at least the end of 1998.

Although the CSVR's Core reserves appear high at the end of 1996, this is somewhat misleading. Core funding is particularly difficult to acquire and much of the Core surplus has been deployed in the first six months of 1997 for the purposes of sustaining the CSVR Trauma Clinic until additional donor support can be obtained.

Administration

The CSVR's Administration Department faced many difficult challenges during 1996. Most of the Centre's Departments continued to expand their staff as a result of growth in the projects undertaken by them, and this in turn taxed the administrative and personnel support sought from the Administration Department. In addition, high staff turnover continued due to the recruitment of staff by the higher paying governmental sector and this placed further strain on the CSVR's recruitment and personnel management capacity. The time of the Department Co-ordinators and the CSVR Director became increasingly consumed with managing this situation (and with fund-raising) and this challenged their human resources management capacity. Most of the CSVR managers are under-trained and have historically been employed on the basis of their ability to engage substantively with the social and research issues with which the organisation is primarily concerned, rather than for any human resources or administrative management capacity they may have.

To some extent the resultant dilemmas relate directly to donor policies and to the nature of NGO expansion under these circumstances. Understandably, emphasis, experience and funding within the organisation, are directed at project planning, performance management and implementation - leaving the secretarial support, and administrative and financial management to a few dedicated individuals - who frequently operate within structures which have developed ad hoc systems to cope with the ever increasing demands of the rest of the organisation. This is usually undertaken within the context of extreme financial constraints, as the majority of donors do not recognise and are often unwilling to fund the important funding administration infrastructure which they themselves demand. Donors, equally understandably, prefer to direct money to the projects themselves.

The CSVR has expanded from a staff of two at its inception in 1989, to a staff of forty at the end of 1996 - in addition to a large number of short-term contract workers, volunteers and interns, whose numbers vary from month to month. This increase in staff has been sustained on the basis of a broadening of the organisation's donor base, accompanied by more complex and often divergent donor requirements and relationships, as well as a substantial increase in the Centre's yearly budget. This incredible growth bears testimony to the excellent work done by the staff at the Centre, but these very achievements have placed a great additional burden on the Centre's under-resourced administration staff and structures. Coping with the increase in staff, the growing number of projects and the increase in the donor base, has meant that these staff are continually struggling to keep up with the rapid changes in the organisation.

Although the CSVR has remained linked to The University of the Witwatersrand (despite the range of problems inherent in this relationship which have been noted and described at length in previous Annual Reports), the Centre nonetheless administers all of its own financial, administration and personnel management systems. This effectively results in us nearly doubling our administrative costs through having to maintain all the necessary systems within the CSVR, while still paying Wits a 6% levy on all of our expenditure costs. Recently, the University indicated its intention to increase these costs to between 15% and 25% of the organisation's personnel costs - without any regard being given to the poor quality of the services being provided. These factors have made it necessary for us to re-examine the benefits of being linked to the University as an institution. At a strategic planning session in the course of the year, the CSVR set up a task team to investigate the implications of severing our ties with the University. By the end of the year, and after a series of protracted negotiations with the University authorities, it became clear that the Centre would in all likelihood become independent of the University in the course of 1997. This would require the development of a new legal status, as well as further development of our financial management and administrative infrastructure. Barring a substantial shift in the intractable position adopted by the University Administration, this move will be finalised in the first half of 1997.

In seeking to support the growing demands of the different departments in the Centre, the Administration Department employed additional staff to assist with some of the tasks: Amber Mashiane replaced Marie Alberts in August 1996 as a full-time bookkeeper, Mosima Selemele joined the Centre in April 1996 in the position of a part-time cleaning assistant, who also ably assists with the many meetings and workshops hosted by the Centre. Rosey Seseng joined the Centre in June 1996 in the position of secretary. She has been working most of the time as an assistant in the Resource Centre, ensuring that distribution of our research materials and publications to the public and to other organisations is most efficiently handled. The Administration Department now includes the above new staff members in addition to Bella Moloi (full-time receptionist), Sharon Moen (half-time information systems support), Pule Rampa (half-time messenger and administration assistant) and Najwa Davids (full-time administration secretary). Jacqui Cullis was employed as personal assistant to the Director and fulfilled the function of key liaison person within the Centre as a whole. Laureen Bertin is the Co-ordinator of the Administration Department and is also responsible for funding administration.

The weaknesses of the Administration Department in the course of 1996 did not lie in the lack of hard work and dedication of the staff, but rather in the relative failure of the Centre to structure a system which could efficiently fulfil a range of increasingly evident needs.

These include the following:

Education and Training Department

Introduction

1996 has been another year of consolidation and growth for the CSVR's Education and Training (E&T) Department. Seven priority areas for action were outlined at the end of 1995 and formed the strategic basis for the Department's activities during 1996. These seven priority areas were:

  1. A need to build the capacity and professionalism of the CSVR's education and training interventions across all the Centre's departments.

  2. The expanded development and production of educational materials and the design of educational curricula related to various aspects of violence and reconciliation.

  3. Ensuring that issues of violence, crime, reconciliation conflict management and human rights become part of the more formal educational curricula in South Africa's schools and education and training institutions.

  4. The need to engage with community development issues and their complex relationship to conflict and violence at a local level.

  5. The need to build the skills and capacity of the CSVR's Education and Training Department in order to fully meet these growing internal and external demands.

  6. The full incorporation of the CSVR's resource Centre into the functioning and strategic vision of the Education and Training Department.

  7. The maintenance and development of the CSVR's highly successful eight year old Monthly Seminar Series.

These seven priority areas will form the basis of this activity report.

Main Activities

Departmental capacity-building within the CSVR in the sphere of professional education and training interventions.

At the end of 1995 it became increasingly clear that one of the fastest growing demands on the CSVR was the need for professional, detailed and specialised educational and training interventions. These requests were made to all Departments within the Centre. The CSVR's E&T Department, in an attempt to professionalise and streamline the Centre's educational initiatives, began to assist all of the Departments with curriculum design, training and educational materials development. A number of consultative meetings were held to consolidate the work of the different departments. By the end of 1996 a number of collaborative projects had been completed which went a long way towards developing a multi-disciplinary and integrated education and training service.

Inter-Departmental Training Programmes
Inter-departmental training programmes provided some of the most successful collaborative interventions during 1997. These included:

By the end of 1996, the E&T Department had established the CSVR's first Inter-Departmental Training Forum with the aim of ensuring that all trainers within the Centre develop and sophisticate their skills, expertise and professionalism in the delivery of educational and training interventions.

In the course of the year under review, it has become apparent that one of the greatest assets of the CSVR is its multi-disciplinary and multi-faceted approach to the issues of violence, conflict, human rights and reconciliation. The inter-departmental training methodology which has been substantially developed in the course of 1996, has proved to be a critical mechanism for harnessing and marketing this unique organisational asset. In the year ahead it is planned to further develop such inter-departmental training, in particular building more substantial partnerships between the E&T Department and the CSVR's Youth Department and Criminal Justice Policy Unit.

Strategic Planning for the CSVR
In addition to the above training, the E&T Department took responsibility for coordinating and facilitating the CSVR's strategic planning sessions during 1996. It is our evaluation that the vital role of skilled internal facilitation of these processes ought not to be under-estimated. The self-critical evaluative and planning techniques which are now being applied within the CSVR on a bi-annual basis, are considered to be indispensable to the organisation's leading role within its sector.

Departmental Training Interventions
Although the E&T Department is primarily concerned with the development of educational materials and curricula alongside the development of sustainable training capacity within the various departments of the CSVR, members of the E&T Department did also deliver a number of training programmes themselves in the course of 1996. Amongst others these included the following:

As can be seen from the type and duration of these training interventions, there has been a shift from ad hoc educational workshops to more sustained training courses which are more formal and which may even be certificated courses. This type of training has also improved collaborative relationships between the CSVR and other NGOs in the training sector - there is a far greater emphasis on different NGOs contributing to these longer, more substantial and more formal courses. This renders most of these training initiatives more sustainable in the long run.

Curricula Design and Materials Development

As with the direct education and training interventions, the CSVR's enterprises of curricula design, educational materials development and consultancy around the content of education and training programmes have also shifted focus somewhat. In 1996, the CSVR E&T department's emphasis increasingly fell on input into a range of initiatives which are part of the more formal training and publishing institutions. To the extent that this has been achieved and can be expanded, it undoubtedly enhances the sustainability of the CSVR's education and training interventions.

Consultants to Centre for Democratic Communications (CDC)
The E&T Department acted as consultants in the development of an educational radio programme on the 1976 June Uprisings. Together with CDC, the CSVR's E&T Department developed the programmes which were broadcast through 11 community radio stations during May and June 1996. This contract involved intensive and long term work on the scripts, materials and concepts behind the programmes.

Consultants to Soul City
The Department acted as consultants on series' two and three of the Soul City multi-media educational programme. This educational television drama series - with back-up print materials - is aired during a prime time slot on SABC 2 and focuses on aids, violence, child abuse, violence against women, developmental and housing issues and good parenting. As with the CDC radio programme consultancy, this contract involved intensive and long term work on the scripts, materials and concepts behind the programmes.

WITS Centre for Continuing Education (CCE) Community Workers Education Programme
CCE contracted the CSVR E&T Department to develop a curriculum, educational materials and to conduct training for 35 adult community workers in the Kathorus area. The CSVR's contribution to the course dealt with violence, reconciliation and the building of a human rights culture at a community level. The Department conducted 80 hours of pilot training, developed a 10 module participant's manual and a tutor's guide and contributed assisted in developing an evaluation policy for the project, as well as participating on the CCE's Project steering committee. The modules, together with the manual and tutor's guide, now qualify as a certificated course under the authority of the Wits University Senate.

VIVA Books
Viva Books is a publishing house which develops materials for adult learners. Viva contracted the CSVR's E&T Department coordinator - Tracy Vienings - to write the second half a booklet which focused on the topic of: "Dealing with Grief". The booklet was published in April 1996 and was co-written by Njubele Ndebele.

Macmillan Publishers
Macmillan Publishers, which specialises in the publication of school text books, contracted the Department to write a number of chapters for standard eight and standard ten high school text books. The subject matter focused on diverse issues within the CSVR's areas of expertise including: crime, safety, mental health and human rights. The chapters were submitted at the end of 1996 and should be published in school text book form by July 1997.

CSVR Materials and Training Manuals
In the course of preparing various direct training interventions, the Department also generated some generic education and training materials which have proved to be of immense ongoing value. In this respect, in the course of developing our trauma management training modules, we designed and wrote a Trauma Management Training Manual. The Education and Training Department also developed a National Referral Directory for victims of violence and trauma which is the first of its kind in South Africa. This services directory will also be invaluable to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission as a unique national compilation of available psychological, medical and social service providers who can assist victims of violence, crime and human rights abuse.

Overall it is our evaluation that - especially considering the small staff of the E&T Department - the productivity levels achieved and the quality of the materials produced are truly impressive. We believe that this is attributable to three specific factors: the high level of skill and expertise of the staff in the Department; the environment facilitated by socio-political developments among our target constituencies; and the availability of funding (whether through donor assistance or contract work) to sustain our programmes. Due to these factors we were largely able to achieve our goals for 1996 in respect of the development of educational materials and curricula design.

Influencing Formal Educational Curricula

The E&T Dept was not particularly successful in lobbying the formal Education Ministry until the end of 1996. By this time the CSVR's E&T Department has developed an improved and credible profile as an educational materials developer and designer of educational curricula - largely through the successful completion of some of the consultancy and contract work outlined above. As a result, Tracy Vienings, the Department Coordinator, was finally co-opted onto the Civic Education Project Management Team of the Gauteng Ministry of Education. In the course of 1997, this will require our input in the development of the formal curricula - both at schools and at the adult learning level. Our specific sphere of involvement will be in respect of issues of citizenship and human rights.

Reconciliation and Development

The Alexandra Project for Survivors of Violence
The Alexandra Reconciliation Project was initiated in 1995 (and was briefly outlined in the CSVR Annual Report for that year) in order to facilitate a reconciliation process between the various factions in Alexandra Township who had effectively been at war with each other during the early 1990s. The object of the exercise was to create the environment in which a process of reconstruction could take place in the area devastated by this conflict. The Project does not encompass the whole of Alexandra, but is limited to a particularly devastated section of the township immediately surrounding the single sex migrant hostels and previously known as the "Beirut Area". The CSVR was contracted by the National Peace Accord Trust in March 1995 to facilitate a "reconciliation process" and the Project ran until September 1996.

This project falls into the category of what is often referred to as the "soft" side of development. This type of human development refers to the process of rebuilding the social fabric of society so that development and reconstruction process - which is often likely to generate further conflict in divided and impoverished communities - does not become violent and irrevocably divisive. It is our experience that economic development initiatives often have the potential to generate intensified conflict in communities which have often been divided over access to scarce resources. In order for these development projects to be succeed, therefore, this conflict-ridden nature of development must be acknowledged and, more importantly, must be facilitated or managed in order for the reconstruction to provide sustainable material change in people's lives. Economic reconstruction without reconciliation often means that the struggle over who benefits first from the reconstruction project or who is given preference in terms of land and housing claims, becomes a new source of conflict and violence within communities, often playing itself out along similar lines that were previously apparent in the historical conflict between community groups.

The Alexandra project ought therefore to be seen as a process of investing in the "social capital" of the area, in an attempt to set up a structure and a process which aims to manage, predict and control the conflict which might emerge - both at the planning stage, as well as during the implementation phase of the reconstruction process.

It is our evaluation that the planning and reconciliation phase in which we have played a key role, has not successfully captured and resolved all the divergent interests in the Alexandra Development project. Nonetheless, our work in this project clearly demonstrates the importance of beginning such a development process with a thorough understanding of the community profile. The importance of defining all levels of vested interests and interest groups at an early stage, is crucial to creating the opportunities to engage with various groupings who often are "invisible stake-holders" in the development process, but who nonetheless may have the capacity to destroy this process. In the Alexandra case these groups would include illegal immigrants and squatters. It is our evaluation that at the end of the funding period under review here, the Alexandra project had not sufficiently engaged with or incorporated some of these divergent "hidden" interest groups - particularly within the hostels - and these may pose a dire threat once the housing development process gets under way.

Often the complex process of determining the specific interests of each of these groups only becomes apparent once the development implementation phase is about to begin and people are forced make certain decisions. At that point it can only be hoped that violent conflict can be avoided by relying on the plenary structure which - under the guidance and facilitation of the CSVR - has been working with the reconciliation process all along and the kind of confidence and experience and mutual trust which it might have built up during the preceding 18 months. Hopefully this will create a negotiating forum which can facilitate the meeting of a range of different interests as they are expressed.

On the basis of the Alexandra experience, it is our evaluation that it is crucial that in any negotiated development project - no matter how flawed the process might be as a result of constraints, community peculiarities or difficulties in relationships with government authorities - there is a separate budget allocated to facilitating the process and providing the necessary information around which stake-holder consensus can be built. This needs to be carefully balanced against the danger of such a process becoming endless - either because of the complex nature of the interests which are being negotiated, or simply because of the way such a process can be manipulated by marginalised groups who seek to exercise more power.

At the end of 1996, funding for the Alexandra project was withdrawn and the Alexandra Plenary Group with whom we had been working was about to join the broader Alex Development Forum. It is hoped that funding will be raised for 1997 so that the Centre can play an ongoing facilitative role in this broader development forum in order to ensure that development and reconstruction of the area does not generate more violence and conflict.

The Evaluation of The Kathorus Community Support Initiative
In the course of 1996, The National Peace Accord Trust (NPAT) contacted the CSVR's E&T Department requesting that we conduct an evaluation of their Kathorus Community Support Initiative. This was an ambitious Project which attempted to build support services in the Kathorus area by training community workers in counselling and other community-based social service skills, and then placing them with NGOs in the area who were to work in collaboration with state social service providers. The planning of the evaluation Report and 50% of the interviews for the evaluation took place in 1996 and the report is due to be completed in March 1997. This project has pushed the E&T Department into more of a research support role for projects which are community based and which deal with improving community capacity to rebuild the social fabric of society. As this project is still a work in progress, it will be evaluated in more detail in the CSVR's 1997 Annual Report.

Building capacity in the Education and Training Department

In July 1996 the E&T Department employed a new trainer - Spiwe Takura - and this has increased the Department's capacity to offer training and to coordinate the training interventions of the Centre as a whole. Before the capacity of the Department can increase any further it will be necessary to raise more funds, both for staff and for projects. To this end a detailed and comprehensive funding proposal has been completed for 1997-1999 and we are hopeful that through fund-raising success we will be able to substantially enhance our capacity in the coming year. It is our evaluation that the creative work opportunities available to this Department are limited only by these problems of capacity.

In spite of our limited staffing numbers during 1996, through creative endeavour and facilitative ingenuity, the E&T Department has been able to enhance its output and it production capacity. In particular, the Department has been involved in facilitating and running two particularly innovative international conferences which have been especially fruitful.

International Conference on Education for Mutual Understanding
The E&T Dept, together with the International Right to Hope Trust, hosted an international conference which aimed to develop collaborative partnerships and projects between educationalists, public broadcasters, artists and cultural workers who are developing education programmes seeking to build "education for mutual understanding" in divided societies. The conference participants were primarily drawn from three such historically divided countries: South Africa, Israel/Palestine and Northern Ireland. The three day conference held at the NUM Training Centre in Johannesburg was innovative and exciting and was unique in the exposure which it offered to media and cultural workers in South Africa who had not only enjoyed little exposure to these international experiences, but who had also seldom engaged with each other around the issues of violence and conflict.

The conference also produced a concrete outcome through the embryonic development of an international network among peace educators which aims to encourage the development and exchange of curricula and materials focused on education for mutual understanding.

Southern African Regional Conference on Reconstruction, Reconciliation and Transition
The E&T Department, together with the CSVR Director, assisted in the planning and facilitation of a Southern African Conference on: "Building Bridges in Southern Africa: Conflict, Reconstruction and Reconciliation in Times of Change". This conference was co-hosted by the CSVR and OXFAM (UK&I) and involved NGO representatives from Mozambique, Angola, Zimbabwe, Namibia and Malawi, as well as OXFAM participants from Latin America.

The conference generated extensive comparative discussions and has also resulted in the establishment of a loose network of NGO actors concerned with shared issues in the Southern African sub-continent.

In the course of 1997, the conference speeches and proceedings will be published in a dedicated volume of the OXFAM Journal: Development in Practice.

The Incorporation of the Resource Centre

The past year has seen the CSVR's introduction to the "information super-highway" and this has proved to be both miraculous and frustrating. Miraculous, as whole new worlds have opened up in relation to networking and research possibilities, and frustrating because of the limited access to resources by CSVR staff necessary to maximise these benefits at this time. For this reason we have realised that we can no longer continue to see our Resource Centre as an extended administrative function, but rather as a key component of our research and educational initiatives. To this end, we have begun fund-raising in earnest to upgrade our Resource Centre as a base for our research technology and expand the capacity of the Resource Centre in terms of staffing.

In December our website, which we trust makes our resources more easily available to others in the field, went online. After much debate about whether to contract out the design of our site or learn to do it ourselves, we decided to do it internally, as this empowers us to do updates and make changes to the site in our own time. It assists us to develop a sense of how the web works and to decide how we want our profile to be projected in this medium, not to mention the significant financial saving. Though time consuming, this has also meant considerable skills development and capacity building for Andie Miller - our Resource Centre Manager. Now that the site is established, one of our priorities in 1997 will be to create appropriate links to the sites of partner organisations involved in work relevant to that of the CSVR.

In the course of the year under review, we have found participation in discussion groups on the Internet to be invaluable, most notably in the areas of trauma and human rights. However, with the continuing expansion of our staff, it has become clear that it is impractical to aim to have a computer on every staff member's desk. For this reason we have established a "work-station" or mini computer centre within the organisation and are fund-raising to upgrade this so that all the CSVR staff can have direct e-mail and Internet access and can engage in dialogue with members of their particular fields/communities. It is impossible and counter productive to have this function managed by a few administrative staff. A priority in 1997 is to ensure that all of our staff - particularly researchers - have access to, become familiar with, and are empowered to use these research and networking tools. Though the initial costs will be substantial, we know that future costs will diminish substantially. The time that will be saved in the long term, as well as the capacity development of staff can also not be underestimated.

The past year has also seen the consolidation of the Centre's "institutional memory" - a comprehensive set of standardised resources, research papers and publications, media interviews, reports, etc. - and this means that anything written by past and present CSVR staff members over the past eight years can now be accessed quickly and easily.

The Centre's resource collection, a significant library of research articles, books and policy documents on various aspects of violence, reconciliation and human rights, and which services both CSVR staff and the public, has grown noticeably over the last year, largely due to the kindness of our former director Lloyd Vogelman, who donated a considerable amount of material to the Centre on his departure in early 1995.

The Resource Centre continued to meet ever-increasing requests for information and research packages from a range of local and international sources, including academics, the media, researchers, students, government and NGOs, etc. The "walk-in clientele" of the CSVR Resource Centre also continued to expand and the time-consuming task of compiling packages of information and documentation on the Centre, its work and related issues, severely taxed the limited resources of the Resource Centre and Administration Department staff. Nonetheless, this service continues to be regarded by the CSVR as a public education priority.

At the end of the international conference on "education for mutual understanding" organised by the CSVR, it was decided that The Right to Hope Network, which evolved from the conference, would be located at - and maintained by - the CSVR. The Resource Centre has played a part in the initial establishment of this network and in 1997 - subject to available funding - we will employ a dedicated person to manage the network and the multi-media resources produced by its members. In the interim we plan to set up a list server (interactive e-mailing list) on the Internet, in which members can engage in discussion. Of course, as many members of the network do not have access to these resources, the big challenge for us in the long term will be to expand the network as broadly as possible by utilising the range of resources currently available, while at the same time effectively reaching members at the grassroots level.

During the course of the year, the CSVR became a member of another network - Planet Society - an initiative of UNESCO. This network facilitates international exchanges between organisations involved in various forms of cultural and ecological enterprises. We look forward to participating in this network and potentially learning some lessons about the management of a network across a diverse economic/cultural spectrum.

In the medium term (by 1998), as part of our commitment to the "democratisation of information", our vision is to be able to start a multi-media Resource Centre in which academics and members of disadvantaged communities can work side by side. This will be a place where researchers can access policy documents, while those who have previously been denied access to education/information, can develop skills and utilise multi-media educational tools, whilst both are learning from each other. We believe that this is a crucial part of the transformation process, and that we can also play a part in creating a model from which universities and other mainstream educational institutions can learn.

Monthly Seminar Series

Through the hard work of both the CSVR Administration and E&T Departments, the Centre's well established monthly seminar programme was further developed in the course of 1996. The seminar series remains hugely successful as a public debate and educational forum. The success of the programme is reflected by the programme for the past year which is attached below. The programme for the year reflects an ideal mix of high profile and prestigious presenters such as Justice Richard Goldstone and Gauteng MEC for Education, Mary Metcalfe, alongside presentations by CSVR researchers such as Brandon Hamber, Dorothy Mdhluli, Amanda Dissel, Marilyn Donaldson, Mary Robertson, Palesa Makhale-Mahlangu and Tracy Vienings. In this manner the monthly seminar series continues to expose the CSVR's research and practice to scrutiny by our peers in the field and to exposure to many of the country's power-brokers and stake-holders.

1996 Seminar Programme

Date Title Presenters
No. 1
20/02/1996
Restorative Justice: Survivor Offender Mediation and the TRC. Howard Zehr, Carl Stauffer & Brandon Hamber
No. 2
03/04/1996
The New Education Crisis: Integration of Schools Whose Choice? Whose Responsibility? Mary Metcalfe & Brendan Barry
No. 3
24/04/1996
Youth at Risk Marilyn Donaldson, Dorothy Mdhluli & Amanda Dissel
No. 4
29/05/1996
A Critical Evaluation of the Factors Contributing to the Increase in Family Murder in South Africa Mary Robertson, Lisa Vetten & Bets Fourie
No. 5
26/06/1996
Violence and Development Tracy Vienings
No. 6
31/07/1996
Reflections on Trauma Counselling Methods Palesa Makhale-Mahlangu & Lionel Msibisi
No. 7
30/09/1996
Violence and Vigilantism Enver Daniels & Wilfried Schärf
No. 8
09/10/1996
The Public, The Police & Australian Gun Policy Rick Sarre
No. 9
11/11/1996
Genocide and Justice: The Role of War Crimes Tribunals Richard Goldstone

Evaluation, Policy Issues and Future Plans

In the broad field of education and training, NGOs are increasingly being challenged to link their education and training initiatives to the National Qualifications Framework (NQF). Although the Framework is not yet fully functional, training courses which are offered on an ad hoc basis are increasingly being regarded as inadequate. Trainees and course participants want their skills training to be recognised through some type of certification and linked to further training qualifications. Although this is not always easily accessible to many NGOs, the CSVR nonetheless supports this broad approach as being positive and developmental. Linking NGO training courses to the NQF however, implies the standardisation of the different areas of education and training and this will provide the biggest challenge for NGOs in the next few years.

A related development in the light of this shift has been the creation of new avenues for educational NGOs - a widening opportunity to participate in the development of educational materials and the design of curricula which are already part of the current formal qualifications framework. In other words, many of the requests to the CSVR's E&T Department in the course of 1996 centred around formal contributions to curricula and the development of materials which could be used to enhance existing training courses offered in other institutions.

The types of requests fielded by the E&T Department during the past year were also indicative of prevailing trends in the field of violence and reconciliation. During 1996 requests predominantly centred around criminal violence and support for victims, conflict resolution of racial issues in the workplace or within organisations, and the management of changes taking place in the organisational culture of institutions and organisations. Only a limited number of requests were related to the building of a culture of human rights, citizenship and good governance issues (although much of this sort of training has been undertaken by the CSVR's TRC Department and our Criminal Justice Unit) - once again indicating that formal educational interventions are often crisis-driven rather than long term developmental interventions aimed at transformation.

As regards the future orientation of the CSVR's E&T Department, the key motivation behind planned programmes for 1997, is that they are designed to harness the work being done in all the departments within the CSVR - the E&T Department must become more functional as the vehicle in the CSVR which consolidates, professionalises and disseminates the work of all the other departments in the form of education and training programmes, materials and curricula. The Department will thus form a new base from which the Centre can effectively expand its intervention programmes and policy work.

In an integrated manner, the E&T Department aims to deliver the following:

At present the Education and Training Department consists of Tracy Vienings who is the Coordinator and skilled in programme design and materials development. Spiwe Takura is the trainer based in the Department and Andie Miller, the Resource Centre Manager who ensures that the research completed by the Centre is documented and made accessible to the public and other educationalists and researchers. This limited person-power capacity cannot adequately achieve all the objectives set out above, with the result that capacity building - based on successful fund-raising - will remain an essential priority for 1997.

The projects which are planned in the Education and Training Department are creative and innovative, in that they anticipate new methods of skills training and public education: instead of relying purely on print material, the projects attempt to use multi-media educational tools. The motivation behind this shift comes from working in the field with constituencies who do not experience print materials as the most effective method of learning. Most South Africans have been denied access to institutions of learning and education resulting in a poor tradition of reading and research. According to a survey on national literacy levels by Harvard University and the University of Cape Town published in May 1995, 80% of African and 40% of white South Africans could not read or compute at standard five level (which is the level of basic literacy). For this reason most communities respond well to interventions which use the arts, television, radio and the practice of story telling. The CSVR's E&T Department will continue to attempt to respond to these needs by developing such multi-media educational programmes.

Trauma Clinic

Introduction

In the course of 1996, the CSVR's Trauma Clinic continued to play a key role in meeting the needs of the numerous victims of violence within our society. However, over the past years there has been a distinct shift in the nature of the referrals received by the Clinic - from victims of political violence, to a predominance of victims of criminal violence, particularly violence perpetrated against women and children. This trend continued during 1996. Nonetheless, in addition to the growing magnitude of criminal violence, we are still helping many people traumatised by the enduring effects of their past experiences of political repression and violent conflict.

Violence-related trauma remains pervasive in South African society and affects many people of all ages and from across the racial and socio-economic spectrum. The classic symptoms of post-traumatic stress respect no boundaries of race, class or political persuasion and this has become especially clear in the course of the past year as a result of the substantial spread of criminal violence. Sensational media coverage and the high political profile of the violent crime issue, have also contributed to creating popular hysteria about victimisation. Despite this - and despite the high level of governmental and corporate commitment to the fight against crime - little of this energy has thus-far been invested in the effective delivery of victim support services. As a result, there are still very few victim aid services provided by the State welfare system, and especially few credible services for impoverished sectors of the South African population. It is in this context that the CSVR Trauma Clinic provides a free counselling service for all victims of violence and therefore plays a crucial role in beginning to meet some of the needs of those who have been marginalised and traumatised. The provision of such a service is also consistent with the principles under-pinning the National Crime Prevention Strategy (NCPS) - which prioritises the needs of women and children who have been victims of violent crime, and which in general endorses a victim-centred approach to crime prevention.

The counselling service, the education and training and the policy research that was offered and undertaken by the CSVR Trauma Clinic in the course of 1996, was evaluated by us as playing an indispensable role in the healing and reconciliation of our traumatised nation.

For these reasons, it is extremely disturbing that the funding base of the CSVR Trauma Clinic has become increasingly insecure in the course of 1996. Towards the end of the year, the Royal Danish Embassy (which has generously supported the Clinic since its inception in 1991) indicated that they would no longer be funding the Clinic in 1997. (It is important to note that we have been reassured that this was due to internal shifts in funding policy on the part of the Danish Government, rather than being related to any doubt about the importance or quality of the CSVR Trauma Clinic's work.) Despite the high profile involvement of domestic business in campaigns against crime - and in spite of the corporate sector's objective interest in this - we remain sceptical that this concern will extend to providing financial support to sustain victim aid services. Similarly, although we are hopeful of receiving some form of state support for this vital social welfare function, there is ultimately little guarantee of any domestic commitment to sustaining the vital services which the CSVR Trauma Clinic provides.

The CSVR Trauma Clinic therefore enters 1997 with some trepidation, but with considerable resolve. The CSVR will continue to fund the work of the Trauma Clinic through its limited reserve funds. However, should no additional support be forthcoming in the course of the next six months, we may have to contemplate closing down the Trauma Clinic. As remote a prospect as we believe this to be, were it to happen, it would perhaps be one of the greatest indictments on post-Apartheid South Africa.

Capacity Building

Due to the increasing client referrals and training demands, the Trauma Clinic once again expanded its staff complement during the course of 1996. Despite this, financial constraints inhibited the optimal growth of the Clinic and we still believe that we are under-staffed relative to the demands that we receive for services and training.

The Clinic now has a full time staff of eight people. In mid-1996, Palesa Makhale-Mahlangu was promoted to the position of Principle Project Officer within the CSVR and Mary Robertson took over from her as Coordinator of the Trauma Clinic - a post which she had effectively filled for the preceding five months when she was Acting Coordinator. The Clinic now has a staff complement consisting of four psychologists, a social worker, a clinical nurse specialist, a translator and a receptionist. The expansion of the Clinic team to include a range of other disciplines has allowed us to offer a more holistic and comprehensive intervention to our clients.

With the increase in staff capacity, the Clinic had to find additional space to accommodate the new staff and to deal with the consequent increase in client load. The CSVR boardroom was sacrificed for this purpose and was subdivided in order to create offices which are functional for play therapy and counselling.

A new and particularly enthusiastic group of volunteer counsellors was once again trained during the year - and this also contributed to substantially increasing the counselling capacity of the Clinic. This expansion of victim support work through volunteer training, albeit still on a limited scale, is in keeping with established international trends in this field.

Day to Day Activities of the Clinic

Counselling and Debriefing

During 1996, referrals continued to flow into the Trauma Clinic and a total of 1 185 new referrals were received. This is an average of approximately 100 new referrals each month and represents a 40% increase on the total number of new referrals seen in 1995.

The increase in the number of referrals to the Clinic is clearly linked to the growing magnitude of the problem of criminal violence in South Africa (and particularly in Gauteng Province) at this time. However, there are additional factors which ought to be borne in mind as well. Growing media coverage and the increased profile of rare clinical services such as those offered by the CSVR, has undoubtedly contributed to the increased rate of referrals. Furthermore, client satisfaction with the quality of services offered has also resulted in an expansion in demand. Lastly, the growing profile and popular credibility of trauma interventions has served to overcome victim and survivor inhibitions and has thus also contributed to the high client throughflow at the CSVR Clinic. The counselling needs of survivors of past human rights abuse have also increased in the course of 1996 due to the profile and operational activities of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) in the course of the year.

The bulk of adult referrals are clients who have been victims of violent crime and sexual assault. As noted above, 1996 also witnessed a number of referrals through the TRC.

The counselling service offered by the CSVR Trauma Clinic is still essentially a short-term intervention of 4 - 6 sessions, using an integrative, therapeutic approach. The majority of our clients respond well to this model of counselling, especially when they have experienced a one-off trauma and are not in a situation of ongoing violence. However, clients who have suffered multiple traumas and who live in situations of continuous traumatic stress, clearly require longer term counselling interventions and - where necessary - these are undertaken by the Clinic staff. By the same token, through experience and our evaluative processes, it has also become clear that longer term interventions are often required when dealing with child victims in the Children's Clinic (see below). As a result, the Clinic is increasingly offering limited medium and longer term interventions in addition to our predominantly short-term counselling approach.

A large number of group de-briefings were also conducted during the year under review. The majority of these have been conducted with employees from various companies in the industrial and retail sector that have been through armed robberies. The Clinic has also done a number of debriefings in schools when groups of youths have been through traumatic incidents.

In addition to the individual counselling and de-briefing, the Clinic staff have continued run a number of ongoing therapy groups. These include a group for family members of homicide victims, a teenage rape survivor's group and a children's group of victims of violence. A number of family therapy groups have also been conducted, when appropriate.

The Trauma Clinic's clinical psychiatric nurse specialist - Mercy Hlungwani - has received special training in conducting medical examinations of sexual abuse victims, and this has further expanded our skills base and extended the service that is available to our clients. In addition to attending to the psychological and emotional needs of our clients, we are now able to see to some of their immediate medical needs as well.

Volunteer Counselling Programme

It has already been mentioned that the role of volunteers has proved critical in providing sustainable victim support and empowerment programmes - at least in the international context. Over the past three or four years the CSVR Trauma Clinic's Volunteer Counselling Programme has gone some way to establishing such a tradition in South Africa. However, much still needs to be done to harness this potential, and the work of the Clinic staff in training volunteer counsellors during 1996 has contributed a great deal in this regard.

During 1996, the volunteer capacity of the Trauma Clinic was substantially increased. A large number of volunteers applied to participate in the volunteer training programme, from which a group of thirty candidates were selected to undergo the training. This entire group completed a ten week training programme and commenced work as volunteer trauma counsellors in the Clinic. Since then only two of these volunteers have been unable to continue working in the Clinic - in both cases, due to other job commitments.

At the end of the year under review, the Clinic therefore boasted a core group of 28 active volunteer counsellors. These counsellors receive ongoing in-service training, supervision and support from the Clinic staff. Our volunteer counsellors are an extremely dedicated and committed group of people who add tremendous value to the Centre and the community. There is continued and extensive interest by various members of the public, seeking to be trained as volunteer counsellors. Whilst this is a refreshing reminder of the commitment that many South Africans have to the process of healing and reconciliation, it simply remains impossible for the Trauma Clinic - with its current capacity constraints - to accommodate all these individual's requests for training.

The Clinic is also being forced to become more selective in which recruits are to be trained. Apart from the general rigour of screening out unsuitable candidates, it is also vital that the Clinic recruits as many African language speaking counsellors as possible - so as to enable us to meet more fully our objective of providing clients with counselling in their language of preference.

In addition to the volunteer trauma counsellors, a movement therapist offered her services to the Clinic during much of 1996 on a voluntary basis.

Training

The number of training requests received by the Trauma Clinic continued to increase in 1996 and formed an integral part of our work. The training that was offered ranged from short talks and theoretical inputs, to extensive three to five day workshop programmes and training modules. It is our evaluation that, in many respects, such in-depth training programmes offer the potential to build substantial trauma management and counselling capacity, within the private sector, the NGO community, as well as within state departments such as Health, Social Welfare, Education and even Safety and Security. As such, a visionary training approach offers perhaps one of the most viable means of sustaining such trauma service delivery in the years ahead.

The training that has been offered during the year under review, has operated on both a preventative and curative level. Much of the training aimed at increasing public awareness and facilitating civic education about trauma and victimisation and it's impact on society. Extensive training was also provided on how to manage trauma and referral procedures.

The Clinic has developed and customised some basic training modules on various aspects of trauma which can be used with various groups. In addition to these basic workshops, training programmes were developed to meet the specific needs of the various groups that approached us in the course of the year. For example, the Johannesburg College of Education relied on the Clinic to develop and offer a module on trauma management to trainee teachers. This is now being sought on an annual basis and has now been offered for two consecutive years. From 1997, student teachers will also do brief practical internships in the Clinic.

In the course of the year, workshops and training programmes were provided to various sectors, including tertiary educational institutions, NGOs, state departments such as the South African Police Service (SAPS), nurses in the Department of Health and state social workers, as well as to church organisations, schools, women's groups, industrial and retail sectors of the business community, youth groups and community-based organisations.

During 1996, the Trauma Clinic also sustained an ongoing involvement in an inter-NGO "Gender Sensitivity Training Programme for Police" in the Gauteng region. This programme is ongoing and is aimed at training police in the sensitive management of rape and domestic violence. This project has been a successful example of inter-NGO and SAPS collaboration.

Networking and Lobbying

The Trauma Clinic has continued to extend it's contacts with related organisations working in the field of trauma and violence. This networking is essential considering the enormous need that exists for trauma services and to work towards maximising the efficacy of service provision. In this respect, 1996 witnessed some important advances towards the ultimate goal of developing a national and regional network of victim aid service providers. Although this objective remains a rather distant ideal, it is vital not only to the rationalised delivery of effective services, but also to the eventual standardisation of these services. As trauma counselling services expand - along with increased public recognition of the need and credibility of such services - so the danger exists of poor quality or inadequately trained service providers creeping into the picture. Networking is a vital long term means of preventing this and hopefully of eventually establishing a clear and widely accepted set of minimum criteria for the provision of such services.

During 1996, networking efforts primarily aimed at building relationships within the government and NGO sectors. In addition to cooperative work with various NGOs, during 1996 Clinic staff have participated on various forums including the Gauteng Regional Network for Violence Against Women, the forum for Victim-Offender Mediation and the Gauteng Social Welfare Forum. The Clinic has also established a working relationship with the Gauteng Department of Safety and Security and the Child Protection Unit, in order to attempt to address problems experienced by trauma clients within the criminal justice system.

In addition to links with local organisations, the Trauma Clinic has also begun to establish an international network, particularly with trauma workers in the rest of Africa. Towards the end of 1996, an African Traumatic Stress Society was initiated to address the issues of trauma in Africa more broadly. The Trauma Clinic is integrally involved in this initiative, which will allow for the exchange of ideas and expertise in order to develop an African approach to trauma management. Palesa Makhale-Mahlangu has also continued to play an important role on the Danish-based International Rehabilitation Council on Torture (IRCT). In 1996 she commenced a three year appointment as the African representative on the IRCT Bureau as well as being a full member of the IRCT Council. The relationship with the IRCT is an important one in that it provides the Clinic staff with training opportunities as well as networking links with the various international organisations that are supported by the IRCT.

Through the various networking links described here, the CSVR Trauma Clinic began to develop a new and vital lobbying and advocacy capacity during 1996. In particular this has tended to focus on the critical need for changes within the criminal justice system - and we have begun to play an innovative role in advocating the needs and rights of trauma victims, who are often re-victimised within the policing and justice institutions of the criminal justice system. Furthermore, through our growing media profile in the course of 1996, it is our evaluation that the Clinic has played a crucial role in rendering publicly audible the voices of key component elements within the community of victims. We believe that we have made an important contribution to the growing public and governmental attention being given to the particular problems of violence against women and children, as well as highlighting the sustained plight of long term trauma suffers who have been victims of gross violations of human rights. In the course of the year we have also become active and vocal advocates within our own service sector - and have begun to highlight the problems of non-delivery of basic victim aid services as the denial of a basic human right. In particular, we have sought to draw attention to the vital role and responsibility of state social welfare services in the provision of such services. In this regard, 1996 saw the Clinic beginning to develop a role as an advocate for transformation of this department of state.

Public Relations

Throughout 1996, the Trauma Clinic staff participated in numerous electronic and print media interviews in an attempt to raise public awareness around trauma-related issues such as child abuse, violence against women, the impact of trauma and the relative dearth of available support. The public profile of the CSVR Trauma Clinic thus increased dramatically during the year and our role as one of the organisations filling this vital service delivery gap became even more widely accredited. One of the results of this public relations success, has been the greater demand placed on the Clinic staff for both services and training.

Outreach Work

The CSVR Clinic continued with various outreach projects in 1996, in areas such as Orange Farm, Dawn Park, Soweto, Westbury and Witkoppen. Much of this work involved a slight shift from direct victim aid service provision, to community-based skills-training workshops in skills such as the identification of various forms of trauma and referral procedures for victims and survivors. During 1996, the Clinic also assisted these communities to establish links with other organisations in their areas in order to help in developing a locally-based service provider infrastructure. This approach within impoverished and marginalised communities, evolved as a result of previous experience by the CSVR Trauma Clinic in attempts to develop sustainable service provision for victims of violence in these communities. From these earlier experiences, it had become clear that providing direct trauma services within such communities is not sustainable or feasible in the absence of any available social and physical infrastructure and such interventions may therefore result in the development of unrealistic expectations that cannot be met. The Clinic now plays more of a facilitative role in many of these communities, equipping them with basic skills and assisting with the development of local networks.

Although this policy approach has been adopted in principle during 1996, it remains impossible to simply turn our backs in the face of almost limitless demand for direct service provision. As a result, outreach work in the form of day clinics (such as the children's day clinic at the Zola Clinic in Soweto) did continue during the year, but often resulted in less than ideal treatment capacity being met with enormous demand. The result has also been a very high level of stress and pressure on Clinic staff undertaking these arduous tasks.

CSVR Trauma Clinic Database

Throughout 1996, the Clinic continued to collect information from clients which has been entered into our database. This provides a rich vein of unique qualitative information about the nature and extent of trauma as is presented by clients attending the Clinic. This valuable information also provides some perspective on the demographics and predominant types of violence within the Gauteng region, as well as reflecting with great insight upon the failures and deficits within the criminal justice system in its treatment of victims of violent crime.

In order to properly harness this information to which we have unique access, the Clinic will need to further upgrade its database to allow for the collection of more comprehensive and broader client-based information on violence. Needless to say, such information gathering must always - and has continued to - operate within the strict bounds of client confidentiality and a professional code of ethics. However, should our vision be realised in this regard (and should the necessary funding become available), then in the course of 1997 such a comprehensive database may be up and running and able to provide ongoing qualitative information about victims' experiences. In this manner, the Clinic now has the potential to offer a kind of "short track victimisation survey" which is illustrative of key trends through rendering the voices of victims themselves audible - and which simultaneously provides an invaluable mechanism for monitoring the policing and justice institutions in their handling of victims of violence.

Interventions in the Corporate Environment

In 1996 the CSVR Trauma Clinic expanded the work being undertaken within the business sector and in the workplace environment. Through this it was confirmed that the workplace offers a critical point of intervention in respect of violence-related trauma, particularly because of the experiences of violence and trauma which are shared by employers and employees alike. However, despite the overwhelming concern over violent crime in the business and trade union communities, it is our evaluation that in-house capacity to deal with it remains severely underdeveloped. In the course of 1996, the CSVR Trauma Clinic has undertaken several new initiatives to remedy this situation. Apart from treatment of company employees and group de-briefings in industry, Clinic staff and members of the CSVR Education and Training Department also undertook training programmes targeted at company-based employee assistance practitioners (EAPs), line managers, and specialist target groups such as corporate security members, etc. In all these enterprises, the Clinic built on developed CSVR interventions and analysis of the business sector.

In the course of 1996, we ran a successful pilot programme with Eskom which we believe can be further developed in that company and which is also utilisable in other companies. It is our hope that this vital pro-active work will take off in business in the years ahead, but it will definitely require more aggressive marketing. In fact, it is our belief that companies could subsidize the services of the Trauma Clinic most effectively by simply contracting out many of these trauma interventions to our experienced clinicians and trainers.

Child Therapy Unit

Over 400 children who have been victims of violence were seen in the Trauma Clinic in the course of 1996. This excludes a large number of children who are seen on a weekly basis through the CSVR Trauma Clinic's outreach programme at the Zamokhule Child Abuse Clinic in Soweto. The nature of the violence being encountered includes child rape, molestation, children who have been witnesses to armed robbery, murder of their parents and family members or others, hijacking, rape of a parent, abandonment, other forms of family violence, etc.

These children were seen for both short and long term interventions, depending on the nature and complexity of their trauma. Techniques of non-directive and directive-creative therapies have been used, as well as the "Witness to Violence Interview". On occasion, when time has permitted, some children have been given full mental status examinations at the request of social workers and/or representatives of organisations such as the Child Abuse Alliance. The Clinic staff have also assisted in preparing children who need to go to court as a result of their trauma, as well as de-briefing them after their court appearance.

As noted above, during 1996, the CSVR Trauma Clinic continued to participate in the Zamokhule Child Abuse Clinic. Clinic staff attended the Clinic once a week and children as well as their mothers or primary "care-givers" were seen for therapy. In the course of the year there were also ongoing negotiations with primary health care workers and community organisations in Orange Farm in which difficulties such as unrealistic expectations on the part of some members of the local communities could be addressed.

Numerous invitations to run workshops on childhood trauma and child abuse were received in the course of the year. The aim of these workshops is to educate communities about these issues and to skill them in establishing community networks and dynamic working relationships between the CSVR Trauma Clinic and potential satellite clinics or groups of concerned community members. Training is also provided on simple interviewing techniques, to skill community members in the sensitive handling of children, as well as knowledge of when and how to refer on for professional assistance.

Networking continues to be an essential aspect of the work within the CSVR's child therapy unit. Extensive networks with government and non-governmental organisations have been established. These include:

In the course of the year the CSVR's specialised skills in this sphere were translated into public awareness and civic education through numerous contributions which were made to radio and television programmes, as well as through press articles which were written about issues related to child abuse and childhood trauma. The role of this media work is important in heightening public awareness and sensitivity to these important issues.

Future Developments

Research and Evaluation

As from February 1997, the Clinic will be employing a clinical psychologist who will be focused on conducting research in the clinic in order to maximise the utilisation of the wealth of rich primary data to which the Trauma Clinic has access. This research will be based on information taken from the clinic data-base as well as questionnaires and interviews with trauma clients and clinic staff. An initial research project will focus on a victims' needs assessment. The information obtained from this survey will feed into policy recommendations, particularly as regards the transformation of the criminal justice system to a more victim-centred enterprise. It is also planned to develop the CSVR's research on children and violence in the course of the year, with a view to publishing a book on the subject in early 1998.

Juvenile Offenders Intervention

The CSVR Trauma Clinic is concerned about the lack of effective services available for juvenile perpetrators. This sector is also a primary focal point of the CSVR's Criminal Justice Policy Unit, because rehabilitation of such offenders is critical to any crime prevention programme. The sector is also central to the restorative justice models being utilized and developed within the CSVR. On the part of the Trauma Clinic, it is planned to embark upon a programme, together with the CSVR's Criminal Justice Policy Unit, in an attempt to redress this shortcoming. The Clinic aims to run groups for juvenile perpetrators and through these, to assist in the development of policy and recommendations on diversion programmes and alternative sentencing.

International networking

In early 1998, the Trauma Clinic is hoping to host an international conference on trauma, with a strong focus on trauma within Africa. During the course of 1997, the planning for such a conference will begin and we shall attempt to raise the necessary funding for a full time organiser to convene the conference. This will be an exciting venture and will contribute enormously to establishing links with trauma workers within South Africa and more broadly within Africa. The conference could well be the launch pad of an effective African Traumatic Stress Association.

Satellite Clinics

For a variety of reasons - not least amongst them being financial constraints - plans for the expansion of satellite trauma clinics did not fully come to fruition in the course of 1996. However, it is intended to continue with this objective and the first satellite clinic will be run in Witkoppen, west of Johannesburg, commencing early in 1997. These clinics will be targeting communities in which there are few existing resources at present. A number of other communities have been identified where such units could operate. These units will be serviced by full time staff as well as volunteer trauma counsellors.

Media

Although the Trauma Clinic performed well in this respect during 1996, we are determined to continue to expand our media profile as a vehicle for raising public awareness of the work we do, the issues we confront daily, and the plight of the constituencies we serve. Therefore, another of our objectives for 1997, is to embark on a proactive media campaign and to generate regular press statements and articles in order to raise public awareness of issues pertaining to various forms of victimisation.

Evaluation

The past year has once again been one in which numerous demands have been placed on the CSVR Trauma Clinic. There has been a marked increase in referrals for counselling and an equally marked increase in the number of training requests that were received and responded to. In addition to the direct clinical load, there have also been various internal staff changes and dynamics within the clinic in relation to staff positions and the recruitment of new staff. All of these factors have contributed to a high stress environment, in which the Clinic staff have shown incredible commitment, dedication and a unique capacity for self-sacrifice. However, no single factor has impacted more negatively than the anxiety produced by the withdrawal of Danish Embassy funding in November of 1996. For staff who - out of commitment to the constituencies they serve - make such fundamental sacrifices in personal earning capacity and stress levels, the anticipated reluctance of South African government and corporate donors to foot the bill in filling the gap in these already deficient social services, spurns an insecurity which is very difficult to countenance.

Despite the stress and change that clinic staff have had to deal with, we successfully continued to provide a professional service to the community and adequately dealt with and responded to the numerous requests for training and consultancy input that were received.

As noted, the target of establishing several satellite clinics, was not entirely met during the course of 1996. This was partially due to staff capacity being overstretched coupled with financial constraints imposing limitations our ability to expand. A further substantial factor has been the process of negotiating with the communities and the existing staff at the proposed satellite clinics, for the development of such services. This has proved to be more time consuming than anticipated. However, it is our belief that thorough consultation with all concerned parties is essential to ensure the success of these satellite clinics. This initial work has been completed in the Witkoppen area and this work will be extended into the formation of a fully-fledged satellite clinic in early 1997, when counselling facilities will become available. This satellite clinic will service an enormous area comprising a number of informal settlements.

It is recognised within the CSVR Trauma Clinic that self-care for care-givers is an integral component of providing a trauma service. In the absence of adequate structures to provide sufficient support, time off and a balanced work environment, the risk of staff burn-out is very high. Although the Clinic views self-care as a priority, it still tends to be neglected as a dimension of our organisational programme. Due to the enormous lack of resources available within the community and the extent of trauma within South Africa, clinical staff frequently sacrifice time for their own self-care in order to meet the needs of our client population. This has been partially ameliorated as a result of our increased volunteer capacity. However, it is still an aspect of trauma work which requires all staff members to be more disciplined and rigorous in its implementation.

During 1996, a very large number of training workshops and educational talks were conducted in various sectors. The Clinic evaluates this expansive programme as being exceptionally successful. An enormous number of people are accessed through these workshops which also serve an important preventative function in raising awareness and providing skills in managing trauma within communities. It is firmly believed that in the longer term, this clearly contributes towards violence prevention. This is a critical additive to the primarily curative focus of the direct counselling services which we continue to provide.

The massive demands placed on the services offered by the CSVR's Trauma Clinic have once again highlighted the enormous need for trauma services, as well as the need to develop creative responses that can reach the many people in our country who have been victimised. It is also clear that any interventions have to involve joint participation with government stake-holders, other NGOs and communities. The Clinic will still need to expand it's services in order to meet these demands, and funding from both government and the corporate sector is ultimately indispensable if we are to address the needs of our nation.

Truth and Reconciliation Department

Introduction

South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) began its operations in 1996, ushering in new hope for the development of a human rights culture in South Africa and the redress of past gross abuses of human rights. For the CSVR's Truth and Reconciliation Department, this heralded the start of many new projects which were to forge a particular type of relationship to the TRC. As noted in the CSVR's Annual Reports for 1994 and 1995, the Department had been planning and establishing structures to support the work of the TRC for well over eighteen months, with the result that at the TRC's inception, the Department was perfectly positioned to strategically develop its critical partnership with the TRC. The vision for the year was to work with and support the TRC in solidarity, yet at the same time challenge it to meet its broad mandate of redressing the effects of extensive human rights violations in South Africa.

Main Activities

Human Rights Documentation

The Human Rights Documentation Project (HRDP)
In the first six months of 1996, the Truth and Reconciliation Department co-ordinated the completion of the successful inter-NGO Human Rights Documentation Project (HRDP) which aimed to collate as many cases of human rights violations as possible - primarily from NGO sources. The first months of 1996 were spent collating these records into one database. The database supplied information on 4 200 human rights violations, 5 900 victims and the names of 1 300 alleged perpetrators - a total of 11 400 files. On 27 March 1996 the database was officially handed over to the TRC offices in Cape Town. The CSVR read a statement on behalf of the HRDP's NGO partners, which was also released to the press.

Following the hand-over of the database, more than ten HRDP workers from various NGOs were seconded to the TRC as consultants - either in permanent or temporary positions. Amongst these was a member of the CSVR's Truth and Reconciliation Department, Polly Dewhirst, who was seconded to the TRC as a consultant in the development of the TRC's own database.

The HRDP database became a leading conceptual model in the formation of the TRC's database. In addition, the HRDP database was used by the TRC to prepare for its first hearings in April 1996. Regional reports were compiled which not only listed the human rights abuses that took place in each region, but also provided the TRC with such details as the names and addresses of victims - some of whom were amongst the first witnesses to testify before the TRC.

In the last months of 1996, the HRDP database was adapted so that it could be fully integrated into the TRC's own database. The CSVR's Truth and Reconciliation Department worked closely with the TRC database manager in making the many technical changes necessary to make this merger possible. The CSVR retains a copy of the HRDP database for use by NGOs as a tool in monitoring the progress of the TRC.

International Defence and Aid Fund Records (IDAF)
A further aspect of the Department's human rights documentation work was the processing of the International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF) records. Along with Justice in Transition (a Cape Town-based NGO), the CSVR had jointly negotiated to have these invaluable historical records returned to South Africa from London. The intention was to process the relevant archival material for the TRC and then to relocate the entire archive to the Mayibuye Centre at the University of the Western Cape. A considerable number of IDAF records were already housed at the Mayibuye Centre, and this exercise would also have the effect of uniting the IDAF archive.

In early 1996 the CSVR's Truth and Reconciliation Department contracted the South African Historical Archive (SAHA) to conduct a preliminary assessment of the IDAF archive. Out of the 7.5 tons of material, SAHA was able to isolate 200 boxes of files that would be most directly relevant to the work of the TRC. These included extensive court and trial records, as well as many of IDAF's publications. In June 1996 the remaining part of the archive was sent to its permanent home at the Mayibuye Centre.

The selected files were made available to the TRC to aid it in the corroboration of the thousands of cases already put before the Commission. In addition, a number of researchers were recruited by the CSVR and have begun the process of extracting information from these files and preparing reports for the TRC Research Department, to aid them in the drafting of the TRC's Final Report. This research will continue until at least mid-1997, at which point all the outstanding IDAF files will be included with the rest of the archive at the Mayibuye Centre.

Consulting, Training and Assisting the TRC

As the TRC began to operate, an enormous need for assistance in establishing its various structures and functions became apparent. As the CSVR's Department had done considerable preparatory work in several relevant spheres, the TRC turned to the Department to assist in meeting a range of their needs.

Information Management System of the TRC
In the early phases of the TRC's operation, the CSVR's Department members - based on their previous documentation experience with the HRDP - were consulted on the establishment of an information management system within the TRC. As has been mentioned, Polly Dewhirst was seconded to the TRC for a three month period to assist in devising some of the coding systems of the TRC database and to assist in integrating the HRDP database into the TRC system. Brandon Hamber was consulted extensively and was part of the initial TRC workshops which focused on the development of an information management system. This culminated in the first pilot "Statement-Taking Form" - or Protocol - which the TRC was to use to record the testimony of victims. Brandon Hamber, along with other consultants, then assisted in developing and training the TRC Statement-Takers from across the country.

Communications Strategy of the TRC
As the first months of the TRC passed, it became apparent that the organisation's communications strategy was particularly under-developed. Many victims, as well as the public at large, complained that they had little knowledge of the workings of the TRC. As a result, several of the Truth Commissioners requested that the CSVR make suggestions on how a TRC communications strategy could be operationalised. The CSVR's Lauren Segal - an educational and materials development expert - developed and presented a fully fledged proposal for civic education to the TRC.

The proposal was for a joint project involving a partnership between Vuleka Community Radio, The Centre for Democratic Communications, The Open Window Network, The Storyteller Group and the CSVR. The project proposal received the full backing of a range of legal, religious and human rights NGOs, including: Justice and Peace (SACBC), Lawyers for Human Rights, the Anglican and Methodist Churches and the South African Council of Churches. These groupings were all concerned to ensure that community education about the TRC - potentially on a scale similar to Voter Education - occurred on a national level. Despite the extensive work invested in developing such a strategy - and despite the fact that a range of multi-media educational materials had already been produced by the CSVR (including workshop manuals, flip-charts, an educational comic, and a video) - the TRC put out a tender and eventually contracted an advertising agency to boost the public profile of the TRC.

The CSVR's Truth and Reconciliation Department continued to independently develop and run the extensive education workshops which had already been initiated in 1995 (see below). Nonetheless, it is our evaluation that the TRC's attempt to substitute media profile for grass-roots civic education, proved to be one of its most significant strategic blunders in 1996. This approach sacrificed considerable popular support and understanding of the TRC's work, its objectives and its limitations. In particular, the TRC made a significant mistake in not utilising NGOs to develop a civic education strategy for the Commission, which would have significantly enhanced its impact. It is hoped that this can still be remedied in the final year of the TRC's existence.

Reparation and Rehabilitation Policy
Throughout the year, the CSVR Department participated in Reparation Workshops hosted by the TRC. In September the CSVR's Department co-ordinator, Brandon Hamber, was invited to Cape Town by the TRC's Reparation and Rehabilitation Committee (R&R) to assist in drafting recommendations for an urgent interim reparations policy for victims. With a team of people, mainly from the R&R Committee of the TRC, a draft policy framework was completed. The TRC then aimed to feed the policy framework back to the entire Commission for discussion before the final version was to be sent to Parliament. Even though the TRC had already been running for over a year, the urgent reparations policy was only planned to begin in 1997.

Civic Education and Training

Community Education
Under the direction of Tlhoki Mofokeng, the Department's Community Services Co-ordinator, and Elias Traggy Maepa, the Department's Trainer, 73 education and training workshops were run by CSVR on the TRC during 1996. These workshops have largely been geared towards survivors or families of victims of human rights abuses. Some of the workshops have serviced organisations whom the CSVR identified as being able to play a supportive role in the development of survivor support groups in their areas. In terms of geographical distribution, 51 workshops were held in Gauteng, 12 in Mpumalanga, 4 in the Northern Province, 3 in the Eastern Cape, 2 in North West Province and 1 in the Northern Cape. An additional workshop was held with the Trauma Centre for Victims of Violence and Torture in the Western Cape, in order to explore the possibility of initiating a similar process in that region.

The workshops utilised the materials developed by the CSVR to educate individuals about the TRC (i.e. training video, CSVR TRC training manual, educative comic, etc.) as well as other materials developed by the TRC itself. The CSVR strategy in running these workshops has been both to educate people about the TRC, as well as to use the process to begin localised support groups using the Khulumani format (see below). This is based on the belief that victims need support through the process of the TRC and that formal mental health care services are unable to provide this service. To effect this aim, social support organisations, faith communities, services groupings (e.g. counselling groups), legal and paralegal support structures and groupings who could provide support for the victim support groups, have become an integral component of the CSVR's strategy for educational workshops. To this end CSVR has hosted a range of coalition meetings between various such support organisations. By utilising these organisations, it is intended to build sustainability into the process so that victim-support can continue beyond the life of the TRC. The organisational coalitions which have been established operate with varying degrees of success. Support from different organisations and faith communities is varied depending on their accessibility, the availability of resources and the willingness to participate.

The CSVR has also utilised and formed partnerships with Lawyers for Human Rights and the Justice and Peace Commission of the South African Catholic Bishops' Conference (SACBC), both of whom provide educational workshops about the TRC utilising the CSVR's training materials. More recently, assistance from other local support structures such as the South African Council of Churches (SACC) has also been drawn upon in some areas. The CSVR has trained field-workers from several different organisations to run these education workshops. One of the greatest difficulties in expanding the process has been the lack of training materials. Many of the church workers and NGOs trained by the CSVR could now continue and expand the running of education workshops, but for the lack of hard copy resources which has rendered this impossible.

Public and Constituency-based Education
A range of specific constituencies have been provided with information and trained about the TRC. These have included church groupings (eg inter-denominational groups, some 120 Methodist priests, etc.) and the various NGOs mentioned above.

The CSVR took a significant initiative in providing a three day workshop on the TRC for support workers of the South African Police Services (SAPS). This was a national workshop with full participation by members of the SAPS Social Services, Psychological Services, Chaplains, Legal Services and Communications Departments of each province. These service sector personnel were trained to facilitate support for police members and for the TRC process. The workshop was also aimed at enhancing the objectives of the TRC through ensuring that it did not meet with institutional resistance within the SAPS at this level. This workshop was evaluated as a particularly significant breakthrough in a critical sector which had thus-far proved itself to be hostile to the TRC and its objectives. It is unfortunately our evaluation that, during the period under review, neither TRC nor the Secretariat of Safety and Security did enough to adequately capitalise on this approach by the CSVR. Neither party did very much to consolidate the institutional support for the TRC which was so actively encouraged by the workshop process.

Several other constituencies were also targeted though these educational workshops. Some of these were aimed at industry - most notably with a range of Nedcor staff, as well as a number of Employee Assistance Personnel (EAP) in other companies. CSVR's Truth Commission Department members also participated in and co-hosted a workshop with journalists on reporting on the TRC. A follow-up workshop with journalists covering the TRC is envisaged for 1997, in which the CSVR will collaborate with the Cape Town-based Media Peace Centre as organisers.

Materials Development

Public education about the TRC has been stressed as an ongoing priority of the CSVR's Truth and Reconciliation Department during the period under review. Several educational materials were developed by staff in the Department to best facilitate this process.

Educational Comic on the TRC
This comic, targeted at a youthful and/or semi-literate audience was jointly developed by CSVR's Truth and Reconciliation Department and the Khulumani Support Groups. The comic has proven to be very useful as an educational tool in the workshop context. Approximately 10 000 comics were distributed by the CSVR in 1996. Due to the positive response to the comic - and after the TRC's Communication Department approved of the content of the comic - the CSVR printed another 50 000 copies of this publication at the end of 1996. The comic was printed in three languages and will continue being distributed through educational workshops, as well as being made available to the various TRC offices.

Film: Remembering and Forgetting
In July 1996, based on the highly successful Khulumani Video produced by CSVR and screened by the public broadcaster, the South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) contracted the CSVR to produce a 30 minute documentary for screening on national television. This film was based on a cultural event in Cape Town organised by the Fault Lines Project. This Project aimed to focus on a cultural perspective on dealing with the past and the developments of the TRC, by bringing together an international group of writers, artists and poets to reflect on these issues. The filmed documentation of this process was directed by Steven Silver (contracted worker) and was produced by Lauren Segal from the CSVR. The Associate Producer was Brandon Hamber, also from the CSVR. Through its screening on national television, the film reached a diverse audience and brought a new angle to bear on the TRC. Importantly for the CSVR's Truth and Reconciliation Department, this afforded the Department an opportunity to work under contract to a major broadcaster - and contributed to equipping the CSVR with skills to produce further civic educational products of this nature in the future.

TRC Audio Cassette
In conjunction with Vuleka Radio Productions in Durban, the Department also produced an educational audio cassette on the TRC. The script for the 20 minute programme was written by Brandon Hamber and Lauren Segal from CSVR. It is planned that the tape will be extensively distributed to community radio stations in 1997. This will serve to stimulate debate on the TRC and it is intended that the tape will also be used to publicise the Khulumani Support Group.

Psychological Support Work

The provision of psychological support, particularly for those testifying before the TRC, remained a priority area of concern for the CSVR's Truth and Reconciliation Department during 1996.

Self-help Support Structures
A major strategy for ensuring the provision of such psychological support has been through the establishment of the Khulumani Support Groups. This extensive process of building extended self-help groups of victims and survivors of past human rights abuse, has facilitated a range of informal support mechanisms between the members of these groups. Through the network, active psychological support for victims and survivors has undoubtedly been generated. For example, members readily accompany one another to hearings and court-proceedings and jointly organise vigils and commemorative services for one another. Furthermore, the constant encouragement of fellow group members to speak out about past abuses committed against them and their families, has definitely served a critical restorative psychological function in a wide number of cases. A large number of members of these support structures have actively expressed how useful it is to be in the Khulumani groups, because it feels like they are trying to change their situations through solidarity actions - whether through lobbying or other actions aimed at providing joint support. The establishment of a Khulumani Office has also meant that a range of support structures have been established using telephonic support to provide immediate advice, as well as to put people in direct contact with the TRC.

Importantly, the entire process has been built on the philosophy of victims giving support to victims. However, the support groups also act as a vital conduit for onward referral for those victims and survivors who need more sustained professional interventions.

Formal Psychological Support Structures
Due to the lack of formal psychological support services for victims of past human rights abuse in South Africa, in the year under review, the CSVR's Truth and Reconciliation Department also sought to assist victims and survivors in accessing such formal psychological support. Dineo Moloko, was appointed as a full-time social work intern to assist the Khulumani Groups in this regard. Through her, the CSVR's Department has been responsible for referring Khulumani members for counselling and assisting the groups with developing a referral strategy. A case-conferencing approach is also envisaged for 1997 in which urgent cases will be discussed by a multi-disciplinary team at the CSVR, so as to ensure appropriate onward referral for services when required. This process is intended to develop a comprehensive social and psychological support service for Khulumani. In addition, the two office workers at the Khulumani Office and a number of volunteers also participated in a nine week trauma counselling training course offered by the CSVR Trauma Clinic. As a result, the group has been referring cases to the CSVR Trauma Clinic. Several Khulumani members were also sent on a bereavement training course run through an organisation called Compassionate Friends. These members were trained with skills on how to start their own self-help bereavement groups.

Referral Network of the TRC
Throughout 1996, much hope was invested in the establishment by the TRC of an official referral network for those who passed through the TRC process. It was hoped that this official referral network would provide those who needed it with the appropriate counselling and psychological support. In anticipation of this objective, as early as June 1995 the CSVR had held a workshop with 35 social support organisations, all of which expressed an interest and willingness to assist the TRC (once established) through the provision of these services. Despite such commitments, the TRC has not managed to effectively utilise this support-base. The TRC is still in the process of compiling a national referral database so that the appropriate referrals can be made by the staff at the TRC. The CSVR has also been compiling its own referral database which will be offered to the TRC once it is completed. Hopefully this referral system will be fully operational early in 1997.

In the course of 1996, a substantial number of referrals did come from the TRC to the CSVR Trauma Clinic - although this was on a largely ad hoc basis. It is expected that more cases will be forthcoming during the second year of the TRC's operation.

Victim/Offender Mediation
One of the most promising projects in which the CSVR's Truth and Reconciliation Department has been involved, is the Victim/Offender Mediation (VOM) Project. This project was initiated in late 1995 with the aim of facilitating offender and victim interfaces to build reconciliation. A network of 22 organisations, with a diverse range of interests in mediation and facilitation was established. The group has presented many different options to the TRC for achieving reconciliation through this process, and has assisted in writing the TRC's Reparation and Rehabilitation Committee Policy on VOM. Despite it being available for such mediation interventions, the TRC has not as yet referred any cases to the network. Nonetheless, the NGO collective has begun to focusing on cases referred to it by the Khulumani Support Groups.

These victim/offender mediation processes have also quickly developed a potential for intervention in criminal cases. In this respect, the group facilitated a mediation between a family who was car-jacked and a motor vehicle hi-jacker. Material and policy papers have subsequently been produced on the concept of victim/offender mediation and on restorative models of justice. The network is planning to train mediators in early 1997 and further mediation sessions should begin shortly thereafter.

Survivor Support Groups - Khulumani

The Khulumani Project began in early 1995 when the CSVR, along with a group of victims, pioneered a process of establishing self-help and lobby groups for victims and survivors who planned to interface with the TRC. This was aimed not only at ensuring social and psychological support for such survivors, but also at providing victims with a unified and audible collective voice so as to ensure that their needs were being adequately addressed by the TRC. As has been noted in the preceding pages, the CSVR's work with the Khulumani groups continued to expand throughout 1996.

Expansion through Education
During the year under review, a broad strategy of the CSVR and Khulumani was to use education workshops run by the CSVR to springboard the development of new victim support groups. In addition, NGO coalitions were established to support such a development in different areas of the country. As a result, support groups mushroomed in the course of 1997 and now exist in many communities within the Gauteng Province. In other provinces where education workshops have been held and a similar process initiated, the successful development of survivor support groups has been varied - depending on the constraints of the support organisations in the respective areas. At times, in areas outside of the Gauteng Province, it has been difficult to monitor the development and maintenance of such groups. Nonetheless, it was calculated that approximately 30 local Khulumani Support Groups were functioning by the end of 1997. However, it is important to note that these groups enjoy differing levels of success, and operate with different degrees of regularity and consistency. The groups are also fluid in some areas with new ones emerging whilst others may wind down their operations.

The CSVR has employed two full-time field workers to run the education workshops and employs short-term contract trainers on an ad-hoc basis to run workshops when the need arises. From the beginning of 1997, the Khulumani Support Group will also employ three full-time field-workers to carry out similar education functions in various communities and to further the aims of Khulumani in specific areas.

The Khulumani Office
The vision of the CSVR's Truth and Reconciliation Department was that the Khulumani Support Group should largely function independently of the CSVR by the end of 1996. To this end, Khulumani - with the assistance of the CSVR - raised the funds to open an office. Hence, in the second quarter of 1996 the group opened an advice and support office in the same building as CSVR. Ntombi Mosikare was hired as the office coordinator, and two group members - Sylvia Dlomo-Jele and Mavis Khumalo - were hired as support staff. The office began to take up cases, provide information about group meetings, assist the CSVR in arranging education workshops, liaise with the TRC on behalf of Khulumani members and give advice to victims, or refer them for counselling. To all intents and purposes, Khulumani began to operate as an independent organisation.

However, the establishment of the Khulumani office was not without its teething problems. It quickly became apparent that extensive administrative support was needed for those tasked with running the office. Ongoing support was also needed to ensure that adequate assistance was being received by victims and that effective referrals were taking place. To deal with some of these problems the CSVR's Truth and Reconciliation Department undertook to assist the group by providing skills development training, including: trauma counselling skills, office administration, computer skills, etc. The CSVR's Administration Department also played a crucial role in regulating and overseeing the financial management side of Khulumani.

The CSVR has also sought to supplement the inadequate social support services available to Khulumani group members through the employment of a social worker to set up referral networks and to facilitate better access to such support services. Despite any of these problems, group meetings have continued, group support remains fully operative, referrals to support services do take place, and regular education workshops with victims have been arranged.

Reparation for Khulumani Members
The Khulumani office has served as a nodal point from whence many victims have been referred to the TRC. However, the issue of reparations and compensation for the Khulumani members remained a contentious issue during 1996 and has been difficult to resolve to the satisfaction of many Khulumani members. This is mainly because reparations will only be effected after the life of the TRC (assuming that government actually implements any recommendations which the TRC may make in this regard) and - at the time of writing - it appears that no formal reparations will be given to Khulumani members before the policy is finalised and the TRC has run it's course. This remains an unfortunate but inevitable shortcoming of the National Unity and Reconciliation (the TRC) Act.

However, provision is made in the TRC Act for the provision of urgent interim reparation in some cases. At the end of 1996 the TRC had still not finalised this policy, with the result that no urgent reparation has been forthcoming. The CSVR and Khulumani have seen it as their role to pressurise the Commission in this regard. Khulumani has been publicly critical of the snails-pace development of this policy and the consequent non-delivery of any form of reparation. In this regard, many policy proposals were made by the CSVR during the year under review.

Khulumani has also begun to refer victims directly to the TRC for such urgent assistance. With the CSVR's assistance, some forms of assistance (other than the TRC's proposed urgent interim reparations) have been secured through the Khulumani office. This has included, for example, negotiating with agencies about getting cheap wheelchairs for disabled Khulumani members and finding material assistance to pay the education fees for some member's children. Reparation and rehabilitation is undoubtedly going to be a major focus of the CSVR and the Khulumani Groups in the course of 1997: at the 1996 Khulumani Planning Conference a Reparation Campaign for 1997 was outlined.

Research and Policy Interventions

The first half of 1996 saw a decrease in the research output of the Department. This was largely due to the enormous demand for implementation and educational work consequent upon the very demanding early phases of the TRC's operations. During this period it was slightly inevitable that CSVR staff members would be drawn into TRC processes - often in an ad hoc manner. However, research output was identified as a priority during this period and towards the end of 1996, a sound research agenda was finalised by the Department. A number of research programmes were also successfully carried out.

During this time, a visiting research intern - Gunnar Theissen - completed an impressive and innovative telephone survey of "white" attitudes to the TRC. This resultant research findings should be available in report form in early 1997. It is hoped that the report will then be published.

During 1996, the Truth and Reconciliation Department staff also began focusing their attention on research into comparative experiences of justice in Africa. Papers on 'dealing with the past' in Zimbabwe and Uganda are being completed at the time of writing. In addition, the Department's coordinator - Brandon Hamber - was invited to attend a workshop in Malawi during October 1996, aimed at discussing the pros and cons of a TRC process in that country. The extensive research done by the CSVR's Truth and Reconciliation Department, coupled with our experience of working with the TRC, made this a particularly valuable exchange.

The Department also began the process of interviewing different constituencies (e.g. victims, perpetrators, youth, police, etc.) as to their opinions and perceptions of the TRC processes. One specific sphere in which such stake-holder interviews were conducted was amongst the youth within self-defence and self-protection units. Much of this research in progress will reach fruition in the early months of 1997. A process of interviewing victims about their experiences of testifying, is also being planned for early in the new year.

Furthermore, much of the human rights documentation work, the work done in the field of psychological support provision, victim/offender mediation and work related to the Khulumani experience - all of which have been dealt with in this report - constitute research initiatives in progress which will result in the production of research output in the coming year/s. Apart from these specific projects, much of the Department's research capacity has been invested in the development of policy interventions rather than publications. Nonetheless, a range of research reports, book chapters and media articles have been produced by the Department during 1996. These are all included in the publications list at the end of this report.

Lobbying and Advocacy

In addition to formal research, members of the Department undertook informal policy work and lobbying on a number of issues relevant to the TRC. As members of the Department began to attend the TRC hearings, we were increasingly consulted by a range of local and international media, academics and human rights experts for comment and analysis. Throughout the year the Department continued to internally debate the key issues facing the TRC and feed these into press articles, media comments, panel discussions, talks and conference presentations.

The CSVR's Director, Graeme Simpson, participated in think-tank workshops arranged by the TRC's Research Department which revolved around the planning of the TRC's final report. He and Tlhoki Mofokeng also presented papers evaluating the TRC from the NGO perspective at an evaluative conference arranged jointly by the CSVR and the Stellenbosch Law School in the final month of 1996. This evaluative conference, scheduled at the end of the TRC's first year of operation was highly successful.

A further critical role was played by the CSVR's Truth and Reconciliation Department in relation to the Political Party Submissions made to the TRC. The CSVR, along with other NGOs, organised a press-statement urging the TRC to critically evaluate submissions rather than accept them at face value. After systematically analysing all of these political party submissions, the CSVR and our partners also submitted a range of specific questions and evaluative comments about these submissions to the TRC Research Department - in an attempt to stimulate appropriate critical cross-examination.

All the staff members of the CSVR's Truth and Reconciliation Department regularly delivered conference presentations or participated in public debates on the TRC. Many of these conference and seminar contributions are included at the end of this report.

Evaluation and Key Policy Issues

With the TRC beginning to operate in 1996, the Department faced many new challenges. On the whole 1996 was extremely successful, but was also extremely difficult for the Department on a number of levels. Unstructured demands from the TRC in its early phases were particularly draining on the Department's capacity and taxed to limit our planning processes. Requests for education workshops were numerous and Khulumani continued to expand and need support. As much as these issues are positive, they also meant that the work load increased drastically with the result that solid analytic research work suffered slightly in the short-term. Fortunately this aspect of our work was re-established in the second-half of 1996 as the TRC process began to level out.

In many ways the Department had operated as a "shadow" TRC for the period prior to the latter's inception. However, in 1996 the Department had to re-negotiate its role as a support agency and consultancy with expertise in the area of transition and truth commissions. The challenges of sustaining a "critical partnership" with an agency such as the TRC once it was up an running ought not to be underestimated. As noted in the message from the Director at the beginning of this annual report, the challenge of sustaining a critical independence whilst simultaneously servicing an institution such as the TRC, requires immense skill, diplomacy and analytical independence.

In the year ahead, the Department plans to focus substantially on further increasing its research capacity, knowledge and networking with other organisations. In terms of short-term areas of focus for 1997, the Department has prioritised the work of the Reparation and Rehabilitation Committee. This will ensure that CSVR is in a position to lobby and interface with the TRC on the issue of reparation and rehabilitation which is undoubtedly going to be one of the key issues that will continue long beyond the life of the TRC itself.

The long-term vision of the Department is to develop expertise so that it can be drawn on by a number of agencies. Throughout the world, expertise of managing transitions has become of vital importance and the work of the CSVR is increasingly being recognised and drawn upon. Clearly, how the transition to democracy is managed impacts on future levels of violence and crime. These issues, with a victim support component included, will be a major focus of the Department in the future.

Partnerships are considered essential and the Department has worked hard to establish co-operation on a number of initiatives. The NGO Coalition on the Truth Commission established in 1995, continued to operate during the first half of 1996 - although the role of the NGO Coalition shifted from a body which lobbied around the need for a Truth Commission, to a body which focused more substantially on developing a critical partnership with the TRC. It should be noted though, that towards the end of 1996 interest from other NGOs in the TRC had decreased significantly. In part, this was due to the TRC's inability to fully utilise NGOs, but was also related to the fact that many NGOs moved into other initiatives as the process unfolded. This remains a concern, because the lessons from other countries clearly show that the process of dealing with the past and the building of a human rights culture continues long after the demise of bodies like the TRC. In particular, the CSVR particularly sees victim-support and empowerment as an ongoing issue and anticipates that the need for the Khulumani Groups will continue long into the future.

Criminal Justice Policy Unit

[Incorporating the Prisons Research Project and the Policing Research Project]

Introduction

In the course of 1996, the Prisons Research Project and the Policing Research Projects were amalgamated into a single department - the Criminal Justice Policy Unit. Both of these Projects have a long and rich history of creative policy research, innovative intervention programmes and incisive lobbying interventions within the CSVR. During the past six years of the Policing Project's work, and the three years of the Prisons Project's activities, both of these projects have tackled a range of similar issues and tasks within these two state institutions. Amongst others, these common concerns within the criminal justice system included the following:

These shared areas of work have motivated the amalgamation of the two departments into a single unit, ensuring that several years of experience and work with criminal justice institutions have been harnessed and consolidated. In many respects, this approach mirrors the policy recommendations contained within the National Crime Prevention Strategy (NCPS) - which was passed by Cabinet in May 1996. The NCPS motivates convincingly for an integrated, cross-cutting approach to crime prevention, particularly as regards policy formation across the departments of the criminal justice system - Justice, Safety and Security and Correctional Services. The unification of the CSVR's Criminal Justice Policy Unit reflects and advances this integrated approach which is sought from within government. However, this Annual Report does document the work of the Policing Project and the Prisons Project in separate sub-sections, for the sake of greater clarity and transparency.

Prisons Research Project

Main Activities

Transformation Forum on Correctional Services
During 1996, our work continued within the Transformation Forum on Correctional Services (TFCS), although the status of the Forum was uncertain during the first four months of the year, and its activities largely came to an end in September when the Forum's funding was terminated. During February, the Minister of Correctional Services withdrew the Department of Correctional Services (DCS) from the Forum. Since the Forum was established as a joint venture between the DCS and organs of civil society, it effectively lost its ability to implement or advise on crucial policy issues without the Department's presence. After extensive consultations - and the intervention of President Mandela - the Minister of Correctional Services allowed the Department to re-enter the Forum, although this was with somewhat reduced enthusiasm. Despite the Minister's undertakings to facilitate greater involvement in the Forum, his office in fact failed to participate at all.

Notwithstanding these difficulties, the TFCS made substantial, creative and sometimes forceful policy inputs in a number of areas. Two of the staff members of the CSVR's Prisons Research Project were represented on the Forum and actively involved in the following projects:

Originally it was envisaged that this proposed programme would be managed as one aspect of the broader enterprise of human resources management within the Department. However, considering the uncertainty which abounded after mid-year about the status of the Forum, this project was largely undertaken and advanced outside of the Forum. This is elaborated upon further in the following paragraph.

Human Rights Training
In 1995, the Penal Reform Lobby Group - of which the CSVR's Prisons Research Project was a part - initiated a project on human rights training for members of the Correctional Services. The progress of this project has been hampered by the withdrawal of the DCS from the TFCS, as we had submitted our proposal to the Department and were awaiting a response when the DCS withdrew. The DCS only responded positively some months after the Minister authorized the Department's re-joining of the TFCS. Together with the DCS, we then organised a workshop during October, to which the DCS and other stake-holder organisations were invited. The workshop was aimed at establishing what human rights training was occurring in the prisons, evaluating the materials and methodology, and devising a programme for an initial pilot and subsequent nationwide implementation of this human rights training. The workshop concluded that such training was vitally needed in the prisons - both for prisoners and for DCS staff, and that the full commitment of the DCS was required if this was to be achieved.

A meeting has been scheduled with the DCS for early in the forthcoming year to plan for the implementation of the project. Proposals are being developed around a four pronged approach to human rights training for 1997 and 1998. The project involves the CSVR's Criminal Justice Policy Unit working together with Lawyers for Human Rights (LHR) and the Electoral Institute of South Africa (EISA). This project therefore represents a creative venture based on sustained NGO cooperation. The first phase of this partnership project will entail training trainers within the prisons. Prisoners and staff in four prisons in Gauteng will be trained in human rights and civic education. The trainers will proceed to train others in the prisons. The other aspects of the project entail developing human rights training curricula for middle management staff of the DCS, and then engaging on a training programme for the staff in the same four prisons.

During 1996, the CSVR's Criminal Justice Policy Unit also contributed to a human rights training project run by the Centre for Applied Legal Studies (CALS). This training programme aimed at training members of the provincial governments in human rights and the CSVR's Criminal Justice Policy Unit provided input which focused specifically on human rights issues within the prisons and policing institutions.

Project to Facilitate Community Involvement in Prisons
Independent of the work done within the TFCS, the CSVR's Criminal Justice Policy Unit was extensively involved in this sphere of work during the year under review. We facilitated the formation of a steering committee composed of members of community-based organisations, in order to examine ways of involving the wider community in the activities of the Johannesburg Prison. The Steering Committee decided to focus on the juvenile prisoners because they are the youngest, most vulnerable and strategically important group for reintegration into the community upon their release from prison. Furthermore, because there are fewer juvenile prisoners, this also renders the project more manageable.

The Steering Committee toured the prison and interviewed prisoners in an attempt to ascertain the needs of the juvenile offenders and to identify potential vehicles through which community representatives and organisations could assist. Common issues and requests raised by the inmates included: the expressed need for ongoing interaction with people outside of the prison - as many of them do not receive visits from their families; regular inspections of their conditions of incarceration; and various intervention programmes dealing with personal and educational themes.

A follow-up workshop is planned for early 1997 with a wider range of organisations which may be in a position to assist in the running of such programmes and in linking prisoners to their families, as well as in providing other forms of ongoing support to these juvenile inmates.

Juvenile Justice
Towards the end of 1996, a research project was initiated focusing on the sentencing trends among juvenile offenders, as well as the conditions of incarceration of these sentenced juveniles within prisons in Gauteng. This project arose from the concern that many juvenile offenders - especially those under the age of 18 years - are inappropriately sentenced to imprisonment and receive no form of "corrective" or supportive training or assistance while in prison.

The aim of the research study is to provide a better understanding of the sentenced child's needs and concerns, and to feed this into policy development for the correctional services. This study has received the support of the DCS, which has also agreed to facilitate access to juvenile offenders within the relevant prisons.

In the forthcoming year the CSVR's Criminal Justice Policy Unit will also become involved in a nationwide project which will document the conditions under which children (both sentenced and awaiting trial) are held in prisons in South Africa. This project is initiated by UNICEF and will be administered by the Community Law Centre in the Western Cape.

Policy Initiatives, Lobbying and Advocacy

In the course of the year under review, the Prisons Research Project was extensively involved in lobbying and advocacy interventions related to most of the activities described above. These approaches are documented below. In most of these areas it is still too early to evaluate the extent to which our interventions have influenced government policy-making or have shaped decision making.

Juvenile Justice
The Prisons Research Project of the CSVR's Criminal Justice Policy Unit participated extensively in the Juvenile Justice Work-group which serves to monitor and deal with problems relating to juveniles in conflict with the law in Gauteng Province. The work-group is attended by prosecutors, magistrates, members of the Department of Safety and Security, probation services, the Welfare Department and representatives of non-governmental organisations. This membership of the group offers an ideal vehicle for lobbying and advocacy work in the juvenile justice sphere. The group visited Johannesburg and Leeuwkop Prisons.

A seminar paper on juvenile justice was presented by Amanda Dissel at the CSVR's monthly seminar in April and this seminar was well attended by most of the stake-holders in this sector. The CSVR's Director, Graeme Simpson, also presented a paper at an international workshop on juvenile justice, hosted by Save the Children (UK and Sweden) in Swaziland during October 1996.

Parole
Following concerns expressed by the Department of Justice, several NGOs, as well as the Kriegler Commission of Enquiry into Unrest in Prisons, the National Advisory Council (NAC) on Correctional Services initiated a consultative process into the redrafting of the South African parole procedures and legislation. The CSVR's Criminal Justice Department participated in this process through comments to the NAC, as well as through a subsequent a presentation which was made to the Portfolio Committee on Correctional Services on the parole proposals.

Privatisation of Prisons
The Minister of Correctional Services has stated his intent to privatise aspects of the correctional services. The CSVR's Prisons Research Project has made written submissions to the Parliamentary Portfolio Committee in favour of privatisation of certain aspects of the Department, but cautioning strongly against the full privatisation of the Department or any of its prisons.

Electronic Monitoring of Parolees
Electronic monitoring of parolees was introduced on a pilot project basis. The CSVR's Prisons Research Project made several recommendations to the Portfolio Committee on the electronic monitoring, and expressed several serious concerns regarding its implementation.

Research

In the first part of the year, most of the prisons research was directed towards the policy work of the TFCS - particularly in relation to the issues of demilitarisation, human rights, proposals for a prisons inspectorate and the establishment of a lay visitors scheme in the prisons. A number of research papers and publications were produced and these are listed at the end of this Annual Report.

International Conferences and Training

Amanda Dissel was invited to present a workshop on human rights and conditions of imprisonment at a Penal Reform International Conference in Uganda. The conference was focused on "Prison Conditions in Africa" and resulted in the adoption of the Kampala Declaration on Prison Conditions in Africa.

During October, two CSVR Prisons Research Project staff members - Amanda Dissel and Jabu Dhlamini - participated in an international training seminar on prison visits. This training was hosted by the International Rehabilitation Council for Torture Victims (IRCT) and was held in Denmark. The training was very relevant to our ongoing work and will undoubtedly prove useful in respect of the CSVR's monitoring role in prisons, as well as in our policy work concerned with the establishment of a lay visitors scheme in South African prisons.

Future Direction in Prisons Research and Interventions

As noted in the previous pages, during the past year the CSVR's Prisons Research Project spent much of its energy in attempting to feed into the policy development of the DCS through the TFCS. However, the TFCS was a body which was heavily influenced by the political representatives sitting on it. The political tensions between the Forum, the DCS and the Ministry of Correctional Services, often frustrated the practical attempts at transformation.

In 1997 our work will be more focused on practical projects with specific short, medium and long term aims. Any policy work will be based on research and will be directed through the Portfolio Committee on Correctional Services and directly to the office of the Minister of Correctional Services himself.

Planned projects for the forthcoming year will include:

Policing Research Project (PRP)

Main Activities

Community Policing
The CSVR's PRP continued its central work in the area of community policing during the year under review, primarily through offering training and support to the Community Police Forums (CPFs). The CPFs proved to be fragile structures, which nonetheless remain critical to government's plans to reduce crime and to stabilise communities. The CPFs are increasingly seeking to play a significant role in crime prevention activities. Our aim is therefore to facilitate the sustainability of these Forums and to develop capacity and skills among the police and community members expected to implement and participate in the community policing partnership.

Crime Prevention Policy Work
As noted in the CSVR's previous Annual Reports, the phenomenon of burgeoning violent crime in South Africa is a dominant concern and is widely regarded as presenting the most fundamental challenges to embryonic democracy and human rights in this country. For this reason, the problems of violent crime are of primary importance in the work undertaken by the CSVR. Whilst this crime prevention agenda is central to our policing and prisons policy work - and therefore lies at the heart of the CSVR's Criminal Justice Policy Unit - it is a broad concern which also relates to the key agendas of all the other CSVR departments. For this reason, our inter-departmental interventions and initiatives in the crime prevention sphere will be dealt with under a separate heading. The CSVR's Criminal Justice Policy Unit is nonetheless central to all the work undertaken in this sphere.

National Human Rights Education Forum
Since 1995, the PRP has been involved in the National Human Rights Education Forum. This body looks at developing human rights curricula as a dimension of police training. Early in the year under review, members of the CSVR staff attended a workshop where we were invited to give input on the material which should be included in a police manual on human rights education. The manual was to be drafted by the SAPS Legal Services Division and circulated for comment to the Training Division of the SAPS - as well as to NGOs which were represented at the workshop. Although the manual was not actually completed and circulated in the course of the year, it is expected to be available for comment early in 1997.

Due to poor attendance at the National Human Rights Education Forum, some doubt as to the future of the forum was expressed in the course of the year. However, it was felt that the Forum did have an important role to play in determining the future direction of human rights education for the police. The mission and vision of the Forum was discussed. It was decided that the primary reasons for such national co-ordination were to ensure that NGO projects were not duplicated, as well as to monitor and evaluate such human rights education within the SAPS. It was also suggested that the Forum serve as a conduit through which NGO-offered courses could receive accreditation. The PRP convenes the Forum's sub-committee on Monitoring and Evaluation.

Police Reporting Officer Board (PRO)
In the course of 1996, a member of the PRP staff was invited to sit on the Police Reporting Officer (PRO) Board. The mandate of the PRO Board was extended until 3 October 1996, when it was scheduled to be replaced by the new structure of the Independent Complaints Directorate (ICD). During this time, members of the PRO Board were mainly concerned with developing a structure for the ICD, as well as with the reviewing of outstanding cases involving allegations of police misconduct or criminal acts involving police.

In the course of this work, the PRP was able to assist the PRO Board in formulating practical guidelines on how to conduct identity parades without exposing complainants to any intimidation by police personnel. This intervention was broadened and we provided more general input in the formulation of various policies for the ICD's subsequent operations. Amongst other things, the PRP also assisted in evaluating some of the technical and facility deficits at police station level (such as the existence of one way mirrors and surveillance cameras), which served to deter people who had information regarding police criminality, from coming forward to report it. It was our evaluation that this was a key factor in the many unsolved cases of alleged police corruption in the Vaal Triangle.

In spite of the constructive contribution of the PRP to the work of the PRO Board, internal disagreements about the proposed structure of the ICD amongst members of the Board, resulted in the appointment of a working group to assist in this matter. In the interim, the PRO Board was closed down from 3 October 1996 and some of its functions were taken over by the National Secretariat for Safety and Security, pending the establishment of the ICD.

Independent Complaints Directorate (ICD)
In December 1996, the PRP was commissioned by the ICD Working Group to assist with drafting working procedures and regulations. We were also requested to conduct research into deaths in custody or as a result of police action. This work will be carried out and completed in January 1997, and reflects our ongoing constructive role in the field of police criminality. In the coming year, it is envisaged that we will be involved in further work with the ICD in developing its policy approach, researching and evaluating its effectiveness, as well as in police and community training regarding the role and potential of the ICD in tackling the scourge of police misconduct. This work will also dovetail well with the CSVR's planned research interventions into police corruption more generally.

Individual requests for assistance
Several requests were made directly to PRP for assistance with regard to police ineffectiveness and negligence in respect of investigations into serious criminal matters. After failing to get the desired response from the police service and the Gauteng Ministry of Safety and Security, various individuals and interest groups approached the PRP. Cases involving rape, house breaking and assault have been brought to the attention of the PRP. As a result of PRP's involvement in the CPF Capacity Building Project, individual members of these fora have sought our assistance in these matters. In such cases, a member of the PRP staff generally seeks a meeting with the Provincial Commissioner in order to bring the matter to his attention. He in turn is requested to call the relevant Station Commissioner who is then under some pressure to investigate the case further. Of the three most serious cases reported to the PRP and taken up in this manner, two have been resolved and one remains outstanding.

The PRP was also requested to provide assistance in Westbury township, an historically "coloured" area which is notorious for its gang activities and drug related crime. The area is equally notorious for its ineffective policing.

Through our interventions we assisted in gaining the special attention of the MEC for Safety and Security and the matter was also taken up by the Police Reporting Officer for Gauteng, Adv. Jan Munnik, who then forwarded the matter to the office of the Attorney General - who was engaging with this concern at the time of writing.

Research Reports
In the course of 1996, the PRP continued to produce research reports both informing policy and documenting and evaluating its various interventions. These reports are incorporated within the publications and presentations lists of this report.

Criminal Justice Policy Unit Staffing

In the CSVR report for 1995, much was made of the impact of recruitment of CSVR staff by various government departments. In the criminal justice field, this trend continued and the CSVR lost further members of staff - particularly black staff who had been trained within the organisation during the preceding years. Sylvester Rakgoadi, Coordinator of the PRP, left the Centre to take up a position as Deputy Director in the Gauteng Secretariat for Safety and Security. Mongezi Mnyani, a researcher in the Prisons Research Project was also recruited as a Deputy Director in the Gauteng Secretariat, (along with another member of the CSVR's Education and Training Department). Amanda Dissel was then appointed as Coordinator of the amalgamated Criminal Justice Policy Unit and a woman - Jabu Dhlamini - joined us as field-worker, and David Bruce as a researcher during May and June respectively. Duxita Mistry and Kindiza Ngubeni continued in their work as researcher and field-worker within the Unit.

Whilst the CSVR can be proud of its training and capacity building service to government - in this case, particularly the Gauteng civilian Secretariat for Safety and Security - the impact on the internal capacity of the organisation cannot be underestimated. Not only do we run the risk of being trapped in a constant cycle of re-building our capacity, but the very success of our specialised interventions threatens to become our greatest liability as key staff are then sought out to run government programmes in these fields. This is ultimately a problem which will only be overcome when the CSVR begins to match government and private sector salaries.

Youth Department

Introduction

The socio-political conditions in South Africa during the transition phase have had a widespread and far-reaching impact on the youth. Not only has the increase in crime meant that the youth are far more vulnerable to being recruited into the growing criminal gangs in the townships, but the transformative difficulties experienced by the Education Department has meant that teachers and school structures have become preoccupied with meeting the demands of these changes at the expense of the attention given directly to the children themselves. The CSVR maintains that working with youth in the area of trauma management and supportive intervention programmes remains vital to ensuring that the cycle of violence does not repeat itself in the next generation of South Africans and that today's victims of crime and abuse do not become tomorrow's perpetrators.

In view of this, one of the developments which shaped the work of the CSVR's Youth Department over the last year has been government's struggle to transform the Education Department. The government has expressed serious concerns about the deteriorating standard in the culture of learning and teaching in schools - particularly in the township schools which were already decimated as places of social cohesion under apartheid. Coupled with the deteriorating environment which prevents students and teachers from engaging in learning, is the myopia of most government and public officials in respect of the negative impact that violence-related trauma has on the ability of students to learn. The CSVR's Youth Department has shaped its intervention programmes in an attempt to tackle both of these disabling factors in the broad field of educational enrichment.

In pursuit of these ambitious objectives during 1996, the CSVR Youth Department experienced serious limitations in terms of staff capacity coupled with constantly increasing demands for our services. At the beginning of 1996 there were two social workers and a trainer employed in the Department. The trainer resigned in the middle of the year to join the Gauteng Ministry of Safety and Security as an Assistant Director for Community Outreach - highlighting the continuous battle of NGOs in retaining staff who have gained valuable experience and training in their work with community-based NGOs such as ourselves. However, by October, the Department had recruited two further staff members: a social worker, Mosley Lebeloane, and a trainee, Sello Molefe.

Main Activities

Setting up and Sustaining School-based Intervention Units

One of the key aims of the CSVR's Youth Department during the year under review remained the facilitation and setting up of structures in schools to deal with traumatised students. These structures consist of trained teachers who are able to deal effectively, sensitively and professionally with children experiencing problems related to violence and trauma. The quality of the training and the ongoing follow-up and support of the teachers within these schools-based structures remains a priority in order to avoid the secondary traumatisation of child victims within the schooling environment. In view of this objective, it remained imperative that the CSVR staff continued to offer sustained supervision and support, as well as facilitating additional similar support through other professionals in the mental health field. This support continued to ensure that teachers were sustained in their challenging work and that they did not suffer from burn-out. Staff from the CSVR's Youth Department assisted in linking teachers up to the network of service provider structures which offer support for abused and traumatised children, such as the South African Police Service Child Protection Units, child psychiatric clinics, victim/offender mediation services, shelters and places of safety and other supportive NGOs working in the field. A key point of referral in all these respects continued to be the CSVR's own Trauma Clinic.

Three new schools were added to the 1996 programme, making a total of 6 high schools and 2 primary schools involved in the CSVR Youth Department's Children and Violence Intervention Project during the year under review.

Teacher Training
The teaching staff in the three new schools incorporated in the programme in the course of 1996 were provided with basic training on identifying the symptoms of trauma in children. Co-ordinating structures, which aimed to bring together teachers from different schools situated in the same area, were also set up and comprised of at least four teachers elected by their colleagues at each school. The members of the co-ordinating structures were offered further training in basic interviewing skills, referral and networking. In addition, the CSVR social workers offered these Committees ongoing support and supervision.

1996 witnessed a substantial increase in the participation of teachers in the Children and Violence Intervention Programme - and this represents a significant achievement on our part. In four of the schools, the principals were actively supportive and participated in the workshops offered to their staff. The principals involved in the training took a keen interest in the functioning and survival of the Co-ordinating Committees - a factor which is important in the ongoing sustainability of these programmes in the schools, especially considering the fact that these structures are still not validated or actively supported by the Department of Education in a way which would ensure that they become permanent fixtures in the schooling system.

Teacher training appeared to have a positive impact on working relationships among the staff members in the schools. This was particularly evident in one school where the tension among the staff members had placed the education system at the school on the verge of collapse. Through the Co-ordinating Committees, the teachers identified that they needed help with their own problems before venturing into solving the children's trauma. With the teachers' full participation, a programme of action was drawn up based on an identification of their areas of interest, including the need for stress management and communication skills programmes. The delivery of these training programmes was undertaken in conjunction with professionals from other relevant organisations and included the use of art and drama therapy in the healing of trauma and in resolving conflict. In addition, a few sessions on debriefing skills were run, so as to enable the teachers to respond to crisis situations in their classrooms.

The lessons learned through these interventions were utilised in developing cases and examples which teachers could further draw upon in their work to improve the culture of learning in the schools. These interventions highlighted the need for teachers themselves to undergo some type of healing and counselling process in order to deal with the demands of a traumatised student population along with the already stressful enterprise of engaging in the process of transforming the education system. It is our evaluation that these needs and requirements of teachers themselves are all too frequently ignored or under-valued by the Departments and Ministry of Education.

Coordinating Committees
As noted above, the CSVR's Youth Department continued to set up and support school-based teacher's Co-ordinating Committees. The work with these Co-ordinating Committees was varied in its impact and achieved both positive and less advantageous results.

On the positive side, both primary schools and two of the high schools in which the CSVR Youth Department was involved during the year completed well organised and well co-ordinated programmes - due mainly to the functioning of these structures. The members of the Co-ordinating Committees at these schools were consistent in attending meetings (both planning and case conferences) and were highly successful and efficient in implementing the ideas which emerged from their regular meetings. They performed their tasks excellently - some of which were the co-ordination of referrals from other staff members, contacting the parents of children who were identified as suffering from trauma and referring cases to outside agencies. Some of the members accompanied the CSVR social workers on home visits in cases of severe abuse and traumatisation. This teacher involvement and commitment - facilitated by the sustained functioning of the Co-ordinating Committees - helped to decrease the heavy reliance on CSVR staff members that school teachers have often developed in previous years. The CSVR Youth Department staff have consequently developed greater confidence that their eventual withdrawal from direct and sustained involvement in these schools will be achievable without a significant decrease in the quality of the work which the teachers are able to perform. This is a great advance for the CSVR Youth Department, in that we are able to develop an exit strategy based on the development of largely sustainable school-based services for children who have been victims of violence.

A contrasting experience must, however, be acknowledged. In the remaining two schools, the functioning of the Co-ordination Committees was considerably more problematic. In both of these schools, the heads of these Co-ordinating Committees tended to assert a destructive ownership of the process and consequently isolated other colleagues and participants. This resulted in the Committees being viewed as individual power bases rather than as a collective effort on the part of members of staff. Once discredited in this manner - and despite the efforts of the CSVR's Youth Department staff - it proved extremely difficult to rebuild teacher confidence in the co-ordination structures, with the result that these problems recurred throughout the year under review.

Another ironic problem encountered was that, in these two high schools, the number of teachers who volunteered to participate in the Co-ordination Committees was too large. Although this clearly indicated the interest of teachers in such training in order to more effectively deal with their students, as well as their commitment to creating a culture of learning, the size of the groups rendered them unwieldy. Instead of an ideal committee of four teachers, up to 12 members from each school volunteered. It was difficult to manage the large meetings and not all the members were consistent in attending and taking responsibility for making the group functional. Personal differences tended to play themselves out at the expense of the goals of the committees. In trying to resolve this, the approach of forming sub-committees was introduced, but the co-ordination of these sub-committees simply added to the burdens experienced. Over time members of these structures lost interest - due mainly to the inefficiency and lack of co-ordination - and only a few members remained active.

It is our evaluation that the key factor in determining the success and sustainability - or otherwise - of the Co-ordinating Committees has been the extent to which the school itself has been well managed. When teachers and principals were able to introduce and deepen a culture of learning among the students, the CSVR's Children and Violence Intervention Project was able to function well. In cases where there was generally disorder, a lack of discipline and poor management skills, the programme also suffered.

Workshops for Students

In the course of the year, considerable media attention was given to the issue of child abuse in South Africa. Although it was often easy to be critical of the media representations of these social ills, when added to the more substantial public education work of NGOs and other pressure groups, the cumulative effect was significant in sensitising communities about the extent of the problem. Apart from the direct role which the CSVR played in these public awareness initiatives, the immediate consequences for us manifested in the greater demand for educational programmes aimed at the empowering of children, parents and teachers in respect of these issues of abuse.

To address these needs and to engage directly with children as the primary target community, workshops were developed and run with each individual class in the primary schools. The class teachers acted as co-facilitators. Storytelling, plays and drawing were some of the methods used to educate children about child abuse and various forms of violence. The emphasis was on how children could protect themselves and what they could do whenever they found themselves in threatening situations, particularly in their own homes. In addition, the teacher's role as care-giver and protector of children was reaffirmed, and it is our evaluation that this contributed substantially to strengthening the school environment as a vehicle for the culture of learning and teaching.

In the high schools, the approach adopted in the workshops differed and involved covering topics such as: identifying signs and symptoms of trauma; focuses on different types of violence with a special emphasis on sexual and gang-related violence; general education contextualising violence in South Africa; and conflict resolution skills training, to mention but a few. Role plays were utilised and found to be a valuable tool in challenging the students' perceptions of violence. These workshops stimulated a great deal of interest among the students. The significance of these workshops for many of the students was that they presented a safe environment within which they could express their feelings and confront their fears and anxieties about violence - often for the first time.

Another significant development in the high schools was the growing realisation that students themselves wanted to participate in the planning and running of these violence awareness workshops. In this manner, students began to educate their peers about the issues of violence and alternatives to violence. In one of the high schools this was most dramatically achieved when one of the classes that had been through the workshop programme successfully organised and facilitated workshops for other classes - using their personal experiences to address issues such as family violence, drug abuse and sexual violence. With the permission of the staff at the school, they invited their peers in the school to participate in their workshop. The response from the participants was very positive and illustrated the potential and the need for further workshops of this nature. As a novel and innovative vehicle for reaching children and youth, this proved to be a very effective strategy, as it was apparent that these students could often listen to each other and influence each other's behaviour in a manner that even teachers frequently could not achieve. This view was also appreciated and supported by teachers who indicated that the approach not only contributed enormously to creating a conducive environment for learning, but also encouraged students to take responsibility for their own education and life skills development.

Inasmuch as all these workshops were educational, they were also clearly therapeutic for a number of children. Many of the topics evoked their own memories of traumatic experiences and allowed for ventilation of these pent-up emotions. The workshops had a positive spin-off in mobilising support and understanding among classmates, who voluntarily moved forward and offered comfort to those who broke down in tears as a result of the discussions. It improved classroom cohesion and sensitised children to the difficulties some of their peers were facing on an ongoing basis. Those that needed further attention were referred to the CSVR social worker attached to the school and, where necessary, to the CSVR Trauma Clinic.

Awareness/Information Workshops for Parents

It has always been recognised by the CSVR Youth Department that in breaking the cycle of violence, the involvement and influence of parents is imperative. For this reason, during the year under review, we continued to emphasise the need for the school-based co-ordinating committees to take responsibility for organising information and awareness meetings for parents in their schools. In this manner, the role of the students themselves was supplemented as a means by which the schools became a vital spring-board to the wider community. These workshops for parents focused on issues of violence and abuse. The priority of the meetings was to explore how parents could be supportive of children who have been victims of violence and abuse. Another educational element was concerned with teaching parents to recognise the symptoms of trauma.

Interestingly, parents' attitudes were frequently reflective of some of the more widespread and disturbing trends in South Africa at present - and this exposure itself helped to inform the development of the CSVR's perspectives and programmes. For example, the majority of parents who attended the meetings appeared to be more concerned about being discouraged from beating their children, than they were about the problems of child abuse. For the CSVR Youth Department staff, this attitude reflected one of the major challenges facing all those concerned with the rights of children. Parents were resistant to the idea of abolishing corporal punishment in the schools. These attitudes in themselves presented a dilemma for teachers who were often pressurised by parents to discipline their children in this manner, yet who are constitutionally prohibited from using corporal punishment in the schools. This exposed a critical controversy: teachers were barred from using corporal punishment in the schools, while children continued to be physically harmed and beaten in their own homes. During 1996, the workshops with parents elicited all these tensions, making it obvious that there was a dire need for further educational programmes among parents. However, these school-based community interventions were extremely demanding and taxed the limited capacity of the CSVR Youth Department. It was simply impossible to organise adequate follow-up meetings due to the amount of other work the Youth Department was committed to.

Despite the tensions outlined above, the parents who participated in the workshops were generally receptive and appreciated the initiative and the access to information. It is our evaluation that the workshops and their responses helped to strengthen the communication channels between the parents, the school and their children. They became aware of the resources available in the community to assist them with problems experienced at home. Some of the parents subsequently began to approach the CSVR social workers on their own initiative whenever they encountered problems concerning their children.

Counselling

Throughout 1996, the CSVR Youth Department continued to provide counselling for children who had been victims of violence. As in previous years, serious cases were referred on to the CSVR Trauma Clinic. An important development in the course of 1996 was that children, especially after going through the workshops run by the CSVR Youth Department, began to approach the CSVR social workers for help on their own initiative and without being referred by their teachers. In several instances, when a CSVR social worker was unavailable, students were approaching the members of the Co-ordinating Committee for assistance. In the six schools where the programme was operating during 1996, a total of 180 children were referred on for counselling.

The types of cases that were referred for counselling included:

Home Visits

In many of the cases cited above, home visits were undertaken by the CSVR Youth Department's social workers to the homes of children with severe problems, or in cases where parents refused invitations to come to discuss the problem at school. The teachers in the Co-ordinating Committees were generally supportive and frequently accompanied the CSVR staff on these home visits. This team work approach appeared to play an important role in convincing some parents about the part they had to play in bringing about positive change in their children's lives. However, it was impossible to undertake these home visits for every child, both due to the lack of capacity in the CSVR Youth Department, as well as because of the risk involved in crime-ridden areas of the township. Nonetheless, these social work interventions remained an important vehicle by which the Youth Department utilised its work in the schools as a springboard into the wider community.

The "40 Schools Project"

As the programmes of the CSVR Youth Department gained popularity among teachers, students and parents, more and more schools in the area requested the CSVR to set up similar projects in their schools. This illustrated two important issues: firstly, that many of these schools have absolutely no services whatsoever for the treatment of traumatised children or for dealing with violence and abuse; and secondly, that the CSVR Youth Department has gained a reputation for being helpful, reliable and consistent service providers, of particular value in setting up structures which can subsequently be sustained and managed by teachers themselves. In the course of 1996, in response to these overwhelming requests, the Youth Department initiated "The 40 Schools Project" - in an attempt to broaden the base of our interventions, while meeting these increased demands for our services.

The 40 Schools Project is a teacher training programme involving schools from Emdeni, Zola, Zondi and Jabulani - all in Soweto. The programme services both primary and high schools and has as its long term goal the establishment of co-ordinating structures similar to those set up in the other schools involved in the CSVR Youth Department programmes - but the object is also to do so with considerably less reliance on the CSVR for ongoing assistance and support. Each of the forty schools sent at least two teachers to the training sessions. A total of three training sessions were held and attendance was very good and remained consistent from all forty schools represented.

These teacher training workshops tackled topics such as different types of abuse, the identification of symptoms of trauma, dealing with the police and parents, self-care for those involved in working with traumatised children, and child development. The CSVR's Trauma Clinic, drama experts, police and legal personnel, were all invited to participate in the workshops.

As a result of this training programme, teachers were able to come together to share their experiences, their successes and their failures in their various attempts at implementing trauma management programmes at their schools. In the course of the year, a core group of teachers emerged who could respond to the issues of children and violence in a professional way and who, in the future, offer great potential for sustaining such school-based intervention programmes.

This intervention strategy had the effect of multiplying substantially the number of schools implementing the CSVR's violence and trauma management programmes. This means that in the years ahead, more children and families will be reached as teachers become more able to identify children with problems and respond appropriately.

Networking

As has already been noted in the previous pages, the CSVR's Youth Department continued to work with a wide range of other organisations involved in the schools. The educational workshops for students often gave expression to a multiplicity of needs - not all of which could be addressed by the CSVR Youth Department staff directly. This necessitated developing partnerships with other expert NGOs in order to address these additional needs - besides those of trauma and violence - in the schools. FAMSA and IMMSA were two such organisations consulted to provide their services in the schools.

The Family and Marriage Centre in South Africa (FAMSA), provided students with workshops on issues around sexuality and family difficulties. Cases of marital conflicts between parents were also referred to them. The Independent Mediation Services of South Africa (IMMSA) ran a series of workshops to empower students with skills that would enable them to intervene effectively in situations of conflict in their schools.

Police in the Child Protection Unit of the SAPS were also invited to present information in some of the workshops organised for teachers. The focus of these workshops was the role of teachers in reporting cases and the procedure of investigation and prosecution. The Child Protection Units became an important and useful link in reporting child abuse cases. In addition, direct links were established with local police stations (for example, Naledi and Moroka police stations), and these proved helpful in sorting out some of the assault and other criminal cases that were reported through the school-based Co-ordinating Committees.

The CSVR Youth Department was also active within a loose coalition of NGOs working in the schools. A member of the Youth Department attended all the meetings of this coalition, which was primarily concerned with strengthening the collective approach to government in lobbying for the development and funding of programmes for schools.

Links were established with the Children's Inquiry Trust, a project servicing traumatised children in Soweto and which runs a resource centre for various community-based organisations. The CSVR Youth Department staff were invited to present findings of the schools programme to the Trust's seminars for parents in Soweto. Primarily due to funding constraints, the Children's Inquiry Trust had to close its doors in the middle of 1996.

The CSVR Youth Department liaised closely with the Soweto-based Network of Organisations Against Child Abuse, which is made up of participants from community-based organisations. The aims of the Network included the organisation of joint educational workshops and the development of joint strategies revolving around the issue of violence against children. It aimed to share skills among the participating organisations. The network held a number of planning meetings, but due to a lot of competition and petty power struggles between some of the participating groups, coupled with the collapse of the Children's Inquiry Trust (who acted as convenors), this venture collapsed. The fate of this initiative lent considerable weight to an approach which sought to build functional bi-lateral relationships between NGOs in this sphere, rather than seeking to sustain elaborate and extensive networks which in reality only seldom coalesced at a functional level.

Perhaps one of the most functional networking exercises (and which is frequently taken for granted) was that with other departments in the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation itself. Input from other CSVR professionals not only cultivated a creative multi-dimensional approach within the Youth Department, but was also used to ensure that the expertise and experience of a multi-disciplinary team impacted on the training programmes in the schools. In this manner, the expertise of the CSVR's Trauma Clinic, Policing Research Project and Prisons Project, as well as the Education and Training Department, were creatively harnessed.

Lobbying Government

From the impact that the CSVR Youth Department has had in the schools in which it has operated in the course of 1996 - despite its severely limited resources - it is our unambiguous evaluation that it is imperative for government, especially the Departments of Education and of Social Welfare, to acknowledge and support the expansion of this programme. It is clear that there are few service providers in township areas which can establish these types of support structures for children affected by violence. At most, there may be one or two clinics to which teachers and parents can refer children, but the CSVR's strength lies in the way that it empowers and enables the schools themselves to contain the problems and refer them out when necessary. In this manner, the school itself becomes a place of social cohesion and a vehicle for the rebuilding of the social fabric so decimated by apartheid. Because trauma and violence among children is an issue which seriously hampers education, learning and transformation, it simply has to be a responsibility of the government to ensure that these programmes are initiated and sustained in all schools. To ignore the fact that there is such a need for counselling and trauma management among students at schools (and among teachers as well, for that matter) is to ignore one of the very foundations of cycles of violence in South Africa. It is our view that to continue to do so, will ultimately make any meaningful education impossible.

For all of the above reasons, we are rather self-critical of the limited gains made in lobbying government during the year under review. However, the strategies of the CSVR Youth Department were embryonic in trying to bring the government on board, but were limited to meetings with advisors to the Gauteng MEC for Education and only resulted in verbal commitments of support for our initiatives. Despite these self-criticisms, we are aware that the building of relationships which lend themselves to such lobbying are, by definition, incremental. In this respect we believe that we are beginning to make a "bottom up" impact on the Department of Education and we look forward to translating this into greater access and more sustained influence in the coming year. In this respect, it is our intention to actively involve the recipients and participants in our programmes in lobbying the government to include similar approaches in their formal policy for the transformation of the education sector.

Considerable work will also have to be done in the coming year with the Ministry and Department of Social Welfare.

Evaluation

It has already been pointed out that during 1996, a primary focus of the CSVR's Youth Department continued to be on setting up structures in township schools, with the aim of training teachers and some principals in the healing and prevention of trauma in children. It is our overall evaluation that these intervention projects had a noteworthy impact on the township sub-communities of Soweto and Randfontein, in which we worked. Equally important, these "hands-on" intervention projects continue to provide a vital source of analytical information of more general value than merely within the specific schools within which we operate. Many of the new developments emerging from the day-to-day interventions of our Children and Violence Intervention Programme during 1996, therefore served to enrich the CSVR Youth Department's understanding and analysis of the needs and threats facing children - as well as the challenges posed by government's attempts to transform the education system into one which encourages learning and which is more child-centred. In the course of the year, this process has substantially aided in positioning the CSVR's Youth Department as a strategic lobbyist of various government departments in this field.

In effect, 1996 has seen the beginnings of an important - yet subtle - transformation of the CSVR's Youth Department. The Department's direct interventions continue to provide unique access and insight, yet increasingly these are being turned to our advantage as lobbyists and advocates. This is a unique advantage of the approach and nature of the CSVR, which provides an important competitive edge in our dealings with governmental and other authorities. To give up our direct service provision role - whatever our limitations of capacity - would potentially undermine a key strength in translating this direct experience into powerful policy lobbying and advocacy for the future. Nonetheless, it is also important to note that constantly increasing demand for the direct service provision functions provided by the CSVR's Youth Department remain difficult to manage - without substantially expanding our capacity. The non-delivery of these services and interventions by government is unlikely to change in the short to medium term, irrespective of the success of lobbying by groups such as ourselves. As a result, we anticipate a continued and inevitable duality in our functions in which it is neither possible nor desirable to simply retreat from the direct interventions, yet it remains vital to sustain pressure and lobby for greater governmental responsibility in the fulfilment of these very functions. It is ironic that it is our very unique grassroots intervention programmes which best places us to undertake such lobbying and advocacy work most effectively.

Government has initiated a five year campaign (due to begin in 1997) aimed at helping to restore the culture of learning and teaching in schools. It is our evaluation that the experience, lessons and findings of the CSVR's Youth Department in working with traumatised students and teachers in a number of township schools, will certainly assist in the development of national policy. In particular, our experience will be vital in addressing some of the more pressing policy approaches to improving the culture of learning and in assisting in the task of rebuilding the social fabric - particularly in township community life.

Future Direction

The CSVR Youth Department has slowly and consistently built the schools-based intervention programme over the last three years, from one which operated as a pilot in one or two schools, to an ambitious project which is seeking to expand its vital service to township schools on one hand, whilst lobbying government to ensure that such a programme is given priority on a national basis, on the other. These objectives shape our vision for the coming year and include the following:

Additional Projects and Programmes

Crime Prevention

As noted in various preceding sections of this Annual Report, the CSVR has been extensively involved in crime prevention work. These interventions have taken the form of extensive policy development interventions, victim aid and empowerment programmes, institutional transformation programmes and interventions within the youth sector.

Graeme Simpson, the CSVR's Director, was contracted by the National Ministry of Safety and Security to assist in drafting the National Crime Prevention Strategy (NCPS). His extensive contributions received widespread acclaim, as did the final document which was passed by Cabinet at the end of May 1996. The Ministry extended his contract for a further year to assist in developing some of the implementation phases of the Strategy.

The CSVR's direct involvement in this policy development sphere contributed significantly to establishing important priorities within government's crime prevention approach - many of which resonate closely with the CSVR's own programmes and priorities. Amongst other things the NCPS asserts as priority concerns the plight of women and children who are victims of violent crime (particularly in the domestic arena), as well as the centrality of the youth to any pro-active crime prevention approach. Our contribution was essential to establishing a national crime prevention programme of action which placed victims at the centre-stage and which recognised the critical preventive function of victim empowerment in intervening in cycles of criminal violence.

The detailed expertise of the CSVR and our ability to marry the concerns of victim aid, policing and prisons policy, youth interventions and political violence, contributed substantially to the development within the NCPS of a dis-aggregated approach to crime prevention. This approach recognised that each crime type clearly demands a different understanding and requires a different set of solutions in South Africa at present. Our approach also fitted well with the cross-departmental approach underpinning the NCPS, which involved a multi-disciplinary team from the Ministries and Departments of Justice, Safety and Security, the South African Police Services, Defence, the South African National Defence Force and the Department of Social Welfare.

Emerging from our extensive involvement in the NCPS process, in the second half of the year an inter-departmental research agenda on crime was set up within the CSVR and this was co-ordinated by Duxita Mistry of the Centre's Criminal Justice Policy Unit. Staff from all of the CSVR's Departments have continued to participate in this enterprise. One of the first tasks of the inter-departmental team was to develop a research proposal entitled: "The Police, Victims and the Criminal Justice Process". The objective of this project will be to conduct "a short track victim survey" in order to monitor the experiences of victims of crime in the criminal justice system. In documenting these experiences, we hope to develop a database (initially to be established at the CSVR Trauma Clinic) which will then be used as a qualitative monitor of the blockages within the system and the re-victimisation of survivors who go through the criminal justice process.

In its pilot phase, the primary initial sources of information will be the CSVR Trauma Clinic. Police members, prosecutors, magistrates and district surgeons who deal with the victims of crime will also be interviewed in order to determine where the blockages are in the criminal justice system. It is hoped that the recommendations and policy guidelines emerging from this pilot study will eventually assist in establishing a uniform database to be established at all service providers (legal, psychological and medical) which can then be utilised to render audible the voices and needs of victims themselves as a primary vehicle for monitoring the deficits of the criminal justice system. We believe that such an approach will be of great value to the Departments of Justice and of Safety and Security, particularly within Gauteng Province. Much of our work during 1997 will be dedicated to the development of this project.

In addition to the above areas, members of the CSVR staff were extensively involved in delivering papers, running workshops and facilitating policy initiatives in relation to various aspects of the crime problem. In the early part of the year Graeme Simpson continued to act as consultant to the Nedcor Project on Crime and Violence, and he assisted extensively in translating the Nedcor report into a six part television series which was aired by the national broadcaster.

In the course of the year, the CSVR consolidated its position as a leader in this field within the NGO sector. In part this contributed to the extensive media requests which we received relating to the crime issue. We were also actively involved in a wide range of inter-NGO initiatives related to a range of relevant programmes.

Violence and Development

The CSVR continued to play a role in this sphere, primarily through our pilot programme in Alexandra. The Alexandra experience has now been written up as a research paper, and Tracy Vienings has presented the findings at a number of fora where it has been well received. One of the primary outcomes of this programme has been the development of the CSVR's lobby for a full recognition of the fact that economic and infrastructural development - far from simply resolving social conflict - often results in the escalation of such conflict. This has played an important role in strengthening our call for "human development" which recognises the fundamental task of building and developing "human capital" or the social fabric, if we are to build lasting reconciliation. Once again, the CSVR was extensively involved in cooperative ventures with other NGOs involved in this sphere, particularly within Alexandra, but also more generally in the housing and developmental arenas.

International consultancy

Although time did not allow for many extensive consulting contracts in other countries during 1996, Graeme Simpson did return to Bosnia with an international team of experts. This trip was undertaken by the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA) and the team was led by the former Foreign Minister of Portugal, Mr. Barrosso. Graeme Simpson made an important and extensive contribution to the report compiled by the International IDEA team, which was forwarded to several governments, aid agencies and the World Bank.

The CSVR took the initiative in co-hosting a Southern African conference on reconciliation and reconstruction with Oxfam (UK&I).

CSVR staff have substantially enhanced the organisation's international profile in the course of 1996. The establishment of the CSVR website has resulted in considerable requests for information and contact from all over the world. In many cases this has included requests from highly talented international scholars who seek internship placements at the CSVR. Unfortunately our financial and capacity constraints have meant that not all of these requests could be accommodated.

Violence and Industry

Although this was not a primary focus within the CSVR during 1996, our work within industry did continue on something of an ad hoc basis. Generally, our work within the corporate sector related to our established programmes in other areas, but in which corporate groups had a clear interest. Considerable work was done in several companies in the Trauma Management and Trauma Training spheres. We also engaged extensively with various companies in relation to the issue of violent crime, offering educational interventions and management training. As noted above, the CSVR Director was extensively involved as a consultant in the Nedcor Crime Project. The CSVR was involved in various interventions with a wide range of companies, including South African Breweries, Woolworths, Nedcor, Eskom, Fidelity Guards, Standard Bank, to mention just a few.

Women and Violence

A gender focus remains an integral part of the work being done by all of the CSVR departments. In particular, our continued close association with the Sexual Harassment Education Project (SHEP) is of great mutual benefit to the CSVR and SHEP. In the course of the year considerable specialised work was undertaken by various CSVR Departments which deserves specific mention here. The Truth and Reconciliation Department was actively involved in specific examinations of the specific experiences of women in relation to the TRC. Most of the members of Khulumani are also women who have lost their sons, partners or husbands, with the result that the work of Khulumani has an explicit gender focus. The CSVR's Trauma Clinic was continually involved in developing specialised treatment strategies for women and children who have been victims of violent crime, specifically in respect of domestic abuse, sexual violence and rape. The establishment of rape survivors groups at the Trauma Clinic was a particularly important advance in this sphere. The CSVR's Youth Department was also extensively involved in cases involving sexual abuse of young girls within the schools, and this Department has focused much of its policy work on preventive mechanisms to deal with this gender specific problem. Finally, along with the Trauma Clinic the CSVR's Criminal Justice Policy Unit was actively involved in police training in respect of dealing with rape. In most of these ventures, the various CSVR departments were engaged in joint projects with other NGOs concerned with women's issues, police training and victim aid.

CSVR Internship Programme

The CSVR's internship programme continued and expanded in the course of 1996. We continued the tradition of hosting a few young black graduates as interns on a one year contract within the Centre, and witnessed the graduation of those who were taken on in the previous year. In the course of 1996, the following internships were undertaken within the CSVR:

In addition to these South Africans, several overseas internships were also undertaken - all at the expense of the candidates requesting such placements. Included amongst these were: Gunnar Theissen and Nike Durczak, two German graduates who undertook research in the Truth Commission Department, as well as Melissa Conley-Tyler (an Australian Harvard graduate) and Carl Fredrik Birkoff (a Swedish graduate from Uppsala University) who both worked within the CSVR's Education and Training Department.

Media Liaison

The CSVR's growing profile and reputation once again made us a key point of access for media representatives from both the print and electronic media from South Africa and around the world. Considerable radio and television work was undertaken by a wide range of CSVR staff. Media briefings and interviews were conducted for journalists from Austria, Australia, Germany, the USA, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland, Canada, Brazil, The Netherlands, Japan, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Belgium, as well as from various African countries and many others which are too numerous to mention.

Through the development of a multi-media educational capacity during 1996, the CSVR was also able to pro-actively engage with the media and managed to get our video on Khulumani screened twice on SABC television, as well as on Australian television. Several media articles were produced by CSVR staff and these are included in the publications list of this Annual Report.

We believe our media profile to be an exceptionally important lobbying and civic education tool and look forward to continuing in this vein in the coming years.

Publications

Books

Ndebele N & Vienings T
Death of a Son, First Edition, 57 pp., Viva Books, Johannesburg, 1996.

Academic Journal Articles

Dissel A
South Africa's Prison Conditions: The Inmates Talk, Imbizo, (2): p. 4-10, 1996.

Giffard C & Dissel A
Transforming Correctional Services: The Need for a New Vision, Track Two, Vol. 5, No. 1, March, 1996.

Hamber B
Sleeping Dogs Do Not Lie, Recovery, 1 (3): pp. 10-13, 1996.

Hamber B
The Need for a Survivor-Centred Approach to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Community Mediation Update, (9): pp. 5-6, 1996.

Marks M
Diepkloof et SA Jeunesse, Temps Modernes, (585): pp. 133-158, 1995.

Simpson G & Van Zyl P
La commission pour la vérité et la réconciliation sera-t-elle "le meilleur désinfectant"? Temps Modernes, (585): pp. 394-407, 1995.

Terre Blanche M & Hamber B
Between the Shark Tank and the Deep Blue Sea: Incidents from a History of the Durban Aquarium, South African Journal of Psychology, 26 (3): pp. 157-161, 1996.

Research Reports

Butchard A, Hamber B, Terre Blanche M & Seedat M
Violence, Power and Mental Health Policy in Twentieth Century South Africa, October 1995.

Dissel A
The Passing Out Parade: Demilitarisation of the Correctional Services, May 1996.

Hamber B & Simpson G
Dr Jekyll and "Mr Hide": Violence and the Transition to Democracy in South Africa, December 1996.

Mistry D
The State of Community Police Forums (CPFs) and their Challenges, July 1996.

Rock B & Hamber B
Psychology in a Future South Africa: The need for a National Psychology Development Programme, November 1995.

Simpson G
Crime and Violence: The Need for Victim Support in South Africa, Institute for Security Studies Monograph No. 7: Putting Victims on the Agenda, November 1996.

Stauffer C & Hamber B
Putting a Face on the Past, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation Seminar No. 1, 20 February 1996.

Media Articles

Hamber B
Will Reconciliation Follow Disclosure, New Nation, 3 May 1996.

Hamber B & Hlungwani M
What happens when you are exposed to violence?, October 1996.

Rodwell B
Developing a Human Rights Culture, Sowetan, 11 July, 1996.

Rodwell B & Hamber B
Picking up the Pieces, New Nation, 24 May, 1996.

Rodwell B & Segal L
Looking into Africa's Past, Sowetan, 11 July, 1996.

Segal L
Human Rights Abuse Abounds in Zimbabwe, Sowetan, 11 July, 1996.

Simpson G
The Fight Against Crime Can No Longer Afford to Ignore Victims' Rights, Sunday Independent, 21 July 1996.

Presentations, Seminar Papers and Conference Contributions

Bruce D
"Thinking about Victims of Crime", Centre for Applied Legal Studies, Workshop for Police Station Commanders on Human Rights, Pietersburg (October 1996).

Dhlamini J
"Perspectives of Militarised Youth on Crime and Crime Prevention", The Riverfield Lodge Mental Health Day, Riverfield (November 1996).

Dissel A
"The Enforcement of Human Rights in the Prisons and Police", Centre for Applied Legal Studies, Conference on: Human Rights Training for Provincial Administrators, Mmabatho, Kimberly and Pietersburg (1996).

Dissel A
"Juvenile Justice", Centre for Study of Violence and Reconciliation Monthly Seminar, Johannesburg (June 1996).

Dissel A
"An Independent Prisons Inspectorate for South Africa", CRIMSA, Conference on: Crime and Justice in the Nineties, UNISA, Pretoria (July 1996).

Dissel A
"Presentation on Parole to the Portfolio Committee on Correctional Services", Cape Town (April 1996).

Dissel A & van Zyl Smit D
"Human Rights and Prison Conditions in Africa", Penal Reform International, Conference on: Prison Conditions in Africa, Kampala (September 1996).

Donaldson M
"Children and Trauma in Gauteng", Sharon Hebrew Nursery School, Johannesburg (April 1996).

Donaldson M
"Preparing Children for Court", Social Work Department, Baragwanath Hospital, Soweto (April 1996).

Donaldson M
"Child Abuse", MESWAWU, Johannesburg (April 1996).

Donaldson M
"Treatment Issues in Adult Survivors of Child Abuse", Wits University MA Psychology Students, Johannesburg (May 1996).

Donaldson M
"Children, Trauma and the CSVR Trauma Clinic", Baragwanath Hospital Community Nurse Child Abuse Counsellors, Soweto (May 1996).

Donaldson M
"A Discussion with Children about Child Abuse", Sunnyridge Primary School, Johannesburg (May 1996).

Donaldson M
"The Role of the Community with Regard to Child Abuse", SASPACAN Workshop for East Rand Teachers, Johannesburg (June 1996).

Donaldson M
"Dealing with Traumatised Children", Police and Social Workers Working in Women and Child Abuse Centres in Namibia, Windhoek (August 1996).

Donaldson M
"Children and Trauma", Wits University Medical Students, Johannesburg (August 1996).

Donaldson M
"Dealing with Traumatised Children", Lecture Course offered at Johannesburg College of Education, Johannesburg (September 1996).

Donaldson M
"The Effect of Violence on Children", Talk to Foster Parents in Westbury, Johannesburg (October 1996).

Donaldson M
"Children and Trauma", Third Year Community Psychology Course, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (October 1996).

Donaldson M
"Understanding Family Violence", Midrand Social Workers, Johannesburg (October 1996).

Donaldson M
"Dealing with Traumatised Children", East Rand Social Workers (November 1996).

Donaldson M
"The Teachers' Role in Helping the Traumatised Child", Sharonlea Primary School, Johannesburg (November 1996).

Donaldson M
"Child Abuse", Standerton Child Abuse Community Initiative, Johannesburg (December 1996).

Donaldson M
"Art and Drawing in Helping the Traumatised Child", Paper presented at Conference: 'Children, War and Persecution', Maputo (December 1996).

Hamber B
"The Role and Function of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission: The Relevance to the Business Sector", Presentation to Nedcor, Johannesburg (April 1996).

Hamber B
"The Relevance of the Truth Commission to the Business Sector", Presentation to Employee Assistance Programme Discussion Forum, Johannesburg (April 1996).

Hamber B
"The Khulumani Support Group and its Relevance to Psychology", Psychology Department, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (May 1996).

Hamber B
"The Psychological Implications of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission with Special Reference to the South African Police Services", SAPS Training on the TRC, hosted by the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, Police Training College, Pretoria (May 1996).

Hamber B
"The Importance of Family and Psychological Support Groups", The Friends of Tara Support Group, Tara Hospital, Johannesburg (May 1996).

Hamber B
"The Psychological Implications of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission", Address to Psychology Students from Midrand Campus, at The Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, Johannesburg (June 1996).

Hamber B
"A Perspective on Violence in South Africa", The Centre for Peace Studies, Pretoria (June 1996).

Hamber B
"The Role and Function of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission with Reference to the Role of Culture", presentation to the foreign participants, The Faultlines Cultural Event, Cape Town (July 1996).

Hamber B
"Can South Africa Deal with the Past Without Punishment?", Keynote Address, Community Dispute Resolution Trust, 3rd National Conference on: 'Mobilising Mediation: Towards Restoration and Reconciliation', Magaliesberg (July 1996).

Hamber B
"The Truth and Reconciliation Commission and the Work of the Centre for the Study of Violence", The Ecumenical Advice Bureau, Johannesburg (September 1996).

Hamber B
"Comparative Experiences: The Successes and Failures of the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission", Conference on: 'Understanding the Past to Safeguard the Future', Lilongwe, Malawi (October 1996).

Hamber B
"Violence and South Africa's Transition to Democracy", Centre for the Study of Violence, University of São Paulo, Brazil (December 1996).

Hamber B & Maepa E
"An Evaluation of the Khulumani Support Groups", Trauma Centre for Victims of Violence and Torture, Cape Town (September 1996).

Hlungwani M
"The Role of the Clinical Nurse Specialist in a Marginalised Society", South African Clinical Psychiatric Nurse Specialist Association, Johannesburg (April 1996).

Hlungwani M
"Trauma Awareness for Teachers", Alexandria School Teachers, Johannesburg (May 1996).

Hlungwani M
"Post Traumatic Stress", Primary Health Care Nurses, Koos Beukes Clinic, Soweto (June 1996).

Hlungwani M
"Dealing with Child Abuse", Soweto Teachers Group Vista University, Soweto (June 1996).

Hlungwani M
"Dealing with Child abuse", Bophelong Woman's Group, Vaal (August 1996).

Hlungwani M
"Clinical Signs of Child Sexual Abuse", Bedford Gardens Clinic Doctors' Training Programme, Soweto (August 1996).

Hlungwani M
"Child Abuse", Zamokhule Clinic Staff and Soweto Teachers, Soweto (August 1996).

Hlungwani M
"Workshop on Child Abuse", School Nurses, Johannesburg (August 1996).

Hlungwani M
"Trauma in Children", Zola High School, Soweto (October 1996).

Hlungwani M
"Professional Aspects of Trauma", Presentation for Mental Health Day, Riverfield Lodge, Johannesburg (November 1996).

Huber J
"Working with Women and Children who are Victims of Violence", Ministry of Health and Social Services, Police Officers and Social Workers, Windhoek (August 1996).

Huber J
"Working with Traumatised Children", Childline, Johannesburg (August 1996).

Huber J
"Understanding the Effects of Trauma", Paardekraal Hospital Social Workers, Krugersdorp (August 1996).

Huber J
"Managing Traumatised Staff", One Day Workshop for ESKOM Line Managers, Johannesburg (October 1996).

Huber J
"The Impact of Trauma", Lombardy East Methodist Church, Johannesburg (October 1996).

Huber J
"The Effects of Violence on Victims", South African Communication Service Johannesburg (November 1996).

Huber J & Robertson M
"Vicarious Traumatisation and Self Care", Wits University Psychology Intern Students, TARA Hospital, Johannesburg (July 1996).

Mayisela T, Mdhluli D & Zwane W
"Contextualising Violence: The Impact of Violence on Children", Nghunghunyane High School, Soweto (February 1996).

Mayisela T, Mdhluli D & Zwane W
"Youth and Violence", Multi-denominational Church Organisation Youth Gathering, Newclare (April 1996).

Mayisela T, Mdhluli D & Zwane W
"Corporal Punishment?", Jabulani Parents Meeting, Jabulani Technical High School, Soweto (March 1996).

Mayisela T, Mdhluli D & Zwane W
"The Impact of Violence on Children: What we Can Do", Zojazem Principal's Forum, Emathafeni Primary School, Soweto (February 1996).

Mdhluli D
"Evaluating the Impact of Violence on Township Children", International Stress Society, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (February 1996).

Mdhluli D & Zwane W
"Contextualising Violence: The Impact of Violence on Children", Presentation to teachers, Phama High School, Randfontein (May 1996).

Mdhluli D & Zwane W
"The Impact of Violence-related Trauma on Township School Pupils", Kingsmead High School, Johannesburg (September 1996).

Mistry D
"Community Policing in South Africa: Lessons for Lesotho", In-service training course attended by magistrates, prosecutors, police members, prison warders and NGOs in Lesotho, The Danish Centre for Human Rights and the Lesotho Ministry of Justice and Human Rights, Maseru (November 1996).

Mofokeng T
"The Victims' Voice: Evaluating the TRC as an Healing Mechanism", Joint CSVR/Stellenbosch Law School Round Table Conference on: 'The Truth and Reconciliation Commission', Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch (December 1996).

Ngubeni K
"Community Police Forums", Centre for Applied Legal Studies, Workshop for Police Station Commanders on Human Rights, Pietersburg (October 1996).

Ngubeni K
"Powers and Functions of Community Police Forums", Technikon RSA, Conference on: Community Policing, Johannesburg (November 1996).

Ngubeni K
"Community Police Forums", Training for New Canada Police, Protea Police Station, Soweto (November 1996).

Richards Z
"Working with Traumatised Children: A case Study", Family Life Centre, Johannesburg (November 1996).

Robertson M
"Family Murder - the Child Victims", Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation Monthly Seminar, Johannesburg (July 1996).

Robertson M
"From Victim to Survivor - Empowerment Strategies for Victims of Crime", NICRO Annual General Meeting, Pretoria (September 1996).

Robertson M
"South Africa - A Nation in Trauma", ROTARY Dinner, Johannesburg (October 1996).

Robertson M & Eagle G
"One Day Workshop on Trauma Counselling", PSSYSA Conference, Johannesburg (September 1996).

Robertson M & Huber J
"Telephonic Crisis Counselling", ESKOM Helpline Staff, Johannesburg (September 1996).

Robertson M & Huber J
"Three Day Trauma Counselling Workshop", ESKOM Employee Assistance Programme, Johannesburg (September 1996).

Simpson G
"Understanding Endemic Violence in South Africa", Visions in Action Volunteers, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, Johannesburg (January 1996).

Simpson G
"De-bunking the Myths of Nationalism, Ethnicity and Violence", presentation to The National Intelligence Agency Education Forum, Pretoria (February 1996).

Simpson G
"Building Reconciliation: Some Moral, Legal and Political Dilemmas Presented by the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission", presentation to The Tuesday Forum, UNISA, Pretoria (February 1996).

Simpson G
"Surviving Apartheid's Crimes: The Role of the Media in Making Victims' Voices Audible Through the Truth and Reconciliation Commission", Applied Broadcasting Centre Conference on: 'Media and the Truth Commission', Liberty Life Training Centre, Johannesburg (March 1996).

Simpson G
"Towards a Crime Prevention Policy for South Africa", Business Against Crime Workshop: 'International Perspectives on Crime Prevention', Johannesburg (March 1996).

Simpson G
"Briefing on South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission", OXFAM (UK&I) Education Forum, Johannesburg (March 1996).

Simpson G
"Confronting Crime: The Victim's Perspective", Public presentation to Women Challenging the Future Forum on: 'Hi-Jack Crime', The Wanderers Club, Johannesburg (March 1996).

Simpson G
"The History, Philosophy and Process of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission - Towards a Gender-Specific Perspective", presentation to The Centre for Applied Legal Studies Gender Project, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (March 1996).

Simpson G
"Victims, the Media and the Processes of Truth Recovery and Reconciliation Building", presentation to SABC Radio Journalists Education Forum, Devonshire Hotel, Braamfontein (March 1996).

Simpson G
"Dealing with Past Human Rights Abuse: South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission and its Implications for the Business Sector", Nedcor, Management Education Forum, Johannesburg (April 1996).

Simpson G
"Grasping the Nettle: The Truth and Reconciliation Commission as an Opportunity for Rebuilding Community Trust in the South African Police Services", presentation to Joint CSVR/SAPS Conference on: 'The SAPS and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission', South African Police College, Pretoria (May 1996).

Simpson G
"An Overview of the National Crime Prevention Strategy", presentation to a planning workshop of the Gauteng Provincial Secretariat of Safety and Security, Braamfontein (May 1996).

Simpson G
"Confronting Crime: Implications and Creative Responses Within the Corporate Sector", Presentation to Woolworths Management Training Course, Cape Town (June 1996).

Simpson G
"Violence, Crime and Development: The Management of Changing Forms of Social Conflict in Southern Africa After Apartheid", Opening Address at Joint CSVR/OXFAM (UK&I) Conference: 'Building Bridges in Southern Africa: Conflict, Reconstruction and Reconciliation in Times of Change', The Garden Lodge, Muldersdrift (June 1996).

Simpson G
"Learning to Live with the South African Miracle: Violence and Transition in South Africa", Visions in Action Volunteers, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, Johannesburg (July 1996).

Simpson G
"Social Structure and Social Conflict: Understanding Endemic Violence in South Africa", Three lectures presented to: Senior SANDF Officers Training Course, SANDF Training College, Voortrekkerhoogte (August 1996).

Simpson G
"The Role of NGOs in Civic Education for Mutual Understanding", Opening Address to Joint CSVR/Right to Hope International Conference: 'Education for Mutual Understanding', Elijah Barayi Memorial Training Centre, Johannesburg (August 1996).

Simpson G
"Victim Empowerment - A Pro-Active Vision of Crime Prevention in South Africa", Joint Institute for Defence Policy and South African Police Service National Workshop on Victim Empowerment and Support, World Trade Centre, Kempton Park (August 1996).

Simpson G
"Truth and Justice? Evaluating the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in Moral and Legal Terms", Presentation to Unilever Management Training Course, Kapenta Bay Hotel, Port Shepstone (September 1996).

Simpson G
"The Roots and Nature of Social Conflict in South Africa: A Future View of Public Order Policing", Two Lectures presented to Senior Officer Training Course of the SAPS Public Order Policing Unit, Holiday Inn Crown Plaza, Pretoria (September 1996).

Simpson G
"Violence and Transition in South African Society: Some Sociological, Psychological and Legal Paradigms", module presented to Community Psychology III Students, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (October 1996).

Simpson G
"Understanding the National Crime Prevention Strategy: The Role of Consultative Provincial Summits", IDASA, Pretoria (October 1996).

Simpson G
"Crime and Development: Public Safety and Urban Re-generation", Gauteng Provincial Summit: 'Vusani Amadolobha - Gauteng Four Point Re-generation and Integration Plan for City, Town and Township Centres', Carlton Hotel, Johannesburg (October 1996).

Simpson G
"NGOs and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission: A Case Study in Lobbying and Advocacy", IDASA International Workshop: 'Making a Difference: The Challenge for South African NGO Advocates', Protea Hotel, Saldahna Bay (October 1996).

Simpson G
"Urbanisation, Youth and Criminality: The Roots of Juvenile Injustice", Paper presented to a Joint Save the Children (UK)/Radda Barnen (Sweden) International Conference on: 'Juvenile Justice', Mmbabane, Swaziland (October 1996).

Simpson G
"Explaining the National Crime Prevention Strategy", South African Union of Jewish Women, Johannesburg (November 1996).

Simpson G
"One Year On: An Evaluation of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission from the Perspective of Human Rights NGOs", Joint CSVR/Stellenbosch Law School Round Table Conference on: 'The Truth and Reconciliation Commission', Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch (December 1996).

Simpson G & Mayisela T
"Dealing with Trauma, Violence and Post-Traumatic Stress in the Schools", Inter-school Workshop for School Counsellors, Kingsmead High School, Johannesburg (June 1996).

Vienings T
"Understanding how to work with Different Cultures in the Workplace", Training Workshop for The Nursing Science College, Johannesburg (April 1996).

Vienings T
"Durable Peace After Strife: The Case of South Africa", Uppsala University Inter-Faculty Research Committee, Uppsala, Sweden (May 1996).

Vienings T
"Conflict and Transition: The Case of South Africa", Uppsala Advanced International Programme for Conflict Resolution, Uppsala, Sweden (May 1996).

Vienings T
"Conflict Management", Training Course for VISTA Student's Representative Council, Kempton Park (April 1996).

Vienings T
"Conflict Management" Training Course for University of the Witwatersrand Residence Committee, Johannesburg (June 1996).

Vienings T
"Violence and Conflict in South Africa Since 1994", 1st International Conference on Education for Mutual Understanding, Jerusalem (June 1996).

Vienings T
"Violence and Development: The Case of Alexandra", The Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation Monthly Seminar, Johannesburg (June 1996).

Vienings T
"Educational Aspects of Community Interventions in Dealing with Violence", Centre for Continuing Education, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (July 1996).

Vienings T
"Domestic Violence and Development", Lawyers for Human Rights, Johannesburg (July 1996).

Vienings T
"Education and Violence: Developing the New Formal School Curriculum", Jewish Board of Deputies, Johannesburg (July 1996).

Vienings T
"NGOs Experience of Working with Concepts of 'Education for Mutual Understanding' at Grassroots Level", 2nd International Conference on Education for Mutual Understanding, Johannesburg (August 1996).

Vienings T
"Experiences of Conflict from the Alexandra Project of Survivors of Violence", The International Ciaptc -1 Conference on the Treatment of Conflict, Bogota, Colombia (October 1996).

Zwane W
"Children and Violence", Emathafeni Parents Meeting, Emathafeni Primary School, Soweto (August 1996).

Zwane W
"Youth and Suicide", Spruitview Youth Conference, Wilgespruit Fellowship Centre (September 1996).


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