In 1998, the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation (CSVR) is entering its tenth year of operation. Throughout the past nine years the organisation has expanded its vision, its areas of operation and its social and philanthropic contribution. The CSVP has developed an excellent reputation both nationally and internationally and has played a key role in building reconciliation, engaging with the root causes of violence in transition and consolidating South Africa's embryonic democracy. As such, the CSVR has become one of the key organs of civil society in post-apartheid South Africa. To a great extent, the success of the CSVR - its professionalism, its accountability, its strategic vision, its role in public education, its far reaching policy research, as well as its extensive advocacy work - is directly attributable to the dedicated donor contributions which have sustained the organisation's various functions over the past nine years.
During this period, much has changed in the new South Africa - and the CSVR has been unique in its ability to adapt to these changes. Yet much has also stayed the same. In particular, South Africa remains one of the most violent countries in the world and many of the historically marginalised constituencies targeted by the CSVR (particularly women, children and victims of violence) remain fundamentally disadvantaged and disempowered. In this environment of continuity and change, it is our evaluation that there is a clear ongoing role for this unique multi-disciplinary and multi-faceted organisation. Yet there are some vital new challenges to NGOs and organs of civil society - particularly in their relations to government and their role in consolidating democracy - which present themselves as we face the new millennium.
In many respects these challenges were most poignantly framed by events at the close of 1997. More specifically, in his speech at the ANC Congress in December, President Nelson Mandela launched a rather scathing attack on NGOs who, he suggested, were not truly Committed to the government's transformation programme. This broadside was particularly disturbing for three reasons: Firstly, the criticism was generalised and made no reference to any specific organisation/s - despite widespread speculation that it is in fact only related to one or two particular organisations. This left an inaccurate sense of a general impasse between government and NGOs and risked creating a climate of resistance to NGOs who remain critical of governmental policy or delivery records (particularly at the local or provincial level), irrespective of the NGO's commitment to genuine transformation and reconciliation. Secondly, considering the moral authority wielded by President Mandela both at home and abroad, the weight of such comments risked placing an already embattled and under-resourced sector under ever greater strain - despite the fact that many NGOs have retained rather than lost their access and relationship to grassroots constituencies - and that this makes them a critical vehicle for rendering audible the voices of marginalised communities who have frustrated expectations of government. Finally, the stony silence of the South African NGO Coalition (SANGOCO - of which the CSVR is a member) in response to President Mandela's comments, was almost deafening. This was a severe problem considering that certainly, no individual NGO was inclined to respond to the criticism for fear of drawing attention to themselves as the supposed target of the original challenges. All of these issues raise important questions about the future of NGOs in South Africa, and their role in sustaining and consolidating our embryonic democracy. They also raise important considerations for the terms in which government's rhetoric of partnership with such NGOs is interpreted.
It is in this context that our report on 1997 perhaps ought to begin with a general statement of the CSVR's commitment to transformation and to building sustainable reconciliation. Beyond this, we would like to map out our vision of the role and challenges facing NGOs with such commitments, as we face the new millennium.
It is our view that South Africa's dramatic transition to democracy began rather than ended with the historic election of April 27 1994. Nearly four years later, it is the perspective of the CSVR that transition and transformation agendas must still be developed and consolidated through building a popular human rights culture, through fostering lasting reconciliation, through the transformation of inherited state institutions - particularly in the criminal justice and social welfare fields - and through consolidating democracy and development in South Africa. Formal political change has simply provided the context for transformation in South Africa - and this is a fundamental process that will reach well into the next millennium and which will continue to depend heavily on the vital contributions of organs of civil society engaged in a critical partnership with government. The next national election in 1999 merely represents another important stepping stone in this ongoing process.
It is our firm view that NGOs have a critical ongoing role to play in consolidating democracy in South Africa. Far from being an irreversible process, the democratisation of South African society remains vulnerable to future government abuse of power, as well as to the re-emergence of residual sources of racial and political conflict. Furthermore, burgeoning violent crime continues to present a fundamental threat to an embryonic human rights commitment on the part of government. Ultimately, it is the responsibility of organisations such as the CSVR to play an ongoing role in building sustainable reconciliation strategies and sustainable civil society institutions during the years ahead, as it is only these vehicles that can truly secure democracy and good governance in South Africa. The institutionally complex relationship between government and NGOs (in which NGOs such as the CSVR are sometimes critics and watchdogs of government, whilst at other times act as partners to government, and in still other instances as service providers which substitute for absent governmental delivery) means that government's commitment to the NGO sector is likely to be increasingly tenuous in the coming years. It is therefore critical that the capacity of these organs of civil society be built in the years ahead.
For many observers, particularly in the international community, South Africa's transition is already heralded as a miracle which - against all odds - produced a post-conflict society. However, it is clear that rather than violence having been eliminated in South Africa, the nature of violent conflict in the country is simply changing. This is most evident in the slide between political and criminal violence. For the CSVR, our ongoing work in the development of violence prevention strategies and interventions, trauma management strategies and reform of the criminal justice and social welfare institutions, remains absolutely critical in the years ahead.
Another key liability associated with the negotiated transition which has framed - and continues to frame - the CSVR's approach, was the inheritance - largely intact - of state institutions and bureaucracies, which carried with them a legacy of popular mistrust. The central challenge which this presents for an organisation such as the CSVR, is the key task in assisting to drive the processes of transforming these inherited institutions and their residual institutional culture. In relation to the CSVR's specialised areas of violence and reconciliation, this has specific implications for the institutions of the criminal justice system, particularly the police and the prisons, as well as the social welfare institutions of state. In all these state departments, South Africans are - at least until 1999 - forced to live with a certain legacy of the negotiated settlement - a sunset clause based on the agreement that apartheid's civil servants retain their positions. This situation is further compounded by the protection from prosecution afforded to many such state employees by the amnesty provision contained within the Interim Constitution, which is being administered through the work of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission - and not without considerable controversy and debate in human rights circles.
For many policy-makers and analysts, economic development is presented as the obvious strategy for resolving many of these problems and for eliminating social conflict and violence in post-apartheid South Africa. Indeed, in building reconciliation in South Africa, it must be recognised that much will depend on the effective redress of the legacy of economic disadvantage and exploitation of black South Africans which characterised apartheid - and this is obviously a long-term process. However, whilst no-one would dispute the critical importance of such developmental strategies, the CSVR's work already demonstrates that the injection of resources into impoverished communities which were historically divided over access to such scarce resources, frequently escalates rather than resolves such conflicts. Developmental processes therefore generate new forms of conflict and often re-ignite residual conflicts within these communities. The management of such emerging conflict - based upon the development of strategies for violence prevention and for rebuilding the social fabric - therefore remains critical to the future of peace and reconciliation through economic development in South Africa well beyond the year 2000. It is organisations such as the CSVR which provide the tools for such 'human development'.
Among the key challenges presented by the South African transition has been the process of translating new policy development by government into direct service delivery to previously marginalised and impoverished South Africans. Whilst substantial strides have been achieved in generating visionary policy development (in large part through the recruitment and sub-contracting of NGO personnel into the ranks of government), less success has been attained in translating this into effective service provision. Therefore, whilst formal governmental accountability has been substantially achieved through constitutional means, accountability of government in the delivery of services and development processes remains incomplete. Popular frustration over such apparent technical deficiencies in democratic governance - particularly in the criminal justice field, victim aid services, youth programmes, education and training enterprises and redress-based development programmes - all pose an increasing threat to reconciliation and to sustained peace in South Africa. The working methodology which the CSVR has developed over the past nine years will, in our view, play a crucial role in resolving some of these problems in the years ahead., Not only does the CSVR offer a multi-disciplinary approach to problem-solving in its fields of endeavour, but it also provides a dynamic interface between direct interventions and pilot service delivery programmes on the one hand, and a policy research and advocacy approach on the other. This unique combination of grass-roots interventions and high quality policy research can provide a key reference point for government in its quest to upgrade its policy formation, as well as in its ability to more effectively translate this into concrete delivery.
The sustained prospects of conflict and violence in South African society at the end of the 1990s also pose fundamental challenges to the agenda of human rights organisations. Whilst the constitution provides a vital yardstick through the Bill of Rights, these paper rights, although enshrined in legal principle, still remain dependent on an underlying popular 'culture of human rights' if they are to be sustainable. Residual racial, ethnic, political or gender bias is simply not inherently resolved through the constitutionalisation of these rights. This is especially true as the Truth and Reconciliation Commission winds down its operations in mid-1998, and the resultant challenges revolve around the primary responsibility which will fall to the NGOs in seeking to translate the findings and recommendations of the the TRC into precisely such a vibrant human rights culture. The CSVR has already established itself as a leader in this field and has a critical contribution to make in the years ahead if the TRC's work is to have forward-looking rather than merely backward-looking implications for reconciliation. Similarly, in the development of a multi-media human rights educational capacity, the CSVR's Education and Media Unit is excellently placed to meet these demands in the coming years.
A related concern must be with the substantial vacuum which currently exists in South African society in respect of victim aid and empowerment services and policies. Whilst government and TRC rhetoric speaks loudly regarding the interests of survivors of human rights abuses or victims of violent crime, this simply has not translated itself into any capacity or expertise to practically empower such victims, particularly in respect of the most vulnerable and voiceless members of South African society - women and children. In particular, the lethargy and spectacular non-delivery of any meaningful services to victims by government's Victim Empowerment Programme (VEP) - so creatively established under the National Crime Prevention Strategy - as well as the virtual non-existence of any interim reparation mechanisms for those who have testified before the TRC, simply cannot be tolerated any longer. Once again there is a crucial role for those NGOs which have historically been the only effective service providers in this field. This role reaches beyond the need to merely fill this service vacuum, but also demands the development of effect policy proposals and training programmes to extend the capacity of government's social welfare and health infrastructure so that in the years to come they can provide such interventions. Equally important is the need which lies before us, to advocate for the increased voice and empowerment of victims within the criminal justice process and institutions. It is our vision that the CSVR's Trauma Clinic will be central to the development of integrated training, policy research and pilot victim aid programmes - which may offer a model for the development of an extended service network in this field. Such victim-centred interventions must not be treated as merely remedial, but must also be viewed as critical pro-active interventions in cyclical patterns of violence in South Africa which - as growing problems of vigilantism demonstrate - have by no means run their full course.
The context for the work of the CSVR over at least the next three years is framed by the situational analysis summarised above. This has also shaped the organisation's strategic planning in its various units and departments. In particular, this approach and analysis lies at the heart of the CSVR's commitment - in principle and in methodology - to sustaining our interface with grass-roots communities through our pilot intervention programmes. It is this community access that drives our research and our advocacy work and must continue to do so - despite the continual pressure to shift our focus away from these marginalised and impoverished constituencies … in the name of financial self-sufficiency.
In considering the years ahead, it is our evaluation that the CSVR's achievements over the past nine years, combined with our strategic analysis, places the organisation well to tackle many of these challenges most effectively in the new millennium. Furthermore, the CSVR has already developed an international reputation for its work and we anticipate considerable expansion in our international contributions and consulting functions as well during the next three years - particularly within the Southern African sub-continent.
Masimanyane means the 'coming together' or the integration of people who can achieve successes through teamwork. The annual Masimanyane Awards, sponsored by The Centre for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and Standard Bank Foundation, give recognition to people-driven programmes which have succeeded in creating integrated and sustainable products, processes, projects and services to create greater wealth, peace and security for all South Africans.
The Masimanyane Awards are jointly organised by Engineering Week and The Engineering Association. The competition offers entrants from all walks of life an opportunity to receive nationwide, as well as international recognition for innovation in attempting to improve the nation's living standards. Not only blue-chip companies, but also SMMEs are awarded for their state-of-the-art innovations, as well as individuals and small-scale community initiatives.
Traditionally these awards are devoted to technological innovation. However, in 1997 it was decided to create a Special 'Adjudicators' Award' to acknowledge the unique work of the CSVR. In particular, the organisation's contribution to building reconciliation in South Africa was acknowledged and rewarded. At the awards ceremony it was stated that without the human development facilitated by the work of organisations such as the CSVR, all of the technological innovation which is the traditional focus of the Masimanyane Awards would prove useless.
The CSVR is very proud and honoured to have received this award, which it sees as recognition of the often thankless and always dedicated work of all non-governmental organisations involved in similar endeavours. In particular, it is a real pleasure to receive such recognition from within the domestic corporate community.
1997 finally saw the CSVR formally sever its ties with the University of the Witwatersrand. This was a decision which was in many respects reluctantly taken, but which was inevitable due to the relative intransigence of the old University administration, combined with the increasing financial levy charged on the CSVR's funds and the changing management needs of the CSVR as a dynamic NGO - which simply could not be accommodated by the University systems and procedures. The detailed reasons underlying this decision have been dealt with at length in several previous Annual Reports, as well as in correspondence with the CSVR's donors, and will not be described again here.
Suffice it to say that the decision to move imposed some important and substantial administrative, legal and management tasks on the CSVR, which dominated much of 1997. Included amongst these were the drafting of a memorandum and articles of association to be lodged with the Registrar of Companies, in order for the CSVR to be registered as a Section 21 (not for profit) company. This was duly done through extensive staff participation, and at the end of 1997 the CSVR was officially registered.
Archbishop Desmond Tutu was approached and has generously agreed to lend the CSVR his name as the Honorary Patron of the Organisation. This is indeed a great honour for all the staff of the CSVR, especially considering the extent to which Archbishop Tutu represents the fundamentals of our work and shares our goals of building reconciliation in both South Africa and Africa.
A further requirement was the establishment of a Board of Directors as required by the Companies Act and to replace the University Steering Committee. The following people have been approached and have generously agreed to serve as members of the CSVR Board:
|Mr. Steven Mokwena||CEO of the Youth Commission|
|Ms. Jacklyn Cock||Long-serving member of the CSVR University Steering Committee, Gender and Militarisation Expert and anti-gun and environmental activist.|
|Ms. Gillian Eagle||Long-serving member of the CSVR University Steering Committee and prominent Trauma Expert.|
|Mr. Frank Meintjies||Long-serving member of the CSVR University Steering Committee, prominent former official of COSATU, prominent member of the NGO community and development expert.|
|Mr. Jody Kollapen||Former Director of Lawyers for Human Rights and currently member of the Human Rights Commission.|
|Ms. Leila Patel||Former member of the University Steering Committee (1990-1992), former Director General of Social Welfare (1994-1996) and prominent social welfare activist.|
|Mr. Graeme Simpson||Co-Founder and Director of the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation.|
All of these members of the Board bring substantive value to the structure and all are representative and prominent in the key fields of endeavour with which the various Units of the CSVR are involved. Some additional prospective members of the Board were approached but were unable to serve due to other pressing commitments. Further additional members of the Board will therefore be added in due course and will include a representative of the South African business community.
The departure from Wits University offered the CSVR a unique opportunity to upgrade, professionalise and streamline the organisation's financial and human resource management capacity. To this end, the CSVR utilised the services of a human resources consultant with extensive expertise in the NGO sector, who undertook an evaluation of the organisation's human resources, financial management and administrative requirements. Included in this exercise was an initial job grading exercise and a remuneration alignment process, as well as selecting a new medical aid scheme and establishing a provident fund for all staff members.
Perhaps even more importantly, the entire CSVR Staff was drawn into a participatory process of drafting and approving a set of employment policies and practices, from such day to day issues as regulating leave, to fundamentals of the CSVR's affirmative action, staff development and recruitment policies.
Three key initiatives were also identified and undertaken to prepare the organisation for the new millennium and to render it professional, transparent and competitive in all its fields of endeavour. These were: the recruitment of a full-time Human Resources Manager (Vicky Tlhabanelo), the establishment of a full-time dedicated financial management team (Amber Mashiane was appointed as Financial Manager), and the expansion of the CSVR's internal Management Committee (undertaken early in 1998).
It is our view that the CSVR has benefited greatly from our departure from the University and that this was undoubtedly the correct move at this time. There is a rich irony in the fact that with the change in the University administration at the end of 1997, we are able to now begin to negotiate a new relationship and potential affiliation to the University - which has all the potential advantages of accreditation of the CSVR's training programmes and the offering of research and clinical internships within the CSVR to post-graduate students from Wits - without any of the liabilities of the University's financial and administrative management systems, or its substantial levy on CSVR funding resources.
Early in the new year the organisation will also be moving into new and upgraded offices (at no greater cost due to the generous deal offered to us by Anglo-American Property Services). In many respects this is a symbolic shift which reflects the organisation's move upwards in order to meet the challenges of change in the coming competitive, pressured and financially tight environment. Through a transparent and participatory process, the CSVR has been restructured to meet these challenges of change. Indeed, the organisation's constant capacity for strategic change, remains one of the CSVR's greatest strengths and lies at the heart of its enduring achievements and sustained reputation as it enters its tenth year of existence in 1998. All of these things will also be subjected to scrutiny through an external evaluation of the CSVR's ten years of work, which it is hoped will be funded and will take place in the course of the second half of 1998.
The CSVR's major indispensable resource is ultimately its dedicated and talented staff. All the achievements reflected in this Annual Report are ultimately to the credit of the list of people which follows. These are the staff who are employed at the CSVR at the time of writing this Annual Report:
Graeme Simpson (Director)
Laureen Bertin (P.A.)
Vicky Tlhabanelo (H.R.M.)
Amber Mashiane (Financial Manager)
Bella Moloi (Receptionist)
Sharon Moen (Secretary)
Pule Rampa (Messenger)
Mosima Selemela (Office Assistant)
Pontso Pahlane (Bookkeeper)
Mary Robertson (Coordinator)
Marivic Garcia (Social Worker)
Sherbanu Sacoor (Psychologist)
Claire Alderton (Training Coordinator)
Boitumelo Kekana (Social worker)
Frances Spencer (Psychiatric Nurse)
Sophie Mulaudzi (Receptionist)
Mpho Matlhakola (Secretary)
Amanda Dissel (Coordinator)
David Bruce (Researcher)
Kindiza Ngubeni (Fieldworker)
Andie Miller (RC Manager)
Rosey Seseng (RC Administrator)
Dorothy Mdhluli (Coordinator)
Wandile Zwane (Project Manager)
Alice Kgotleng (Fieldworker)
Mosley Lebeloane (Fieldworker)
Siphiwe Masuku (Fieldworker)
Brandon Hamber (Coordinator)
Hugo van der Merwe (Researcher)
Tlhoki Mofokeng (Project Manager)
Polly Dewhist (Researcher)
Traggy Maepa (Fieldworker)
Najwa Davids (Secretary)
Dineo Moleko (Social Worker)
Tracy Vienings (Coordinator)
Karima Effendi (Materials Developer)
Bongani Linda (Performance Director)
Lauren Segal (Producer)
In addition, the CSVR hosted four exceptional foreign interns in the course of 1997:
Talha Syed who conducted exceptional research on corruption in relation to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission; Jennifer Nix who worked in the Criminal Justice Policy Unit and who produced outstanding work on gender-specific violence, as well as working on a joint research project on victimisation; Noreen Callaghan who undertook an evaluation of the CSVR's community reconciliation project in Alexandra township; and Melissa Conley-Tyler who evaluated the CSVR Education and Media Unit's methodology in specific conflict resolution projects.
The CSVR Trauma Clinic offers trauma counselling to adult and child survivors of violence suffered either under apartheid or through violent crime. The Clinic's services are free to people who cannot access private services or who are not catered for by inadequate state services. Our counselling is not simply remedial or curative: effective treatment of victims contributes vitally to breaking cycles of violence in which victims themselves become perpetrators.
The Clinic also works to raise public awareness about the impact of trauma and violence on our society as a whole, through community education and training as well as policy research. Overall, our work makes vital contributions toward creating a human rights culture in South Africa and is an important contribution to crime prevention.
1997 was a critical year for the CSVR Trauma Clinic. The year began with a funding crisis which threatened the very existence of these unique services provided to victims of crime in South Africa's most violent province. The striking failure of over 150 South African corporations to come to the aid of the Clinic compounded the problem and represents the most serious indictment on the South African business community's commitment to victims of violent crime. Furthermore, government's own failure to provide for any welfare subsidisation of the Clinic's services, speaks rather loudly to government's inability to translate its principled commitment to victim empowerment - as contained in the National Crime Prevention Strategy - into any meaningful delivery of services. Indeed, were it not for the generous intervention of the Swiss Agency for Development Cooperation, one of the longest standing and few existing psychological service providers for victims of violence may have been lost.
However, having weathered the storm (albeit on a substantially curtailed budget), the Clinic went from strength to strength in the course of the year and has emerged stronger, more secure and with its national and international reputation substantially enhanced. Most importantly, the Clinic continued to develop its treatment methodology, enhanced its training and expanded its services and its client base in the course of another highly successful year.
During 1997 the Clinic concentrated on providing counselling services to survivors of violence. We also conducted out research, training and policy development.
Trauma Counselling Services
A total of 1264 new clients were referred to the Clinic during 1997, at a rate of over 24 new clients per week - a substantial increase over the number seen in 1996. The majority of those counselled were victims of car hijacking, armed robbery or sexual assault. The Clinic also helped a number of people who had suffered human rights abuses under apartheid, referred to us through the Khulumani Support Groups or by the TRC.
The Clinic continues to offer mainly short term counselling, in order to help as many people as possible. Counselling of individuals was complemented in many cases by couple and family therapy, to help people deal with the impact of trauma on family relationships. This innovative approach engages with both direct and indirect victimisation and recognises the fact that proper support can not only greatly facilitate the recovery of survivors of violence, but also reduces the potential of family conflict after trauma whilst addressing the problems of those close to the primary victim.
However, our commitment to constantly evaluating and developing our client services means that we have recognised that some clients needed longer term help, especially people with experiences of multiple, prolonged or complex trauma. Examples of this would be those with experience of political violence who are now suffering further criminal violence, or victims of ongoing domestic abuse. In particular, it became clear that many of the children referred to the Clinic required much longer-term interventions, especially where parental support was lacking, or where parents hap themselves suffered trauma. Most of the children counselled at the Clinic during 1997 had suffered physical abuse or rape.
Apart from family and couple therapy, the Trauma Clinic also developed and sustained a series of group interventions and support structures, particularly for teenage rape survivors, and for the parents of such victims. Furthermore, during 1997 the Clinic developed its specialised expertise in counselling people who were traumatised by violence in the course of their work, such as journalists, emergency workers and cash-in-transit employees. This work has challenged Clinic staff to adapt counselling models and to develop creative new clinical interventions. We also learned new conflict resolution and mediation skills, in order, for example, to deal with conflict arising from the negative way that managers often respond to the impact of trauma on their employees. Indeed, there are several indications that the CSVR Trauma Clinic is ideally placed to develop a series of corporate products and to substantially build its work in the business environment. In particular, it would seem that the medical insurance sector may have significant interest in the services provided by the CSVR and similar NGO service providers.
Ultimately, what makes the CSVR Trauma Clinic unique and what guarantees its future in the years ahead, is the fact that it best represents the strengths of CSVR's commitment to grassroots intervention programmes as the foundation for research, policy development and advocacy initiatives. It is precisely because the Clinic is a direct service provider, that it can best represent the needs and interests of victims of violence and human rights abuse in a policy context. This was demonstrated time and again in the course of 1997, in stark contrast to many other agencies which frequently spoke the language of trauma and victim empowerment on behalf of survivors, without ever having access to their direct voice and without providing any direct services for victims.
In 1997 volunteer counsellors assisted the clinic in providing prompt and professional services. Over 60 people from diverse backgrounds applied for our training course, and were rigorously screened. All fifteen chosen had studied social work or psychology at tertiary level and all were eager to make a meaningful contribution to the community while gaining practical counselling experience. Six black language and two Hindu speakers were selected to provide clients with counselling in their preferred languages, as well as representing the CSVR's concrete commitment to a developmental approach to affirmative action through our training strategies.
Much time and energy was spent developing a comprehensive manual for the volunteer training programme, and the course has achieved a truly high standard. Training combines theory, experiential learning and a process of introspection and self-analysis. The Clinic now has 20 highly motivated volunteers, each receiving regular supervision and in-service training to maintain their commitment to our highly demanding work.
Masters' psychology students from the University of the Witwatersrand continued to give weekly counselling at the Clinic, as did a third year social work student. These placements have provided students with valuable training and experience, and the programme is being continued and extended in 1998. The Clinic is also seeking to offer formal internships to psychology students and to this end is currently renegotiating the terms of our cooperative 'affiliation' to the University of the Witwatersrand.
Trauma counselling has a devastating effect on counsellors and the stress of dealing with victims' pain and suffering is ever-present in the Clinic. In an attempt to provide self-care and reduce staff 'burn-out' we recruited a reflexologist in 1997 and staff have found this service beneficial. Other measures to combat stress include regular supervision and support as well as allowing staff to balance direct counselling with other work in the Clinic. Staff 'burn-out' is nevertheless an ongoing concern, requiring special attention. The much under-rated issue of self-care for the care-givers is in fact fundamental to the sustainability of these services for victims. As a result, this is specifically being cultivated as a developing area of expertise within the CSVR Trauma Clinic, which is marketable through training and capacity-building for other service provider agencies in South Africa and internationally.
Providing skills that empower communities and professionals is an increasingly important part of our work. In 1997 the Clinic consolidated and extended its training, offering courses ranging from short sessions to extensive three day experiential workshops. Professional and high quality manuals and training materials were developed to go with the training, which was given to primary, secondary and tertiary institutions; to parastatal organisations, domestic and international corporate organisations; to community-based and non-governmental organisations; to emergency workers and professionals in the helping services; to counselling and crisis organisations; as well as to local and regional governments.
We also continued our work on the inter-NGO and SAPS collaborative project for gender-sensitivity training for police personnel, and again provided skills to trainee teachers through teaching sessions of the trauma module offered at the Johannesburg College of Education.
Over the year we developed a refined and 'tiered' system of training, offered at three distinct levels. At first level we provide community workshops on detection, management and referral procedures, of trauma and abuse. This includes basic training on child abuse, non-violent disciplining and stress management. This training is crucial in preventing abuse and violence. At second level we provide trauma management skills to those who may have first contact with victims, such as nurses, police, school teachers, emergency workers and managers in the business environment. This training facilitates efficient referral and teaches people to avoid creating 'secondary victimisation'. At third level, a more advanced course trains mental health counsellors in health and welfare services and NGOs. Overall, through this differentiated and tiered system of training, we seek to provide or extend victim support services across many communities in which existing service capacity is hopelessly inadequate.
The Trauma Clinic kept a fairly high media profile during the year, largely as a result of media interest in family murders, child abuse, hijacking and rape. Clinic staff participated in press and television interviews as well as a number of phone-in radio talk shows, which provided an excellent way of educating the public about the impact of trauma on our society.
The Clinic ran several consultative workshops for organisations on establishing and managing trauma counselling services. Workshops were usually followed by skills training and supervision for staff of such units. We received referrals from Amnesty International and World Vision and provided trauma interventions fn Mozambique and Swaziland.
Although most staff remained tied up with providing counselling and training during 1997, we did complete a number of papers focused on critical issues in the field of trauma studies. We also finalised a computer database with which to document cases seen over the years. Systematic analysis of these cases, to be undertaken in 1998, should provide invaluable insight into the nature of violence in this country. Furthermore, staff imparted their considerable knowledge and experience to forums, conferences and workshops, and through numerous talks requested by organisations and the public. A clear research plan has been worked out for 1998.
The CSVR wishes to ensure strong networks between people providing counselling services, and the Clinic remains involved in networks such as the Gauteng Network For Violence Against Women and the Child Abuse Alliance. These are important forums at which to lobby for improved support for victims of all ages. The Clinic also now meets regularly with trauma centres in Cape Town and KwaZulu Natal, with the aim of establishing a national coalition of trauma service providers. This should lead to more systematic ways of dealing with trauma in South Africa.
Working with traumatised clients takes its toll: in 1997 the Clinic again faced high levels of staff burnout, resulting in a high staff turnover. Furthermore, when funding shortages reduced staff numbers we were forced to cut back on evaluation and research. This created further stress, making it difficult to maintain our morale.
The Clinic has now decided to limit the amount of trauma exposure of full-time staff. To cope with the demand for counselling, we are expanding the volunteer programme and contracting professional personnel to do limited numbers of counselling sessions. This should allow us to pursue more research and training, providing a healthier balance of activities.
We have also decided not to extend the Clinic's counselling service. While maintaining our current service we will place new emphasis on ensuring that other organisations, governmental and non-governmental, are able to provide proper counselling and victim support. This we hope to achieve through training and co-operative work within a national coalition.
Funding posed perhaps the most serious challenge to the Clinic in 1997, especially in the first half of the year. Pressure was fortunately eased by support from foreign donors. Although our search for local funding goes on, it remains of fundamental concern that local corporations and government are reluctant to support such vital services.
One successful strategy for generating income saw the Clinic secure several training and counselling contracts in the corporate sector. This strategy brings its own risks: the Clinic must achieve a balance where we partly sustain ourselves through paying clients, while properly serving communities which cannot afford counselling.
Despite such difficulties, 1997 was in many ways a successful year. The Clinic continues to offer professional services to a large number of people. Our training, which is of a high standard, is much in demand, arising as it does from clinical experience and reflecting the needs and experiences of victims and their communities.
We are confident that the next period will see the Clinic extend its contribution to the growth of sound victim support services in South Africa. The spiral of violence and brutality into which so many of our people have been thrown can and must be broken.
With the Truth and Reconciliation Commission's (TRC) work in its second year in 1997, the CSVR's project on the Commission constantly faced new and demanding challenges, maturing along the way into a highly effective unit with a more expansive vision. During the year the project thus restructured as the Transition and Reconciliation Unit, retaining the complex goal of providing support for the TRC, while simultaneously challenging the commission to meets its mandate of redressing the effects of extensive human rights violations. Now, as the TRC draws to a close, the Truth and Reconciliation Unit has begun turning its energies to consolidating the reconciliation work begun by the Commission.
In 1997 the Transition and Reconciliation Unit (TRU) offered services to survivors of violent abuses committed during the apartheid era. The Unit also undertook active advocacy and public education work as well as extensive policy and research projects, including international comparative investigations.
Khulumani "Speak Out"
The Khulumani project began in early 1995 when the CSVR, with a group of people who had suffered violations under apartheid, pioneered the establishment of self-help and advocacy groups that would interface with the TRC. The groups were to ensure social and psychological support for victims, and to promote co-operation among people requesting that the TRC properly address their needs. Perhaps most significant in the motivation for this enterprise, was the recognition that truth commissions in other parts of the world were plagued by the absence of an organised, vocal and audible victim and survivor community. Since its inception, Khulumani has been inundated with requests, and by networking with NGOs has arranged various kinds of direct service and assistance. As a result, the organisation has mushroomed in the townships of Gauteng in a relatively short space of time and has effectively transmuted into a broad community-based organisation.
Throughout 1997 the TRU worked closely with Khulumani to expand and sustain this important initiative. The TRU has also assisted the Khulumani office with administration, project management and staffing problems. Our staff helped facilitate strategic planning sessions, and assisted in developing the organisational and administrative structures that Khulumani needs to operate independently. Khulumani still requires independent funding support and it is anticipated that, with the CSVR's help, this will be forthcoming early in the new year. This is also important because the organisation is currently financially indebted to the CSVR, which cannot sustain it through training and strategic support alone. Having been set up within the CSVR, it is important that in 1998 Khulumani begins to establish its formal independence from the Centre - although it is anticipated that Khulumani will remain housed within the CSVR offices and that the relationship between the two organisations will remain extremely close and mutually supportive.
Psycho-Social Support for Survivors of Political Violence
The TRU has placed special emphasis on support for people testifying before the TRC. Informal support has largely been provided through the Khulumani support groups themselves, for example where members encourage each other to speak out about their experiences, and by the holding of memorial services. As it was more difficult to arrange formal psychological counselling, a full-time social worker was appointed to work with the support groups, referring members for counselling, as well as assisting groups to establish referral strategies. The TRU also set up links with other organisations which have offered help to survivors. For example, the Evangelical Alliance of South Africa assisted in getting wheelchairs donated to some disabled victims.
During the year the TRU and Khulumani arranged fortnightly 'case conferences' at which the Khulumani support groups presented difficult cases. At these sessions staff from the CSVR and other NGOs gave advice on arranging psycho-social support, welfare and legal assistance. This process will require some revitalisation in 1998.
The TRC has not established an official psychological referral network, although one is sorely needed by those survivors who have appeared before the Commission. The CSVR's TRU, along with Khulumani and the CSVR's Trauma Clinic, will therefore be making a concerted effort in 1998 to find strategic ways of meeting the special counselling and support needs of people who have testified before the TRC.
Training of Khulumani Members
In the course of 1997, Khulumani and the CSVR jointly planned training courses for Khulumani members and field workers. Some members were professionally trained in lay counselling and bereavement counsel1ing skills, and others in group facilitation and survivor-offender mediation skills. Some Khulumani office staff also attended a fund-raising course.
Khulumani itself emphasised the development of skills for self-sustainability amongst its members - the survivors of human rights abuses. Several communities were trained in food-gardening skills. Also in the pipeline sewing, baking and brick-making projects which will begin once funding becomes available. Where possible the CSVR has assisted in arranging these courses as part of a wider approach to survivor rehabilitation.
The Victim-Offender Mediation (VOM) project was one of the Unit's most promising involvements during the year. The project focuses of facilitating offender and victim meetings geared towards reconciliation. A network of 22 organisations with a diverse range of interests in such mediation, the Survivor-Offender Mediation Network (SOM Network), has been established - in part due to the creative innovation of the staff of the CSVR's TRU.
The TR Unit also joined IMSSA and the Wilgespruit Fellowship Centre in Developing a Training package for victim-offender mediators. A group of mediators were trained and a mediation referred by the TRC was undertaken by the SOM network. More referrals are expected once the TRC amnesty hearings end, as legal complications make mediation difficult at this stage. The SOM Network and the CSVR are now seeking funding for this project, which holds much promise for individual reconciliation processes.
The Theatre Outreach Project
Mehlo Communications (community theatre) initiated a drama project to educate the public about the TRC, and the CSVR and Khulumani Support Group were invited to take part, with the Unit providing information and advice. A one hour drama was created, using members of Khulumani as actors. After each performance a question and answer session (mainly facilitated by the CSVR) allowed the audience to debate TRC-related matters. The play visited communities in different parts of the country, and was also performed on invitation at a festival in Germany. CSVR staff member Tlhoki Mofokeng accompanied the troupe as an advisor.
TRC Workshops and Outreach
Under direction of the Unit's Community Services Coordinator, Tlhoki Mofokeng, our trainers Elias Maepa and Siphiwe Masuku ran 32 community workshops aimed at educating victims of human rights abuses, or their families, about the TRC. Workshops have also been held with NGOs willing to develop survivor support groups and have been very effective in educating people about the TRC and the need for proper victim support. Such educational workshops also ensure that the perspectives of victims who did not testify before the TRC continue to inform the CSVR's work.
Workshops were held accross Gauteng and in neighbouring provinces, including at Ermelo, Komatipoort, Bushbuckridge, Machadadorp, Hazyview and Nelspruit in Mpumalanga; Atamelang, Hartebeesfontein, Klerksdorp, Matasane and Khumo in North West Province; Sekhukhuneland, Giyani, Burgersfort, GaMatlala, Venda and Pietersburg in Northern Province.
Toward the second half of 1997, many of these communities began expressing concerns about the challenges that will face victims and support groups after the TRC closes, and the TR Unit began re-shaping its workshops in an attempt to address these issues. The TR Unit also began re-visiting communities to help deal with problems arising from feelings left behind by theTRC, and by the opening of old wounds which sometimes followed testimonies before the TRC. We conducted eleven Reparation Workshops on the TRC's reparation and reconciliation initiatives, where victims' views of the TRC were documented. These were compiled into a submission to the TRC itself, and it is hoped that this will play role in shaping the TRC's recommendations on meeting victims' needs through reparation and rehabilitation.
Reconciliation Workshops and Initiatives
The outreach component of the TR Unit became involved in two community reconciliation and conflict management projects In 1997, one in GaMatlala, near Pietersburg and the other in Alexandra, Sandton. The GaMatlala conflict revolves around power struggles involving traditional leadership. The Alexandra problems (tackled in conjunction with the CSVR's Education and Media Unit - and covered in more detail in that section of the Annual Report) concern access to housing in an area with a history of violent clashes between residents and hostel dwellers. Both projects are ongoing.
Education Materials Development: Video
A new video, 'SisaKhuluma: We are Still Speaking', was produced in 1997, a follow-up to the highly successful organisational video 'Khulumani: Speak Out'. Victims interviewed in Khulumani were re-interviewed a year after testifying to the TRC, and 'SisaKhuluma' captures that experience as well as views of what must be done to achieve lasting reconciliation in South Africa. The video has become an important tool in the Reparation Workshops and in our reconciliation work.
In addition French film makers ARCHIPEL 33, through Andre van In, carried out a joint project with the CSVR for the last three years, filming the TRC and Khulumani. The CSVR has done almost five hundred hours of transcribing and translations of the material. An index as well as labelling of the cassettes has been completed. This archive will prove invaluable to the TR Unit's TRC evaluation work, as well as to its future interactive educational initiatives related to the TRC and the sustained learning of following generations.
The TR Unit carried out a number of research projects in 1997, all aimed at influencing policy development and ensuring that victims of violence receive adequate services and that their reparative needs are addressed by the TRC. This research also attempted to influence the TRC to encompass as large a human rights agenda as possible.
Human Rights Documentation Work
In previous years the Unit contributed to the collating of records on human rights violations, mainly from NGO sources. This project, known as the Human Rights Documentation Project (HRDP), was completed in 1996. Information on 4200 human rights violations, 5900 victims and the names of 1300 alleged perpetrators, in total 11400 files, were handed over to the TRC. In 1997 part of this database was included into the TRC's own database.
Careful analysis was undertaken of the International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF) records which the CSVR and Justice in Transition (a Cape Town-based NGO) negotiated to have brought to South Africa from London. Four full-time and several part-time researchers, under leadership of the CSVR's Polly Dewhirst, collated the names of victims listed in the files and began extracting information on how the judicial system operated under apartheid. The names of victims collated were handed over to the TRC's investigation unit. As planned, once these investigations were completed, this section of the IDAF archive was transferred to the Mayibuye Centre in Cape Town, where it was integrated with the rest of the IDAF archive. This archive now stands as a national historical asset.
The TR Unit was asked to help in drafting an evaluative report on the work of the HRDP and the HRDP database for the HURIDOCS international conference. This was done by Lydia Levin (independent consultant), Polly Dewhirst and Brandon Hamber, and our evaluation was presented at a conference in Mexico City.
Evaluating the Work and Impact of the TRC
In the course of 1997 extensive comparative research was undertaken on understanding transition and the impact of truth commissions. In the first months of 1997 members of the Unit working with visiting research intern, Gunnar Theissen, completed a research survey on 'white' attitudes to the TRC.
Brandon Hamber, the TR Unit coordinator, was invited to attend a Conference in Northern Ireland on ethnic, studies and conflict and produced a research report evaluating the TRC psychological support services. He was also requested to speak at a conference in London focusing on the role of civil society and the TRC.
The Unit was also contracted by the Centre for the Study of Conflict in Northern Ireland to produce a report on different ways of dealing with the past. This report was produced jointly by Brandon Hamber, Tlhoki Mofokeng and CSVR Director, Graeme Simpson, and was completed in June 1997. Other reports, journal pieces and articles were also completed by the Unit, as well as several newspaper articles.
The Unit's researchers were concerned that the TRC final report would under-represent the stories of women, as the majority of those who died in the apartheid conflict were men, yet the majority of those testifying as survivors were women. A working group was therefore established with the Centre for Applied Legal Studies (CALS) and with Wits academics and masters students interested in issues of gender in relation to human rights violations. The working group helped plan the local Johannesburg TRC women's hearings and prepared and presented a statement to those hearings. They also drafted a submission on writing gender-specific recommendations, which will be completed in 1998.
All of the TR Unit's research work was geared toward influencing the recommendations that the TRC will make at the end of its term of office. To this end the Unit also continued interviewing various constituencies (victims, perpetrators, youth, police) on their opinions of the TRC process. Draft evaluation documents have been completed and an extensive TRC evaluation report will be written in the course of 1998.
Submissions to the TRC
The Unit worked on two major submissions to be made to the TRC. On the basis of analysis of HRDP data and IDAF records, as well as extensive interviews, a first submission was prepared on the legal system under apartheid. Those interviewed include former anti-apartheid advocates, retired judges, and the Minister of justice, Dullah Omar. The whole process stimulated much debate in the legal community, sparking interest in participating in the TRC Legal Hearings. The submission was prepared in conjunction with Lawyers for Human Rights (LHR), and was formally presented at the hearings by CSVR Director Graeme Simpson and LHR Director Dr Vinod Jaichand.
A second submission, to be completed in 1998, is aimed at shaping the TRC's final report and recommendations. Areas covered include victims' feelings about the removal from office of perpetrators, and how police services could be improved. The thoughts and wishes of victims of human rights abuses, as expressed in the 10 Reparation Workshops, form the backbone of this submission.
In addition two papers evaluating the TRC's psychological support services and how the TRC has affected victims, were handed to the TRC as submissions to its Mental Health Workshop.
During 1997 the TR Unit continued to attend TRC hearings, debating the key issues facing the Commission and feeding its analyses into newspaper articles, media comments, panel discussions, talks and conferences. Also, due to its years of experience and expertise, the TR Unit was continually consulted by local and international media, academics and human rights experts, for comment and analysis. Specific advocacy initiatives included the release of a press statement - endorsed by 17 organisations - about the TRC and the National Party court case.
Over three years the TR Unit has built a reputation as an independent voice on the TRC and on matters relating to transition. We were therefore often consulted by local and foreign agencies:
The Centre for the Study of Conflict in Northern Ireland contracted us to produce a report on ways of dealing with the past, which proved useful for policy and peace-building strategies in Northern Ireland.
The Aspen Project, through Dr Taylor of Wits University's Political Science Department contracted us to produce a report on the the role of civil society in the Truth Commission process. This report, to be finished in 1998, will feed into an international study comparing transition processes in Northern Ireland, Israel-Palestine and South Africa.
The Department of Health, through the Directorate of Mental Health, contracted Brandon Hamber to help them draft a National Violence Prevention Plan.
Brandon Hamber was awarded the Tip O'Neill Fellowship for Peace Studies. He will work for short periods with the Initiative for Conflict Resolution and Ethnicity (INCORE) in Northern Ireland, applying lessons learnt through the South African peace process to the situation in Northern Ireland.
The CSVR Director has also been requested to provide assistance in various contexts, including in the establishment of an international network on building 'mutual understanding' amongst children in societies emerging from conflict. He has been involved in deliberations relating to the establishment of an International Criminal Court and has been invited to facilitate a regional workshop on strategies for building reconciliation in the countries of Central America, scheduled for February 1998 in Guatemala.
It is now clearly of great importance that we evaluate the TRC and its effects, in order to know how to further the whole process of reconciliation and to extract self-critical lessons for societies emerging from conflict in other parts of Africa and the world. The research activities of the TR Unit will be directed towards this evaluation in 1998, defining the lessons of the Truth and Reconciliation process for local and international audiences. We therefore anticipate an expanded role through our international comparative work in the coming years.
For 1998, the TR Unit has planned a number of key reconciliation initiatives, as well as the development of a Victim-Empowerment and Support Team. This Team will provide services to Khulumani support groups, as well as to any victims of human rights abuse, hopefully enabling them to empower themselves and sustain their organisations.
The biggest challenge for the TR Unit will be to assist in dealing with the many problems that will arise when the TRC closes down. We foresee an ongoing need for victim support, and for extensive reconciliation initiatives. The TRC's recommendations will have to be carried to all levels of society in order for the truths that have been revealed to contribute to the real transformation of our shattered society. In particular, it will be necessary to translate the lessons of the past - captured by the voices and faces of victims who have testified before the TRC - into interactive learning tools for future generations … and which will be accessible to children and young South Africans through every school library in the country.
In all these respects, it is our firm view that the real work of existing human rights NGOs in general - and of the CSVR's TR Unit in particular - begins in earnest at the point at which the TRC winds down its operations. It is our view that the future of the TR Unit is therefore more important now than ever before.
For the past two years the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) has focused public attention on atrocities and other human rights violations committed under apartheid, particularly by the so-called security forces of the previous government. Press and radio coverage of this process has been extensive and it was estimated that the SABC's weekly programme Special Report on the TRC had around 1.2 million regular viewers. Although rural people were less well informed, almost the entire population in urban areas came to know the kind of stories being told to the Commission about apartheid's atrocities.
But the impact of the Commission as a process on South Africans is difficult to assess. The TRC undertook its mission during the first years of a new democratic dispensation, when broader social transformations and changes in understanding were underway. Although at this point we cannot accurately plot exactly what changes in thought and attitude were set in motion by the revelation of terrifying abuses, in the wake of the Commission, we must nevertheless critically assess South Africans' understanding of human rights and human rights abuses. Unless we take stock of what has - as well as what has not - been achieved, the valuable work begun by the Commission may be lost.
We could, for a start, assert that it is highly unlikely that the Commission has radically altered deeply ingrained racial attitudes held by many South Africans, particularly whites. Although the Commission has shown just how destructive apartheid actually was, although it may have shocked many white South Africans to witness first hand on national television, a security policeman demonstrating the 'wet bag' method of torture, and although many victims have had the opportunity to tell the stories of their abuse, we cannot trust this alone to lead to reconciliation between peoples who have effectively lived in a different South Africa. Racial conflict and violence on the shop floor, in the schools, the institutions of state and in the wider community, for example, reflect the enduring nature of racism, mutual intolerance and the entrenched mistrust of 'the other' in South Africa. It would also appear that the resentment of many white South Africans to the notion that the 'imbalances' of the past must still be addressed, are ever more deeply ingrained. It must still be grasped that new laws, new channels of communication and new opportunities for a small minority of black South Africans, are not really enough. Some active steps need also to be taken by the beneficiaries of apartheid to redress historically entrenched inequities.
A different set of attitudes emerges among many black South Africans, and certainly among the communities and victims with whom we have worked at the CSVR. Many are truly grateful to the TRC for providing a sympathetic hearing and a source of public acknowledgement for their terrible tales. Yet even while supporting the TRC, many black South Africans reveal a critical stance. They often express that they feel they have learned little new about their own victimisation, and that the Commission has failed to deliver concrete results or material benefits to victims of such abuses. Some go as far so to accuse the TRC of actually serving perpetrators more effectively than victims - albeit unintentionally.
Such opinions perhaps only demonstrate that expectations of the TRC were skewed and unrealistic in the first place. What the TRC hoped to achieve was frequently not well understood, despite repeated efforts to clarify its mission. It also shows that the public has been inadequately educated about the Commission and particularly about the amnesty process - how it works and what it means. We could speculate that the TRC is symptomatic of a wider popular disillusionment with the failure of the new democratic state to meet expectations, particularly its apparent failure to translate elaborate policy visions into effective delivery of services. In this respect - and despite its limited mandate - the TRC may nonetheless suffer from the popular concern that the victims of apartheid still suffer the indignity and pain associated with the entrenched 'structural inequalities' which most strikingly characterised apartheid. In this context it must, of course, be acknowledged that to construe the TRC as the only vehicle for building reconciliation in South African society, is rather unfairly to set it up to fail. Yet this does beg the wider questions of what is necessary and what the TRC has achieved in building reconciliation.
In this context, it is perhaps more appropriately critical of the TRC to point out that the Commission has actually done rather little as a process to provide South Africans with a framework through which to examine and understand continued human rights violations in the country. This is rooted in the suggestion that, despite any rhetoric to the contrary, the TRC has ultimately remained a backward-looking venture. In its inability to define a forward looking focus which revolved around an agenda of transforming those social and state institutions which were inherited from the past and which were also the primary violators of human rights under apartheid, the TRC lost a crucial opportunity to directly contribute to the sort of change which recognised the sustained practices and the sustained marginalisation which characterise many of these institutions in the new South Africa. The Commission has generated an increased short-term awareness, but a leap must still be made to seeing deeper patterns of human rights abuses in our society. This poses a special challenge to government and to the Commission itself, as well as to those reporting on the Commission, as it shifts its focus to matters of reconciliation.
The basic issue emerging from this perspective is that we still need to turn the 'truths' about this country that have emerged from the TRC, into the transformation agenda that is so glibly talked about. We still need to clarify exactly what those truths are, and how they relate to other truths that were equally obscured by apartheid lies - the vastly destructive experiences of mass forced removals, mass starvation of children in the 'homelands', apartheid's police connivance with township gangsterism, the fine line between political and criminal violence, the deprivation, demotivation and dehumanisation that characterised the day-to-day evil of apartheid.
In essence, assumptions must be revisited about what needs to be done in order to bring white and black, possessors and dispossessed, together under one set of common ideals and aspirations. We need to explore anew our notions of reconciliation, truth and forgiveness. South Africans should be debating what it means to build a society based on human rights, and doing so without underestimating what it means that killers walk free, simply for having told us a little of what they did - however necessary this may have been to the forging of a political settlement.
South Africa is still a deeply divided society. A legacy of abuse, mistrust, resentment and fear combines with cultural insensitivity, persistent racism, sustained marginalisation and strong class divisions to provide a context ripe for changing forms of future social conflict. Deep-seated anger and resentment may yet erupt into public violence, disrupting cooperative relations and undermining a fragile common understanding. Furthermore the police; military; judiciary and schools, all slow in shedding their apartheid legacy, are struggling to address the new challenges they face. These vital public institutions that are meant to serve our people and act as guardians of our new Bill of Rights, are a long way from inspiring the necessary public confidence.
Thus, despite various commitments to national reconciliation, differences and conflicts entrenched over decades of apartheid and centuries of colonialism still threaten our social and political foundations. Against this background we must also take note that reconciliation has been mainly promoted around national symbols such as the flag and with reference to national sports and utopian images of a 'rainbow nation'. More substantial cooperative relationships among different sectors of society and between society and state structures have yet to take shape. While recognizing certain positive changes of the last five years, we must be aware that a long road lies ahead.
In fact, in many ways we see perhaps less unity now that during the after-glow of the 1994 elections. Not least concerning here is the pervasive impact of a slide from political to criminal violence, which leaves the majority of South Africans fearful, vulnerable and defensive. Embedded in these shifting forms of violent conflict is an increasingly heated contest over the meanings and content of the concept of reconciliation itself. It is not really surprising that TRC hearings and processes have often provided a platform for aggressive confrontations, rather than just romantic interactions based upon contrition and forgiveness. Indeed, it is arguable that for our society to be truly reconciled, it is indispensable that we are able to integrate - rather than merely forget or wish away - these residual sources of anger and frustration on the part of victims and survivors.
In a relatively short life-span, the TRC has painted in broad strokes the general patterns of abuse and suffering in our painful history, giving expression to previously unheard voices. The resulting reorientation of how people think about truth, justice and reconciliation provides new ground for taking stock and moving forward at a national level. However, the fact remains that different communities each face specific dynamics of pain, shame and martyrdom, and are still divided along racial, ethnic and political lines. This sets a critical agenda for organs of civil society dedicated to working for reconciliation in the aftermath of the TRC. In many respects, this simple analysis defines the key ongoing roles and tasks of the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation.
Although churches and NGOs have attempted to tackle problems of reconciliation at a local and at an institutional level, much more fundamental rebuilding of the social fabric has to be done to ensure the growth of a healthy new society. NGOs, particularly those with skills in conflict intervention, have a crucial role in facilitating and sustaining such initiatives and in targeting them at key constituencies, such as children at risk. Far from assuming that South Africa is simply a 'post-conflict society' which no longer needs such investment in civil society, these organisational initiatives should be given all the support they can get. Reconciliation needs to be built rather than assumed - the future and sustainability of democracy and a culture of human rights, tolerance and mutual respect, depend upon it.
These are difficult and thorny issues integral to the complexity of South Africa, its people and its unique history. They also offer an important 'reality check' in respect of a transition and a truth and reconciliation process which is all too easily offered as a model for other societies in transition. In this regard, we believe that the CSVR has a great deal to offer the world in respect of some of the hard lessons and hidden liabilities of the transition from autocracy to democracy.
The CSVR's Criminal justice Policy Unit (CJPU) provides policy research and training to the different sectors of the criminal justice system, to aid them in the process of institutional transformation and in the improvement of their services. During 1997 - as in previous years - the Unit focused on the South African Police and on Correctional Services, both of which have been hampered by critical and enduring problems. Among these are increased crime, the need to create better approaches to preventing and combatting crime, the challenges of developing effective rehabilitation for offenders, and the difficulties involved in restructuring these departments of State.
The Unit continued to concentrate on research, policy development and training during 1997, providing information and analysis to policy-makers, professional analysts and role-players involved in or working with the many sectors of the criminal justice system. In keeping with the CSVR's general approach, the CJPU also prioritised its pilot intervention programmes - in the prisons, with the police members and through the community policing forums of Gauteng Province.
Children in Prison and Juvenile Justice Policy Research
Sixty-one children in five prisons were interviewed by the CSVR's CJPU in a project examining problems associated with child imprisonment in Gauteng. The study focused on several factors: the kinds of crimes children are being sentenced for, what sentences these child offenders are receiving, and what backgrounds such children come from. The final results of this innovative and unique study will be available during 1998. The CJPU also participated in a national survey on conditions facing children in prisons, co-ordinated by the University of the Western Cape's Community Law Centre and forming part of a United Nations' evaluation of children in detention.
Various CSVR staff continued to research and present information and analysis on juvenile justice in South Africa, particularly focussing on restorative justice solutions to the problems of street children, gang culture and juvenile urban violence. Amanda Dissel presented some of this work at a conference in Senegal (and this was subsequently published as a chapter in a book), Tracy Vienings did a similar presentation in Ghana and CSVR Director Graeme Simpson did presentations on this work in Italy, as well as in Cape Town at a juvenile justice conference jointly hosted by NICRO and the University of Cape Town's Criminology Institute. The CSVR's work in this sphere is receiving international recognition and we expect to further develop this area in the coming years.
1997 saw the drafting of a Correctional Services Act by the Department of Correctional Services. The CJPU was asked to comment and offer recommendations on the draft Bill, and gave additional input at a joint workshop. We were also invited to make input to the Portfolio Committee on Correctional Services in respect of plans for privatisation of prison services in South Africa. In this latter regard, we motivated for greater transparency in government's policy-making and in the process of prison privatisation - and expressed our substantial reservations in respect of the privatisation of this sector.
In the course of the year, the CJPU also hosted a workshop on issues relating to the new C-Max (maximum security) prisons. The workshop was intended to generate debate highlighting the human rights implications for inmates and the potential for human rights violations inherent in these proposals by the Department of Correctional Services. The workshop also examined the criteria for who would be housed in such prisons - which remains substantially unclear even at present. Despite being invited to do so, the Department of Correctional Services chose not to attend this seminal workshop. Nonetheless, a national Penal Advocacy Network (PAN) was established, consisting of organisations from across the country. PAN's work, will continue to focus on escapes from prisons and on clarifying the status and conditions of C-Max prisons.
Local Crime Prevention
A limited research study was undertaken to further illuminate the issues of safety and security which face communities at the local level. CJPU Researcher David Bruce examined the role of local authorities in crime prevention, especially in the context of a complex relationship between local development initiatives and crime. In particular, the research paper argued for the organisational transformation of local authorities if they are to play a meaningful role in tackling problems of crime at the local level. CSVR researchers also examined how victims of crime can be offered better community support at the local level. A research report that was produced by this study was disseminated in several different forms through a number of publications.
The CSVR Director, along with David Storey (a CSVR Research Associate) also provided consultancy and facilitation services to the personnel of Johannesburg's Western Metropolitan Sub-Structure (MSS) in their development and planning of a local authority safety strategy. This was part of a broader development. strategy being undertaken by the Western MSS local council. A report was compiled containing a series of proposals and recommendations and this was submitted to the overall facilitator of the process.
Furthermore, through its Director, the CSVR was extensively involved in the Johannesburg Safe Cities Initiative in the course of 1997. This involved offering assistance to the Coordinator of the programme (who was working under the authority of the Johannesburg Metropolitan Council), participation in steering committee meetings and presentations at fora and workshops arranged by the Safe Cities Initiative. Towards the end of the year, once a victimisation survey for Johannesburg had been completed (with which the CSVR assisted), the CSVR, was contracted by the Metropolitan Council around developing a 'Safe Cities Strategy' for greater Johannesburg. This task was sub-contracted to Janine Rauch (also a Research Associate of the CSVR) and will be completed early in 1998.
Criminal Investigation and Prosecution
The CSVR was awarded a grant from the Human Sciences Research Council to Carry out research on ways to improve criminal investigation and prosecution. This study, 'The Police, Victims and the Criminal Justice Process: An Integrated Approach', is being conducted over 18 months. It looks at how crime victims are further victimised within the criminal justice process itself, and at how the process can be monitored and improved by paying more and better attention to the statements and experiences of crime victims. Ultimately it is hoped that this work will form the basis of a concerted effort to transform prevalent police practice, especially through translating the lessons learned into educational and training materials for use by the police.
A major problem affecting the whole criminal justice system is police corruption. Research intern Talha Syed and researcher David Bruce thus focused on an examination of what kinds of corruption are prevalent and on tracing out the consequences of such corruption. Several papers were published an the topic, including in the SAPS magazine Servamus and a forthcoming piece will soon be published in African Security Review, The CJPU also wrote articles for the popular media and engaged in public debate on corruption in the crimfnal justjce system. David Bruce attended the 8th International Anti-Corruption Conference in Lima, Peru, at the invitation of Transparency International, South Africa. It is intended to continue to expand this work in the course of the next couple of years, particularly as it relates to issues of police accountability more generally.
Deaths through Police Action or in Police Custody
Under apartheid the police developed a reputation for violence and brutality, with many people either dying in police custody, or through the excessive use of force by the police. This is an ongoing and serious problem, characterised by inadequate information about the precise causes and trends which are manifesting themselves in the post-apartheid era. The CJPU became involved in this work when the Independent Complaints Directorate (ICD) asked for our advice on how it should investigate police crimes and misconduct. CJPU researcher David Bruce has also submitted comments on SAPS anti-torture policy. A number of articles will be produced in 1998, based on research already completed.
For the past several years, various members of the CSVR staff have focused on both the philosophy and practice of community policing in South Africa. The CSVR's policy research has been at the heart of debates over the various forums and approaches to community involvement and police accountability in the police/community relationship. During 1997 it became necessary to evaluate these various approaches and to assess community policing practice, in order to establish minimum standards for community policing. The CSVR's Duxita Mistry sat on the SAPS Steering Committee on Competency Profiles in Community Policing, which sought to lay down national training and operating standards in this field. The CJPU also provided critical commentary on the guidelines for community policing which were produced by the Secretariat of Safety and Security. As a result of this work, in the course of the year several articles were published based on such evaluations of community policing.
National Victimisation Survey
In order to improve the strategic capability of the criminal justice system, it is essential that better information is gathered on how victims experience this system, as well as on the extent, nature and type of crime being experienced across time, geographical areas and different social groupings. In an endeavour to meet this critical demand, a national victimisation survey was proposed and planned by the Department of Safety and Security, in conjunction with the Central Statistical Services. CSVR Researcher, Duxita Mistry, was appointed to sit on the steering committee of this initiative, and she was later elected to an executive committee responsible for managing the survey. Although the National Victimisation Survey was not yet undertaken by the year end, it is hoped that such a national survey will be held every two years.
In addition to this national victimisation survey, a local survey was undertaken by the Institute for Security Studies (ISS) as part of the Johannesburg Safe Cities initiative. Various members of the CSVR staff worked with staff from the ISS in the analysis of this survey data. Similar partnerships are planned with IDASA and the ISS in respect of future local level victimisation surveys in Durban, Cape Town and Pretoria.
Safety and Security White Paper Policy Research
The CSVR was asked to assist the National Minister and Secretariat of Safety and Security in the initial stages of drafting a Safety and Security White Paper for South Africa. In particular, Graeme Simpson, CSVR's Director, was recruited to chair one of four sub-committees responsible for providing research and policy input to assist in the development of the draft White Paper. This sub-committee was concerned with providing an environmental analysis of the policy context for the White Paper. Apart from the submissions made by this group (including an individual submission by Graeme Simpson), CJPU researcher Duxita Mistry was also contracted to work on one of the other sub-committees. The White Paper drafting process will continue into 1998, when a draft will be submitted to popular scrutiny through a wide consultation process, before the final draft is submitted to the national cabinet for approval.
Domestic Violence on Partners of Police Officials
The National Crime Prevention Strategy (NCPS) - which was substantially drafted by the CSVR Director in the course of 1996 - identified the dramatic problem of domestic violence in South Africa as an area needing specialised attention and intervention from the criminal justice system. However, a particular aspect which has escaped attention, is the fact that many policemen are themselves involved in violence against their families, sometimes as a result of the stress and violence in their work. In 1997, research intern Jennifer Nix consequently undertook a study of police abuse of their domestic partners, aimed at influencing how police deal with this problem as well as assisting to address how police handle public complaints of domestic violence more generally.This study will be expanded and further developed in the first half of the new year.
From the perspective of the CSVR's CJPU, it became clear that although police are expected to implement community policing, they generally have little or no understanding of what this philosophy means in practice. We therefore concentrated on assisting police members to develop a basic understanding of community policing, and on providing them with practical skills. During 1997 Kindiza Ngubeni ran twelve training sessions with police stations in Soweto and thereafter a further nine workshops in the Vaal. Additional training workshops will be undertaken in early 1998. A member of the CJPU also joined the Subject Committee for Community Policing at Technicon SA, where exciting challenges exist for developing the curriculum and for teaching this subject.
The CJPU, with the CSVR's Education and Media Unit, has compiled a Community Policing Training Manual for the SAPS. The manual was piloted towards the end of 1997 and will be used extensively in 1998. Community policing training continued to be provided on the basis of a creative partnership between the CSVR and several other non-governmental organisations.
Community Police Forums
The CJPU ran training workshops for the Community Police Forums (CPF) Area Board in North Rand and Midrand, to help them improve the quality of their service delivery. In several CPFs women complained that issues they raised were being ignored, that Forums were dominated by men and that women were being excluded. Responding to requests we ran workshops aimed at empowering women to participate in CPFs in Norwood, Evaton and Sebokeng. We also assisted women in Sebokeng to prepare for elections onto their local CPF.
Human Rights Training in Prisons
Lawyers for Human Rights and CSVR initiated a joint project on human rights training in prisons. Through extensive advocacy work within the Department of Correctional Services, as well as through substantial development of educational materials, the groundwork has been laid for this training to take place, and this will begin in early 1998 at four prisons across the country. The project will train prisoners, as well as correctional services officers and both junior and middle management of the Department of Correctional Services, on human rights issues in prisons.
Human Rights Education for the Police
During 1997 we continued giving input on the development of a trainers' manual for the Human Resources Management division of the SAPS Legal Services. Already dogged by many delays, this manual should finally be completed in 1998.
In Lesotho, during May and November, the CJPU presented training sessions on community policing and dispute resolution at an in-service training course for Lesotho's magistrates, police and members of the correctional services. The training course was coordinated by the Danish Centre for Human Rights in conjunction with the Lesotho Ministry of justice.
In Northern Province and KwaZulu Natal, we were contracted to present training workshops for SAPS Station Commissioners on managing victims of crime. This series of workshops was facilitated by Wits University's Centre for Applied Legal Studies (CALS). In Kroonstad, the CJPU also ran a human rights training workshop for junior managers of the Department of Correctional Services.
Finally, although more of a facilitation function than formal training, the CSVR was involved in substantial work related to government's National Crime Prevention Strategy (NCPS). Due to our extensive involvement in the drafting of the NCPS, the CSVR's Director was asked to assist in planning various Provincial NCPS Summits. Members of the CSVR staff also assisted in facilitating working sessions at many of these Provincial summits. The CSVR Director was asked to give a presentation on the NCPS to SAPS leadership as part of their Five Year Scenario Planning workshop in March 1997.
As the CSVR is committed to increasing both its income-generating capacity and its ability to undertake contract research and consulting functions, the CJPU undertook several such projects in the course of the year.
In the course of 1998 the CSVR's Criminal justice Policy Unit will continue with projects initiated in 1997 and will also explore several new research areas. Possible new work includes providing evaluations of local level policing, research on youth crime and breaking the cycle of criminality. Our training work will increase, and we expect to develop a training course for trainers for the SAPS. We will also extend our work with the criminal justice system more generally, to include a greater focus on the court system - and this will probably require the additional employment of a researcher with expertise on the courts and on prosecutorial policy. It is also planned to substantially increase our work and profile in respect of gender-specific violent crime.
The problem of burgeoning violent crime remains one of the most distressing problems in post-apartheid South Africa, with people from all walks of life feeling its effects. Besides the traumatisation of growing numbers of individuals, our whole society is ever more preoccupied with a sense of fear and threat. Many people are succumbing to ongoing anxiety and stress. Increasing numbers are forced to spend their earnings on security measures. A kind of shock effect has hit our country, and crime and violence draw major public, media and political attention. The suggestion should not be taken that this is a phenomenon exclusive to the post-apartheid era, but rather that the roots of politicised criminality, reside in the legacy of apartheid's criminalisation of politics. In this simple equation, we ought to understand the roots of shifting conflict in post-apartheid South Africa - from a tradition of political violence, to a culture of criminal victimisation.
Perhaps most disturbing in this context is the suggestion, made by some experts and statisticians in the course of 1997, that crime levels in South Africa are stabilising rather than increasing. The suggestion may well be made that there is scant consolation in the fact that crime levels are stabilising at such unacceptably high levels. Certainly, from a qualitative rather than quantitative point of view, there are indications that this society is becoming more rather than less violent. The CSVR Trauma Clinic, for example, records more and more vicious and gratuitous violence accompanying crime, often directed against vulnerable and defenceless elderly people, women and children. In response, communities are calling out for harsher treatment of criminals, and in some instances are even motivating for vigilantism and 'private justice' as appropriate responses to the inept or inefficient South African criminal justice system. Instead of popular support for creative crime prevention initiatives such as the National Crime Prevention Strategy (NCPS), popular calls are growing louder for heavy-handed law enforcement and punitive justice approaches. There are those, amongst them prominent politicians from all parties, who even seek the return of the death sentence, deemed unconstitutional by South Africa's highest court.
In response to such public outcry, desperate attempts have been made to tighten the criminal justice system - including amendments to bail laws, the introduction of minimum sentences and stricter control over granting of parole. The recent introduction of C-Max ultra-security prisons are another attempt to meet public criticisms. Yet these law enforcement approaches are, in the opinion of the CSVR, akin to shutting the stable door once the horse has bolted. Harsh treatment is no assurance that criminals are deterred, and although those convicted receive stronger treatment, the majority of criminals are left unscathed and uncaught. Even within its own increasingly conventional law enforcement paradigm, government's signals that it is 'getting tough on crime', fail to adequately address the primary problem: a sustained decline in the actual apprehension, prosecution and conviction of criminals. Indeed, it is arguable that however long-term crime prevention approaches may be, they seem to be at least as achievable.
Moreover, another reason to be perturbed at the present governmental line of action against criminals, is that it threatens our fledgling culture of human rights. Restrictions in the bail laws, for instance, actually impose uncomfortable limits on the right of an accused person to be considered innocent until proven guilty. Poor conditions in prisons and long delays in bringing cases to trial also affect the rights of those accused. Effective solitary confinement in C-Max prisons undermines human dignity and arguably constitutes cruel and degrading treatment. In the name of fighting crime, the government, we believe, is in danger of undermining its own commitment to human rights principles. It is doing this precisely because of the sustained failure to address the needs of victims of violent crime, thereby creating the false impression that human rights only service the interests of the offender or of the accused, instead of the victims and survivors of violent crime. This climate, combined with inadequate practical and technical human rights training for police members, lies at the heart of a sustained culture of police abuse of power and the continued problems of police torture and deaths in custody or as a result of police action - which now threaten to overload the newly established Independent Complaints Directorate (ICD).
1997 also highlighted the fact that the present inadequacies in the criminal justice system may also lead the public to take justice into their own ands. Recent examples of such community justice have varied from forms of public humiliation, to the more benevolent acts of simply arresting alleged offenders. Left unchecked, however, public redress may take on a more sinister character, such as the resurgence of 'kangaroo courts' which inflict physical punishment, or the high profile activities of agencies such as PAGAD. In this context, the potential for a cycle of human rights abuse is most disturbing and the responsibility must lie at the door of government.
Government must therefore match its commitment to promoting the proper co-ordination and development of the criminal justice system with an equally vigorous protection of our embryonic human rights culture. Central to this must be the development and sophistication of police investigative and justice prosecution techniques which are rooted in a technical capacity to operate efficiently within the boundaries of a constitutional framework. In this endeavour, the needs and rights of victims must be paramount. They should be the primary concern and a central resource of a criminal justice system which is rooted in a prevention rather than a 'law enforcement paradigm'. If this is not substantially achieved in the course of the next few years, then it may be violent crime - rather than the resurgence of political conflict - which presents the most fundamental challenges to building reconciliation and transforming public confidence in state institutions and the rule of law in South Africa.
The CSVR's Education and Media Unit (EMU) creates multi-media educational materials (film, radio, drama, print) from the research and policy work generated by the Centre. Our media products either aim at increasing public awareness around crime, violence, reconciliation and human rights, or provide specialised skills to various practitioners in the field. We also develop curricula around these issues for schools as well as tertiary and other training institutions.
In the first half of 1997, the EMU Coordinator - Tracy Vienings - set out to raise funds and recruit staff to build the CSVR's capacity as a producer of high quality training materials in the fields of violence and reconciliation. By the end of the year, she had put together a dynamic team: Lauren Segal brings to the Unit a wealth of experience in television and radio production, Bongani Linda is a well-known drama director, scriptwriter and community educationist, and Karima Effendi has extensive knowledge of educational materials development and much practical training and workshop design experience.
With this enthusiastic team we were able to raise funds for some innovative and exciting projects from Diakonia (Sweden), the Flemish Educational Department (through VVOB) and the Department of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology. Bread For The World (Germany) also contributed to the materials development projects in the youth and schools sector.
Important challenges faced us as we set out to interface with the other departments in the CSVR, as we had to develop a broad knowledge of many different areas of work to ensure that their varied and complex projects were translated into accessible educational packages. We also wanted our educational interventions to properly complement each other and provide valuable educational experiences. We have thoroughly enjoyed the work and gained rigorous expertise in combining film, drama and print media in new and interesting ways.
The Unit was involved in seven major projects during 1997 falling under the areas of human rights, trauma, crime prevention and reconciliation. All of our interventions are designed for specific audiences, are tested in the field and thoroughly evaluated, and are able to be replicated in other regions and contexts.
Building Human Rights Culture in Schools
When the Unit began researching issues facing 14-to 16-year old school students in the era of transition, we learned that although most are aware that South Africa has a new rights-based constitution, they do not relate human rights to their lives and dealings with each other. We thus decided to produce an educational television drama series providing life skills for reasonable behaviour in a rights-based society. The nine part series will highlight issues of identity, prejudice, politics, inter-personal relationships and adolescent alienation, and will be accompanied by teacher guides, student work-books and training courses on how to use the whole multi-media package.
At the end of 1997, the SABC agreed to pay half of the production costs for this series and for nine live studio debates on issues raised in the series. The SABC will also air the series on the programme Take Five, at the beginning of 1999. Research began in October and the full package should be completed in August 1998. The project includes a full evaluation that will track the impact of the series and of classroom interventions to be made over the period of broadcasting.
Initial research reveals a very different, interesting profile of youth in the late 1990s compared to the conventional wisdom regarding youth politics and culture at the end of the 1980s. As a result, current youth perceptions about crime and politics during transition will provide invaluable insight for implementing the National Crime Prevention Strategy. Research for the series focuses on schools in four regions, covering rural, township, urban and inner city students, and has given the CSVR's Education and Media Unit ideas for several other intervention projects that will help to free schools from crime and violence.
Trauma Management in the Classroom
While working with school communities the CSVR Youth Department discovered that a high degree of trauma among students was limiting their ability to learn effectively while at school. Teachers were simply not skilled in dealing with this kind of problem. The Education and Media Unit thus worked with the Youth Department to design a manual that would give teachers the skills to manage different kinds of trauma in the classroom. A training video will be produced to accompany the manual and the package will be completed in February 1998.
Anti-Crime Drama with Criminals
In his first month with the CSVR, Bongani Linda raised funds for a prisons project - perhaps the first of its kind in the country - entitled 'Prison Speak'. In this project Bongani worked with 12 maximum security prisoners to develop a drama with a strong message about the consequences of being involved in crime, which they then performed to other prisoners. The whole process has involved a powerful form of rehabilitation for the 12 men themselves, stemming from their profound exploration of how crime has affected their lives and the writing and performing of an anti-crime play. The public will be able to view the play in early 1998.
The other prisons drama involved juvenile offenders, with a group of young men co-writing a script about their involvement in crime and the subsequent consequences. The drama will be performed for school children in early 1998 in the Johannesburg Prison and will be followed by an interactive workshop on the consequences of involvement in crime. The play is designed to utilise the voices of convicted criminals themselves in order to propagate anti-crime messages aimed at youth at risk.
The Education and Media Unit also has plans to work with life-sentence prisoners early next year on an educational drama about the death penalty.
In tandem with the CSVR's Criminal Justice Policy Unit, the EMU produced an accessible community policing manual which was completed in December 1997. Karima Effendi developed the manual by observing and participating in a number of Community Policing workshops.
Research Project on Youth Perceptions of Crime
The CSIR contracted the CSVR's EMU to do national research tapping the perceptions of young perpetrators and victims of violence, in respect of a wide range of issues pertaining to crime. Lauren Segal and contract researcher Joy Pelo completed a fascinating and groundbreaking study of South African youths' perceptions of crime. This unique and powerful set of youth voices is an invaluable resource to both the CSVR and to other researchers and organisations. The study will be available early in 1998.
The Unit worked on two reconciliation projects in 1997.
Violence and Reconciliation for Community Leaders
The Unit produced and ran a community organisers' course for the Centre for Continuing Education (CCE) at Wits University. Tracy Vienings developed a curriculum of nine modules and piloted the course with 25 community leaders from the Kathorus region. The course and accompanying manual focused on understanding violence in South Africa, its effects on community development, intervening to break cycles of violence and revenge, and building reconciliation within divided communities. The course was well received and CCE have asked the Unit to run the course again in 1998.
The other reconciliation project was the EMU's ambitious and complex intervention in an area of Alexandra township where residents have been caught up in a bloody war since the so-called 'hostel dwellers' conflict' hit Gauteng in the early 1990s. Tracy Vienings has been mediating and developing reconciliation workshops for the warring groups since 1996, and during 1997 work continued with the added expertise of the EMU's Lauren Segal and Thloki Mofokeng and Traggy Maepa from the Transition and Reconciliation Unit. By the end of the year, this section of the Alexandra community had undertaken to actively engage in a new type of reconciliation and conflict management - one which uses video as a central tool in building bridges and documenting this process.
Called 'Alexandra Dialogues' the project is based on a precedent intervention previously undertaken by the Media Peace Centre, in which Katlehong youth from opposing sides used video to create a history of conflict in their area and to pose solutions. A similar process will be adopted in Alexandra, but with a slightly different focus as those involved are no longer engaged in direct physical conflict.
Our work in 1997 showed that a fragile peace has been built between the warring parties, with previous enemies sitting around a table discussing how to build a more united community. But a number of issues remain unresolved: residents who fled their homes in 1992 are still living in displacement centres around Alexandra while strangers have moved in to their houses, and hostel dwellers still live in very poor conditions. In the context of high levels of conflict over access to scarce housing, this remains a volatile environment in which to work.
With Alexandra targeted by government as a reconstruction and development area, this fragile peace could be threatened when decisions are made about who moves into the new dwellings. There are simply not enough houses and too many claims over who has a right to them. 'Alexandra Dialogues' will start training video diarists in early 1998 and will attempt to uncover the aspirations, fears and strengths of the various people involved. The video, as well as the filming process itself, aims to ensure that cracks do not widen to unbridgeable chasms in the streets of Alexandra. The video diary will also constitute a documented collective memory of the process, and a reference source in respect of decisions taken and agreements reached.
In 1998 the Education and Media Unit will carry through various projects which have been described in the preceding pages. We will be engaged in producing the multi-media package around building human rights in schools, 'Prison Speak' will run its course (and plans are afoot to make a documentary of the entire process) and 'Alexandra Dialogues' kicks off early in the new year. This latter project continues until after the elections in 1999. Finally, the Unit plans to consolidate its support work for the other departments in the Centre by producing multi-media educational packages to enrich their many interventions.
The Education and Media Unit is particularly well placed going into the new year - and indeed, for the new millennium. The Unit has made an important break through in accessing and working with the national public broadcaster. The Unit also has considerable potential for developing a wide range of financially viable or self-sustaining projects, although competition in the video production sector is rather fierce. Finally, after nearly eighteen months of hard negotiations, well-laid plans and hard work, it appears likely that a 'Sport Against Crime Project' will get off the ground in the course of 1998. Sport Against Crime was officially launched mid-way through 1997 and will present great opportunities for the Education and Media Unit in the coming year. This will entail the CSVR's production of a 52-part video series utilising sports stars to propagate anti-crime messages targeted at the youth, through building a set of positive role models in the form and through the voices of South African sporting heroes.
The work of the Education and Media Unit is receiving widespread acclaim, both locally and abroad, which also stands the Unit in good stead for the coming year - with the result that most of its proposed programmes are fully funded for this period. Indeed, international recognition for the work of the Unit is reflected by the repetition of an invitation to the Unit Coordinator - Tracy Vienings -to teach a regular slot in an international conflict management course at Uppsala University in Sweden.
The CSVR Resource Centre has four main areas of work: it houses the organisation's library and institutional memory, it is responsible for the maintenance of the CSVR website, it manages the archives of research produced by the CSVR's various research staff and it markets and sells CSVR research articles to the public.
The library services CSVR staff as well as a walk-in public clientele, and is extensively used by academics, journalists and writers, students, community-based organisations, NGOs and members of disadvantaged communities. The CSVR's research publications continue to sell steadily, with increasing international mail orders made possible via our website. Costs to local clients are kept low as we charge little more than duplication fees, making our articles affordable to those from disadvantaged communities.
During 1997 we devoted much time and effort to the CSVR website which now provides a gateway to all resources on the web associated with the CSVR's areas of work. The website is aimed at everybody concerned with violence, crime, reconciliation, human rights, transformation and peace education. In December the Resource Centre's manager - Andie Miller - was short-listed for the SANGONET 'Networker of the Year' award.
In the course of the past year, the establishment of this comprehensive website has made an invaluable contribution to both the reputation of the CSVR, as well as the accessibility of our products and research. In particular, the website has provided a contact point with a wide range international organisations, experts and researchers. We have received requests for information, internships and assistance from all over the world. By the end of 1997, it is true to say that the work of the CSVR has received widespread recognition (both in South Africa and abroad) - and the Resource Centre website has been a key contributing factor.
However, due to staff and funding limitations the CSVR Resource Centre did not realise its intended extension of research support to CSVR researchers, resulting in some frustration. We urgently dedicated funds for the Resource Centre in 1998 and beyond, in order to expand in harmony with the growth of the CSVR as a whole.
One priority for 1998 is that we employ a dedicated Networker to establish a network of individuals and organisations producing multi-media materials for 'Education for Mutual Understanding' ('Peace Education'). This initiative will directly support the production and distribution of materials by the CSVR's Education and Media Unit. Pursuant to this, it is likely that with the necessary financial backing, the Resource Centre will increasingly become a multi-media resource with both a limited video and audio archive. It is hoped that with time our Resource Centre will also become an effective international clearing house for the highest quality creative educational materials in the fields of violence and reconciliation.
The CSVR continued with its monthly seminar programme which aims to encourage public dialogue and debate around issues of violence, reconciliation, transition, human rights and crime.
|Sexual Violence Against Women: Victims' needs and government's response||Marilyn Donaldson, Lisa Vetten & Minister Dr Mantu Tshabalala-Msimang|
|Road Violence||Moira Winslow, Dr Victor Nell & Mary Robertson|
|The Independent Complaints Directorate (ICD): Will it fulfil its promise?||Adv Neville Melville, Deputy National Commissioner Zolisa Lavisa & Adv Jan Munnik|
|Living With the Legacy of Impunity: Lessons for South Africa about truth, justice and crime in Brazil||Brandon Hamber|
|Theoretical and Therapeutic Aspects of Extrafamilial Child Rape in the South African Context: A preliminary exploration||Sharon Lewis, Gill Eagle & Superintendent Anneke Pienaar|
|Violence and Crime: A focus on township youth||Wandile Zwane, Thloki Mofokeng & Steven de Kiewiet|
|Combatting Family Violence in Local Communities||Anita Dries, Bohang Matlhong, Thenjiwa Kothana & Rebecca Olifant|
|Communicating Change: Using film and radio in the process of conflict resolution and reconciliation||Teddy Mattera, Wiseman Ndebele & Thabo Khoza|
|Interactive Performance Towards Reconciliation||Nan Hamilton|
|Media Portrayals of Crime: Trends and effects||Antoinette Louw, Derrick Rodney & Claudia Braude|
|Victims and the Criminal Justice System in South Africa||Superintendent Suzelle Pretorius, Mercy Hlungwani & Duxita Mistry|
|Reconciliation: From a culture of war to a culture of peace||Juan Gutierrez|
The CSVR Youth Department aims to develop structures in schools to deal with the effects of violence and abuse on children. Through training teachers to identify symptoms of trauma in children and giving them skills to refer the more serious cases of trauma to the relevant support services, and by facilitating and training teacher-committees to deal with trauma in schools, the Youth Department is developing a comprehensive model for victim support and empowerment at the school level.
While trauma management in the schools is deepened through training teachers and setting up teacher co-ordinator committees, students benefit from the intervention through training and education on understanding cycles of violence and skills in peer mediation, conflict management and student leadership.
At the end of 1996 the Youth Department identified a gap in their intervention programme: not enough. support from the Department of Education and not taking advantage of our unique interventions to lobby for more effective and sustained victim services for school children. Putting more effort into lobbying and advocacy work during 1997 resulted in the Youth Department receiving the support of principals, district directors and the MEC for Education in Gauteng. Through this programme and direct intervention at a policy level, the Youth Department has played a key role in the restoration of a culture of learning wherever we operate.
For four years the CVIP has facilitated trauma support services in township schools, providing counselling and training teachers to identify and support traumatised students. In 1997 we worked intensively in eight schools, as well as providing advice and backup to four other schools that we have trained to work on their own. We now operate in three areas: Soweto, Thembisa and Mohlakeng (Randfontein).
The CVIP provides counselling to students, parents and teachers as well as making referrals to appropriate organisations where necessary. Part of the strength of the intervention programme is that it approaches the school as an extended environment, ensuring that parents are very much involved in the care and policy of trauma management in the schools. Home visits are conducted, especially where parents do not respond to invitations to come to the school to discuss problems.
Cases referred for counselling include: rape, attempted suicide, beatings and stabbings by other students at schools, victims of domestic violence or students traumatised by violence in the home against other family members, usually the mother. Family violence against women and children was reported by students in all schools and the number of rapes is increasing, especially in schools close to informal settlements.
However, poor socio-economic conditions in the townships pose a serious challenge to our therapeutic interventions. These conditions are the main cause of high levels of violence and for our work to have any longer term success it is clear that the overall development of our communities must be addressed. Poverty is the underlying serious problem for most township youth and until there is a general upliftment of society through the provision of jobs and services, we face an increasing brutalisation of our communities.
Through the success of the CVIP, the Youth Department received a number of requests from other schools in Soweto to provide the same training and support services. The Youth Department needed to find some way of responding to these requests without compromising its capacity and expertise in working with the other schools. The 40 Schools Project was initiated in 1996 to meet this new and increased demand for the services provided by the CVIP. The expanded project involves training small teacher teams in trauma management by way of two day workshops held each school term. Through this process a committee of teachers has been set up and with their enthusiastic support for each other, these teachers were able to deal with heavy case-loads in 1997.
During the year, from the teachers trained by the Youth Department, a 40 Schools committee was elected so that teachers involved could bring their own needs and issues into shaping the training program. The committee set itself to lobbying the Education Department to meet the need for trauma services in the schools, and to support teachers who give of their time and effort to this important work.
The committee also felt that students themselves had a role to play in dealing with crime and violence in the schools and should be involved in the program. Two ground-breaking conferences were held, the first for Zola, Emndeni, Jabulani and Zondi, and the second for the entire Soweto high school population. Students proved themselves ready to get involved and recommended strategies for freeing schools from violence. The CSVR's Safe Schools Project is a direct result of these recommendations.
The 40 Schools committee and the Youth Department also initiated a newsletter so that teachers, students and the Department could share their experiences with the wider community as well as educate teachers not yet trained in trauma management.
The Youth Department continued to extend contact between itself and other groups and organisations involved with community or schools issues. For example we are sometimes able to refer cases to local clinics, which provide a good meeting place for child, parent and support workers.
The second students' conference brought new contacts with various people and organisations involved: the Reproductive Rights Alliance, South African Youth Clubs, the Youth Development Trust, members of the South African Democratic Teachers' Union and social workers from the local authority. We also kept up our work with the SAPS and the Community Police Forum, both of which regularly participated in workshops.
The Youth Department gets strong support from the many teachers with whom we are in constant contact and who are always willing to help. We are also assisted by other departments of the CSVR, for example in facilitating workshops for us.
The Youth Department has lobbied support from the Department of Education and through this we have made contact with various auxiliary services in the Department. A staff member sits on the task team of the Campaign for Learning and Teaching (COLTS), a Department of Education initiative.
We now have plans to engage with the Departments of Health and Welfare and Safety and Security, to obtain their assistance in promoting safety and health among students and in helping children who are victims of violence.
The process of setting up intervention teams of trained teachers in dealing with trauma in schools has generally been highly successful and an important intervention. But the process has encountered a number of problems. This work is often regarded as overtime work by the teachers and there was an element of resentment that they were not being paid for doing extra work. Some principals were not comfortable working with non-governmental organisations. In their opinion, decisions and programmes should be initiated and sustained by the Education Department or Ministry.
Working with the school as the primary institution in accessing students and teachers also posed certain problems. As a result of the struggle against apartheid, the school became a site of struggle - students assumed a certain amount of power in this process. They are now expected to relinquish that power they have enjoyed over the years and teachers often get confused in this power struggle and are unable to negotiate the issues.
Expectations that parents and teachers had of the intervention programme were largely unrealistic but reflective of the desperate need communities have to find solutions to problems of trauma and victimisation. Parents and teachers expected children to be 'fixed' in no time and to be trauma-free after one or two interventions. It also became difficult to work with teachers who themselves were traumatised and tended to hijack the process of healing aimed at the students. The majority of children referred to the programme were faced with multiple stressors, some needed to be referred to other sources not located in their communities and there were difficulties with transport costs which impacted on their healing process.
The working conditions in township schools are not generally conducive to learning. There were times when it was very difficult to sustain intervention programmes with any continuity.
This intervention process can be seen as a model that can be implemented in any community if it focuses on empowering key stakeholders with the necessary skills they themselves identify as crucial. The process does not take for granted the experiences of teachers and parents but strives to harness effective solutions to problems. It begins with the premise that people (ie teachers in this instance), are interested in the well-being of children unless proven otherwise and will therefore be committed to helping create an environment that will enhance the emotional development of children. There is no doubt that there is a committed cadre of teachers and children who, if assisted, motivated and nurtured, can help steer the vision and work that is required in making schools a safe haven for children.
The Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation received funding from the following organisations in the course of the year under review and all these contributions are reflected in the audited financial statements:
There are many other donor agencies who have supported the work of the CSVR over the past nine years, many of which still support the Centre, despite the fact that they may not have transferred specific contributions in the course of the financial year ending 31 December 1997. However, as several of these agencies will once again be supporting the CSVR during the coming year, they deserve full acknowledgement in this Annual Report for their vital contributions to our work. Those to whom we remain indebted include:
As noted in the previous pages, on 1 July 1997, the Centre officially disaffiliated from the University of the Witwatersrand. This imposed new challenges at the financial management level and demanded that substantial financial procedures and policies be in place. Included in this was the appointment of new auditors: Douglas and Velcich. The auditors have reviewed the presentation of our previous financial statements and have ensured that the statements are prepared according to generally accepted accounting principles. Due to the CSVR's registration as a Section 21 (non-profit) company, it is obligatory that we present the extracts from the audited financial statements in a manner that reflects the consolidated financial status of all the units and projects of the organisation. This is in contrast to previous years when we were simply subsumed as part of the University of the Witwatersrand.
In 1997, the CSVR's dedicated funding income totalled R4 356 744 - an increase of almost 100% over the previous year. Of this income, the Centre raised only a disappointing 1% from donations by domestic corporations, despite an aggressive local fund-raising initiative which sought to gain support for the CSVR Trauma Clinic. In addition, the Centre raised approximately R300 000 in the course of the year from activities such as consulting, training and sale of research papers.
The CSVR's total expenditure for the year increased by 39% over expenditure in the previous year. This can largely be attributed to the substantial qualitative and quantitative increase in the operations of several of the organisation's central projects. Nonetheless, CSVR spending remained frugal and it is our evaluation that the organisation is very cost effective in achieving a great deal on relatively limited budgets and on a salaries bill which remains below market rates in many strategic fields.
With the overall increase in funding support for most of the CSVR's units and projects, most of the objectives of these departments have been met - and expenditure has complied with budgetary stipulations and constraints. The striking exception to this must be the Trauma Clinic which, despite the generous contributions of the Swiss Government, is still operating on budgets which are well below optimum levels. The result is that the Clinic is unable to expand as planned and is forced to operate on a smaller staff than is organisationally ideal. Despite the relative financial security in most of the other units and projects, the two additional areas that require a new funding strategy are the Operating Fund (Core), in that it has remained difficult to secure funding for the operating costs of the organisation, and the Youth Department.
The expenditure for Core (the Operating Fund) increased by 14% in 1997. This is not a substantial increase (especially considering the increased project spending of all of the Departments and Units), and is largely due to the increase in the staff complement, in that a full-time financial manager was employed during the 1997 year. Recruitment of a full-time human resources manager which will become operative at the beginning of 1998, along with a full-time bookkeeper position, means that the very important strategic restructuring of the organisation will incur even greater costs in the coming years. This is all the more significant due to the fact that no dedicated income was raised for Core expenses during 1997 and none has thus far been secured for 1998. This has been due to both a donor retreat from Core funding (both Ford Foundation and Oxfam (UK&I) which had previously supported CSVR's Core costs, ceased to do so), and a reluctance to embark on an aggressive fund-raising campaign until the organisational restructuring was completed and therefore rendered responsible budgeting more predictable in this sector. Despite this, the reserves in the Operating Fund Account (Core) at the year end appear healthy, largely due to the extremely conservative spending due to the lack of any guaranteed dedicated income; and an increase in the administration fees allocated to the Operating Fund from the CSVR's various projects, made possible by the organisation having left the University, thereby saving itself the 6% University levy on all fund-raised expenditure. It should also be noted that despite the expansion of the CSVR and its substantially increased expenditure and expanded staffing complement, the Core reserves at year end have not substantially increased when compared to the previous year. It has been our policy to ensure that Core expenditure is nearly covered by the project funding, at least until further Core funding support is secured. We are confident that further dedicated Core funding will be secured in the course of 1998.
An additional boost to the Operating Fund is due to the fact that all income generated by the various units and projects - through activities such as consulting and training - has been included in the income to this Core account.
Perhaps the greatest growth in expenditure was in the Education and Media Unit, which tripled its spending in 1997. This was essentially due to the Unit's expansion into new and dynamic areas of work. Furthermore, the impressive development of a multi-media educational materials development capacity has demanded more capital-intensive spending which is both inevitable and likely to continue in this sector. Indeed, the relatively high balance which exists in the Education and Media Unit account at the end of 1997 is slightly misleading due to spending which is planned for early 1998 on capital-intensive media projects which have been initiated during the year under review.
By contrast, the expenditure for the Criminal Justice Policy Unit decreased slightly for 1997. This was due to temporary difficulties in recruiting suitable staff replacements in a sector which has continued to be heavily hit by governmental poaching of our staff. Spending in this sector was also cautionary and conservative due to the fact that no further grants for 1998 have been confirmed. However, the Unit rebuilt its capacity impressively towards the end of the year and creative funding proposals been developed for the coming year, and we anticipate significant expansion in the activities, expenditure and staff complement of this unit.
Trauma Clinic expenditure increased by 48% in 1997 relative to 1996. However, this was largely due to the dramatic cutting-back of expenditure in 1996 due to the funding crisis that confronted the Clinic in that year. In addition, a significant portion of the Clinic's expenditure in 1996 was effectively subsidised by the CSVR's Operating Fund (Core). The expenditure increase in 1997 is therefore not as dramatic as it seems, and in fact the Clinic has been forced to operate on a budget of less than 40% of what was originally sought. The result has been rather severe limitations on the Clinic's ability to expand. However, with the substantial contribution to the Clinic by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation in 1997, the Clinic was able to increase some of its services and activities. This was nonetheless attempted in a manner that did not raise the fixed costs of the Clinic too dramatically, and certain full-time clinical posts had to remain frozen during the year. Thus there was a substantial increase in the number of sessional workers employed, as well as an increase in the number of permanent staff employed in the Clinic. The Trauma Clinic's activities will always depend rather heavily on its person-power and is therefore salary-intensive.
The Transition and Reconciliation Unit's expenditure increased by 43%, which is not surprising considering the work of the TRC with which the Unit is closely concerned. This increase is largely due to the increase in the staff complement of the Unit, with the consequent increase in salary costs, as well as a related substantial increase in activities. The number of workshops conducted this year was substantial, and in addition, the Unit produced a video for the Khulumani Support Group, the cost of which was born by the Truth Commission Project.
The Youth Department's expenditure increased by 55% in the course of 1997. This was due primarily to its activities having increased substantially, through expansion within the Forty Schools Programme, resulting in a necessary increase in the staff complement. In addition, the interactive conferences/workshops held during the year had a marked impact on the overall expenditure on this project. There has been a marked demand for the services this Department offers, with a consequent increase in its activities. However, despite the creative work being undertaken, there has not been a proportional increase in funding for this Department, due in large part to the absence of a strategic funding strategy. The Youth Department is thus currently the Centre's funding priority, although it is clear from the dynamic work being undertaken and the powerful reputation which the Department has achieved, that this ought not to be a problem and should attract both local and overseas funding for the coming three year cycle.
"Managing post traumatic stress after car hijacking", South African Road Federation, Johannesburg (August, 1997).
"The role of health workers: Trauma and violence", Medical Research Council medical students, Pretoria (September 1997).
"The emotional impact of violence", University of the Witwatersrand medical students, Johannesburg (September 1997).
"Workplace trauma: basic debriefing skills", Johannesburg Child Welfare, Johannesburg (October 1997).
"Trauma Counselling", Psychologists in private practice, Johannesburg (November 1997).
Alderton C & Robertson M
"Trauma management", Germiston City Council, Germiston (September 1997).
"Crime Trends and their implications for police transformation and civil society in Gauteng", Launch of the Police Code of Conduct, Braamfontein Recreation Centre (10 November 1997).
&Victims of Crime&, Pietersburg, Potgietersrus, Richards Bay and Port Shepstone - part of Centre for Applied Legal Studies training for Station Commissioners.
"The Legal System Under Apartheid", Centre for Applied Legal Studies, 10th Annual Constitutional and Human Rights Conference (July 1997).
"Human rights for correctional officials", Kroonstad Correctional Services Training College (April 1997).
"Accountability and community participation in South African policing", Nucleo de Estudos da Violência, University of Sâo Paulo, Brazil (June 1997).
"Victims and Perpetrators", Media Peace Centre Journalist and TRC workshop, Cape Town Qanuary 1997).
"Living with the Legacy of Impunity: Lessons for South Africa about Truth, justice and Crime in Brazil", The Latin American Studies Institute seminar 5, University of South Africa, Pretoria (April 1997).
"The Burdens of Truth: An evaluation of the psychological support services and initiatives undertaken by the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission", Third International Conference of the Ethnic Studies Network, Derry, Northern Ireland (June 1997).
"Brazil and its Relevance to Crime Fighting in South Africa", African Traumatic Stress Association, University of the Witwatersrand (June 1997).
"Violence Prevention Strategies", Department of Health Conference on Developing a Violence Prevention Strategy, Pretoria (July 1997).
"The South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission", Ambassador Programme talk to US Judges, Johannesburg (August 1997).
"Interview Techniques for Interviewing Survivors of Violence", Institute for the Advancement of Journalism workshop, Johannesburg (August 1997).
"Cycles of Authoritarianism and Impunity", UNISA Health Psychology Unit, International Ic Violence Prevention Conference, Johannesburg (October 1997).
"Reflecting the Truth: The Impact of the Media on the TRC Process", Allied Broadcasting, Corporation Conference, Johannesburg (October 1997).
"Evaluating the Truth and Reconciliation Commission", Institute for Multi-Party Democracy seminar, Johannesburg (October 1997).
"Truth and Reconciliation Commission", Amnesty International, London (November 1997).
"Truth and Reconciliation Commission", Catholic Institute for International Relations, London (November 1997).
"Trauma in South Africa", MEDACT International, London (December 1997).
Hamber B, Mofokeng T & Simpson, G
"Evaluating the Role and Function of Civil Society in a Changing South Africa's Transition to Democracy: The TRC as a case study", Catholic Institute for International Relations seminar, London (November 1997).
"Starting a Support Group for Victims of Violence", Methodist Church Men's League, Kempton Park (April 1997).
"Nursing Management of Victims of Violence", Soweto primary health care nurses, Soweto (April 1997).
"People's Reactions to Trauma and Violence", University of the Witwatersrand 4th year B. ED Students, Johannesburg (April 1997).
"Changes and Challenges Faced by Clinical Psychiatric Nurse Specialists in South Africa", Clinical Psychiatric Nurse Specialists Association of South Africa, Johannesburg (April 1997).
"Issues in reporting cases of child abuse", Joint Project of Department of Health and Department of Education on Life Skills training, Johannesburg (April, May 1997).
"Child Abuse Workshop", Malvern High School Teachers, Johannesburg (May 1997).
"Workshop on Victim Support", Nelspruit Department of Justice, Nelspruit (May 1997).
"Counselling Victims of Violence", University of the Witwatersrand Medical School 4th year BSC Nursing students, Johannesburg (June 1997).
"Masculinity and Schooling", Masculinity and Schooling Workshop, Durban (July 1997).
"Trauma Management and Violence Prevention Programmes in Township Schools", University of the Witwatersrand Youth Workers, Johannesburg (October 1997).
"Young Married Women in High School: A new phenomenon?", Soweto College of Education, Soweto (1997).
Lebeloane M, Kgotleng A & Zwane W
"Trauma Management and Violence Prevention Programmes in Township Schools", Soweto College of Education Teachers Workshop, Soweto (October 1997).
Lebeloane M & Mdhluli D
&Crime and Violence: The 40 Schools Project concept&, Mpumalanga Province for Health Workers and Teachers, Johannesburg (July 1997).
Lebeloane M & Zwane W
"Children's Experiences of Violence and Trauma Management", workshops at Ezibukweni Primary, Soweto (three high schools), Ezitikeni High, East Rand, Dr Vilakazi High, Kholwani Primary, Johannesburg (February and March 1997).
Lebeloane M & Zwane W
"Community Support to the School and Families in the Recovery process After a Tragedy", Vusisizwe Primary memorial service, Soweto (February 1997).
Levin L, Dewhirst P & Hamber B
"The Use of EVSYS for Preparing a Human Rights Data Base for Presentation to the TRC in South Africa", HURIDOCS Conference, Mexico City (November 1997).
"Rape", Spoornet Staff, Johannesburg (March 1997).
"Dealing with Rape", Nampak Staff, Johannesburg (March 1997).
"Trauma Work and Self Care", Lifeline Volunteer Counsellors, Johannesburg (April 1997).
"Theoretical and Therapeutic Aspects of Extrafamilial Rape in South African Context: A Preliminary Exploration", Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation Monthly Seminar Programme, Johannesburg (May 1997).
"Understanding Trauma", Pretoria Christian Ministries, Pretoria Uune 1997).
"Post Traumatic Stress Disorder", DECOREX Women Alive Exhibition, Gallagher Estate July 1997).
"Victim Support Strategies", Community Policing Forum, Johannesburg (August 1997).
"Interviewing Victims of Crime", Johannesburg Metropolitan Council Safer Cities Project researchers, Johannesburg (September 1997).
"Workshop on Domestic Violence", Department of Family Medicine, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (October 1997).
"Trauma Counselling Workshop", Redhill School, Johannesburg (November 1997).
Lewis S & Robertson M
"Trauma in the Classroom", 40 Schools Project, Soweto (August 1997).
Lewis S & Vienings T
"Four Day Workshop on Understanding Trauma and Basic Management", Coalition for Peace in Africa, Hartebeespoort Dam (April 1997).
"Working Towards Safe Schools", Soweto High Schools Youth Conference, Soweto (June 1997).
"Masculinity in Schools", University of Natal, (July 1997).
"Listening Skills", 40 Schools Project Workshop, Soweto (August 1997).
"Violence Prevention in Schools", Medical Research Council for the Department of Health Promotion Desk, Cape Town (November 1997).
Mdhluli D, Lebeloane M & Zwane W
"Children's Experiences of Violence and Trauma", workshops at Ivory Park Primary, East Rand, Vuwani High, Soweto (February, June 1997).
"Community Policing in South Africa: Lessons for Lesotho", Fourth in-service training course, Mafikeng District, Lesotho, Danish Centre for Human Rights and the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights, Lesotho (May 1997).
"Community Participation in the NCPS and Policing", Soweto Area Station Commissioners and Head of Crime Prevention, Soweto (November 1997).
"Victims and the Criminal Justice System", 9th International Victimology Symposium, Amsterdam (August 1997).
Robertson M & Huber J
"Two Day Trauma Counselling Workshop for Private Practitioners", Psychologists in Private Practice, Johannesburg (January 1997).
Robertson M, Kekana B & Sacoor S
"Three Day Trauma Counselling Workshop", NICRO, Johannesburg (July 1997).
Robertson, M & Lewis, S
"Trauma and Volunteer Aid Workers: Two day workshop on identification and management", Volunteer Services Organisation, Bergville, (July 1997).
"Trauma Counselling", University of the Witwatersrand M. ED Students, Johannesburg (April 1997).
"Trauma Counselling Skills: Five day workshop", Baragwanath Hospital nurses, Soweto (September 1997).
"Trauma Counselling: One day workshop", Islamic Careline, Johannesburg (October 1997).
Sacoor S & Alderton C
"Dealing with the Traumatised Public", Benoni Fire Department staff, Benoni (November 1997).
Sacoor S & Hlungwane M
"Victim Support Strategies: Two day workshop", Malelane Police Station, Malelane (September 1997).
"Understanding Violence in Transition: From political to criminal violence", Visions in Action Volunteers) Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, Johannesburg (January 1997).
"Evaluating and Understanding the National Crime Prevention Strategy", IDASA, Pretoria (January 1997).
"Towards a Comprehensive Victim Empowerment Strategy for Gauteng", Gauteng Cabinet Sub-committee on Safety, Security and Quality of Life, Johannesburg (February 1997).
"Politics and Crime: The roots of social conflict and violence in post-apartheid South Africa", Lecture Series to SANDF Leadership Training Course, SA Defence Training College, Voortrekkerhoogte (February 1997).
"Analysing Violence and Crime Prevention in South Africa", Simpson Mckie Fund Managers Client Lunch, Johannesburg Country Club (February 1997).
"Youth and Crime in South Africa: Restorative Justice as a vehicle for analysing the limits and possibilities of the National Crime Prevention Strategy", NICRO and Institute for Criminology (UCT) Joint Conference on Juvenile Justice, The Forum, Cape Town (February 1997).
"Contextualising the National Crime Prevention Strategy: An evaluation of the South African Police Service's Five Year Plan", SAPS Five Year Scenario Planning Management Workshop, Pretoria (March 1997).
"Truth and Justice in the South African Transition: An evaluation of the TRC", One World Action, London (March 1997).
"Understanding Changing Patterns of Violence and Crime in a Transitionary Context", Address to Visiting Parliamentarians from Pakistan, National Democratic Institute (US), Johannesburg Metropolitan Council, Council Chambers (June 1997).
"Crime and the Culture of Violence in South Africa", Introductory Address Johannesburg Safe Cities Conference, Johannesburg Metropolitan Council, Council Chambers (June 1997).
"A Short-track Victimisation Survey: The Value of Qualitative Data from NGO Victim Empowerment Agencies", Experts Workshop on Developing a South African Victimisation Survey, Johannesburg Metropolitan Council (June 1997).
"Regional Non-governmental Cooperation for Prevention of Crime and for Human Rights and Human Development", Institute for Security Studies, First International Conference on Comparative Regional Security, Eskom Conference Centre, Midrand (July 1997).
"The Social and Psychological Effects of the Crime Wave in South Africa", Public Lecture, Grahamstown Arts Festival Winter School, Grahamstown (July 1997).
"Remembering the Victims of Crime and Violence", Community Chest Empty Shoes Campaign, Zoo Lake Amphitheatre, Johannesburg (July 1997).
"Running the Gauntlet: Volunteers and violence in South Africa", Visions In Action Volunteer Induction, Johannesburg (July 1997).
"Political, Social and Criminal Violence in South Africa: A new threat to national security or merely the consequences of sustained marginalisation", Series of three lectures, SA Defence College Senior Management Training Course, SA Defence College, Voortrekkerhoogte (August 1997).
"Contextualising Violence in South Africa", CSVR Trauma Counselling Volunteer Training Programme, Braamfontein (August 1997).
"Crime, Truth and Transition in South Africa", US Ambassador's Programme, Johannesburg (August 1997).
"Dilemmas Over Restorative and Punitive Justice in the Delivery of Reparation, Compensation and Redress: Addressmg complex survivor needs in the wake of gross violations of human rights", International conference on: Reigning in Impunity for International Crimes and Serious Violations of Fundamental Human Rights, ISISC, Siracusa, Italy (September 1997).
"Women and Children Under Attack: Sexual violence in South Africa", South African Union of Jewish Women National Conference, Beaconsfield Club, Johannesburg (September 1997).
"Vigilantism and Private Justice: Benevolent or Sinister forms of community participation in the fight against crime?", Workshop Presentation, IDASA 10th Anniversary Celebration, Pretoria (October 1997).
"Doing Justice to Justice: Looking forward to the transformation of justice institutions in South Africa", Submission to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Johannesburg (October 1997).
"Youth Identity and the Culture of Violence in South Africa", Presentation to Southern African Psychologists Forum on Violence and Reconciliation, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (December 1997).
Simpson G & Vienings T
"Housing and Violence: The Struggle over Scarce Resources", National Housing Forum Seminar, Longsbank Building, Johannesburg (May 1997).
"Community Level Mediation: A Case Study of Alexandra Township", Advanced International Training Programme on Conflict Resolution, Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University, Sweden (April 1997).
"Conflict Management in Communities During Transition", Department of Political Studies Senior Research Students Seminar, Uppsala University, Sweden (April 1997).
"Conflict and Development", Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency presentation, Stockholm (April 1997).
"Peace and Civil War", Department of African Studies seminar, Uppsala University, Sweden (April 1997).
"Dealing with Cultural Differences During Transition", Wits Community Health Workers, Johannesburg (June 1997).
"Conflict Management and Community Work", Community Health Services, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (August 1997).
"Gender, Violence and the Media", Institute for the Advancement of Journalism, Johannesburg (June 1997).
"Violence and Reconciliation - the role of community leaders and organisers", Community Educators Course - 9 modules, Centre for Continuing Education, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (1997).
"Managing Diversity", South African Communications Services, Johannesburg (November 1997).
"Youth Culture and Violence in South Africa", Soweto High Schools Conference, Soweto (June 1997).
Vienings T & Segal L
"Safe Schools in Gauteng", Gauteng Ministry of Education, Johannesburg (June 1997).
"Youth's Experience with Violence: Coping despite the odds" - Experience from the United States and South Africa, Howard University Psychology Department seminar, Washington DC (Apri1 1997).
"Violence Prevention Programmes in Township Schools in South Africa", Howard University School of Social Work Graduate Student Seminar, Washington DC (April 1997).
"Working Towards Safe Schools: Dealing with gangs in schools", 40 Schools Project Training Course, Soweto (May 1997).
"Township Youth's Experiences of Violence within the School Context", CSVR monthly seminar, Johannesburg (June 1997).
"Youth and Sexual Violence", University of the Witwatersrand Psychology Department, Eldorado Park Project, Eldorado Park (June 1997).
"Dr Jekyll and 'Mr Hide': Problems of violence prevention and reconciliation in South Africa's transition to democracy". In Bornman, E., van Eeden, R. & Wentzel, M. (eds), Perspectives on Aggression and Violence in South Africa, Human Sciences Research Council: Pretoria.
"Living with the Legacy of Impunity: Lessons for South Africa about truth, justice and crime in Brazil", Latin American Report, 13(2): pp. 4-16.
"Truth: The road to reconciliation?", Cantilevers: Building Bridges for Peace, (3): pp. 5-6.
Hamber B & Terre Blanche M
"Miracles and Wonders: Towards a new history of the Durban Aquarium", Soziale Wirklichkeit, 1(1): pp. 27-36.
"A Cry that No One Hears", Children FIRST, (2)16: pp. 24-26.
Robertson M & Donaldson M
"No Place like Home: Family murder - the child victims", Crime and Conflict, (8): pp. 18-22.
"Not Victimless: Understanding the harmful effects of police corruption", Servamus, 91 (1): pp. vt11-vt15.
Syed T & Bruce D
"Inside and Outside the Boundaries of Police Corruption", Servamus, 90(11): pp. vt2-vt8.
"Restoring the Social Fabric", Recovery, (2)12: pp. 6-11.
"Community Safety and Security: Crime prevention and development at the local level", African Security Review, (6)4: pp. 29-40.
Hamber B & Lewis S
"An Overview of the Consequences of Violence and Trauma in South Africa", Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, August.
"Theoretical and Therapeutic Aspects of Extrafamilial Child Rape in the South African Context: A preliminary exploration". Paper presented at the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, Seminar No. 5, 28 May.
"A Review of Community Policing, Policing the Transformation: Further issues in South Africa's crime debate, Institute for Security Studies monograph (122): pp. 40-49, April.
"Reconstruction and Reconciliation: Emerging from transition", Development in Practice, 7(4): pp. 475-478.
"Youth, Street Gangs and Violence in South Africa". In Youth, Street Culture and Urban Violence in Africa, Proceedings of the international symposium held in Abidjan, 5-7 May.
"The Burdens of Truth: An evaluation of the Psychological Support Services and initiatives undertaken by the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission". Paper presented at the Third International Conference of the Ethnic Studies Network, Derry, Northern Ireland, 26-28 June.
Hamber B, Mofokeng T & Simpson G
"Evaluating the Role and Function of Civil Society in a Changing South Africa: The Truth and Reconciliation Commission as a case study". Paper presented at The Role of Southern Civil Organisations in the Promotion of Peace Seminar, DHR Seminar. Hosted by the Catholic Institute for International Relations London, 10 November.
Levin L, Dewhirst P & Hamber B
"The Use of Evsys for Preparing a Human Rights Database for Presentation to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) in South Africa". Paper presented at the HURIDOCS Conference, Mexico City, 11-13 November.
"Victims and the Criminal Justice System in South Africa". Paper presented at the 9th International World Symposium on Victimology in Amsterdam, 25-30 August.
"Concern over deaths in custody", Star, 15 July.
"Shroud covers deaths connected to police", Star, 30 July.
"Corruption now rates much higher on the world's hit list", Business Day, 29 October.
"Lens on crime raises question", Star, 23 June.
Callaghan N, Hamber B & Takura S
"Violence, Women and Poverty: A triad of oppression, NGO Matters: Poverty Special, August, South African National NGO Coalition.
"When should society tire of the voices of the past", Mail & Guardian, Vol. 13, No. 2, 17-23 January.
Huber J, Donaldson M, Robertson M & Hlungwani M
"Demand for instant gratification an important factor in many rape cases", Saturday Star, 25 January.
"Panic about crime must not undermine our hard-won human rights", Sunday Independent, 26 January.
"Something must be done about widespread claims of police corruption", Saturday Star, 19 April.
"A 'culture of impunity'", Star, 24 January.
"Public's double standards set a poor example for police service", Business Day, 27 June.
SA National Directory of Counselling and Psychological Services for Victims of Violence, First Edition, 125 pp., Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, Johannesburg.
Segal L, Hamber B & Hahn H
SisaKhuluma: We are Still Speaking, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, 26 mins.