The CSVR would once again like to use this Annual Report to profile and thank our many generous partners who have provided the financial support, which makes our work possible. We believe that they are all making a significant contribution to preventing violence, consolidating democracy and building sustainable reconciliation in South Africa. For this - and the faith which they have shown in our work and our vision - we remain eternally grateful. The following is a list of the organisations which have contributed to making the CSVR what it is today:
The Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation (CSVR) celebrates its tenth anniversary in January 1999. From its early beginnings as an organisation founded by two people, the CSVR has grown significantly over the past ten years. It is now driven by almost 50 full-time staff and boasts a growing international reputation for excellence, innovation and unique analytical insight in its fields. Considering the nature and high levels of violent conflict in Africa, we believe that the role and experience of the CSVR within the South African transition is invaluable for Southern Africa and the African continent more generally. However, after ten years, the CSVR has not significantly developed its profile or role in the rest of Africa. As we draw towards the end of the millennium, it is clearly time to reflect on what may be learned from our approach, our experiences and our methodology - with this vision and potential reach in mind.
In so doing, we must consider the challenges of transformation, reconciliation and democratisation, as well as the changing character of conflict and violence in South Africa in the post-apartheid era. We must also work from the premise that, whilst the South African experience may offer some useful comparisons with other African cases, it remains a unique experience. Our successes and failures may not always be directly applied to other African contexts. This latter point is particularly important in view of the extent to which the South African negotiated transition has been romanticised or mystified by those who view it from afar. Some consultants and authorities on South Africa market the South African experience as if it is an appropriate conflict resolution model for transition and reconciliation in other societies emerging from intense civil conflict. This is particularly relevant in respect of the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC), which also officially completed its operations in the course of the year under review.
It is in fact critical to recognise the limited applicability of many aspects of the South African negotiated political settlement, when considered in the context of other African disputes. Unique political dilemmas offer no easy, obvious or uniform reconciliation strategies. This view is confirmed by renowned African analyst, Eboe Hutchful, in his description of "uncivil" wars in Africa - which generally present those concerned with mediating such conflicts or seeking to build reconciliation, with the uncomfortable prospect of having to court groups responsible for atrocities, thereby affording them formal recognition. While such compromises may have been possible in South Africa, they should not be assumed as necessary or appropriate for resolving civil conflicts elsewhere in Africa - especially in the wake of the recent establishment of an International Criminal Court.
A further reason why it is important to exercise caution when drawing lessons from the South African situation, is that there are marked differences in various African countries as regards the manner in which the state relates to civil society. In particular, South Africa was not a classical military regime as characterises much of Africa, nor was there an overwhelming military presence in South African society. Furthermore, due to the strong international focus on the South African struggle against apartheid, there was a unique and extensive investment in the development of organs of civil society in South Africa. This happened in lieu of any substantial government-to-government engagement with the internationally isolated apartheid regime, and resulted in the extraordinary development of organised civic activism and organs of civil society in South Africa. This unique asset base has significant and sustained influence on the current South African transformation process - which is not typical of many other African societies.
Yet, despite these variations, there are still important lessons to be learned and similarities to be revealed. Because of the frequent obsession with the dominant role of the military in Africa, demilitarisation of the state (rather than of society) is frequently regarded as being of the highest priority. Yet it has been argued that these efforts in isolation will not yield significant results, because they focus on the symptoms rather than the causes of intra-state crises. The root causes and the structural problems that generate such crises in the first place, must be tackled. This is evidently true in the case of South Africa. Indeed, in the Southern African sub-continent, the very destabilisation that was rooted in the South African conflict lies at the heart of much of the social and political upheaval in our neighbouring states. This is an aspect of the South African conflict that has - at best - acquired scant attention from the TRC.
Furthermore, despite the demilitarisation of the state in South Africa, civil society has remained highly militarised. In the final analysis, gross poverty and inequity - the structural underpinnings of marginalisation and violence in South Africa - have not yet been ameliorated, paving the way for violent crime and private justice and security. It is therefore erroneous to assume that South Africa - as a consequence of the formal enfranchisement of black South Africans who were previously denied political rights - is a "post conflict" society.
In the re-building of such fractured societies, attempts at reconstruction and reconciliation have to come to terms with the changing nature of conflict and violence, rather than focusing on a simple end to such conflict. Amidst all the dramatic change taking place, certain sustained features of marginalisation, impoverishment, and relative deprivation remain at the root of ongoing criminal violence in South African society in the post-apartheid era - in much the same manner as they underpinned political violence and conflict during apartheid. The extent to which this violence transmutes itself, belying any notion of a clear or rigid dividing line between political, criminal and social violence, presents a primary challenge to sustainable reconstruction and reconciliation in societies emerging from autocratic rule or from intense civil warfare.
Whilst many foreign observers, governments and aid agencies see South Africa's second democratic election under its negotiated constitution as the key moment representing the end of transformation and transition to democracy, it is argued here that it still only represents the beginnings of this process. At the heart of this analysis is the belief that we must move beyond any narrowly construed paradigm of conflict resolution, or a politically centralised and diplomatically mediated end to such conflict. This is necessary because a paradigm framed around the simple elimination, through management or resolution, of existing conflict, runs the risk of developing ill-conceived strategies for reconciliation. A more challenging and realistic approach demands that we engage with the shifting locus of violence in such societies, and understand ongoing conflict as inevitable, but at the same time measurable and more or less predictable. On this basis, it is argued here that there is no such thing as a "post-conflict" society. Our primary challenge is rather to understand, monitor and predict the changing nature of conflict and violence in such societies. This in turn must be fundamentally linked to the re-building of the social fabric, decimated by enduring violence and political autocracy.
The above clearly presents a challenge to narrowly construed conflict resolution or diplomatic peace-making models by reference to the developmental - or, more appropriately, under-developmental - underpinnings of sustained conflict. However, there is an equally strident challenge to any naive proponents of economic development and growth as automatic vehicles for the resolution of such violent conflicts. Indeed, for many policy-makers and analysts, economic development is presented as the obvious strategy for eliminating social conflict and violence in post-apartheid South Africa, as well as in Africa more generally. There can be little doubt that in building reconciliation in South Africa, much will depend on the effective redress of the economic disadvantage and exploitation of black South Africans which characterised apartheid - and this is obviously a long term process. However, whilst no-one would dispute the critical importance of such developmental strategies, there are several basic assumptions, built into such "hard developmental" models, which must be dispelled.
The first is the obvious point that such economic growth - particularly within a neo-liberal framework and despite commitments to black economic empowerment - does not automatically translate into trickle-down benefits for the most impoverished and marginalised in society.
The second - and more relevant - concern is the simple contention that the injection of developmental resources into impoverished communities, which were historically divided and frequently at war over access to such scarce resources, frequently escalates rather than resolves entrenched conflicts. Far from automatically eliminating the root causes of conflict and violence in transitional societies, economic developmental processes generate new forms of conflict, or social and criminal violence, and often re-ignite residual conflicts within these communities. The close management of such developmental processes and associated emerging conflict - based upon the development of strategies for violence prevention and for rebuilding the social fabric - therefore remains critical to sustainable peace and reconciliation through economic development. Unless such economic development is closely associated with approaches to human development which engage with the issues of governance and identity, it may well feed new conflicts in society, and service the changing nature of violence in the process.
Whether violent conflict is framed as being politically, ethnically or class-based, social reconstruction and reconciliation strategies must be premised on the intimate relationship between social, political and economic interests. To seek conflict resolution strategies in a manner that detaches these inter-linked interests from one another, will merely create a recipe for sustained conflict and violence. In the absence of an integrated approach the re-building of economic infrastructure will always be vulnerable to destruction through the re-emergence of social, criminal or political upheaval. By the same token, the rebuilding of the social fabric or the negotiation of political settlements will always be vulnerable if we fail to take into account popular economic needs and the redress of structurally entrenched economic inequity.
This analysis once again frames the importance of the CSVR's unique multi-disciplinary and cross-sectoral approach. It also highlights the importance of our multiple roles in working with delivery and implementation programmes on the ground, alongside our professional research, advocacy and educational interventions. We believe that most of the lessons to be drawn from South Africa's transition to democracy were creatively illustrated in the various programmes of the CSVR during the past year. Most significantly, the changing nature of violence in South African society has shown reconciliation to be a complex and highly contested notion. This has once again affirmed the importance of the CSVR's work in the following fields:
The development of democratic governance, and the transformation, particularly within the criminal justice sphere, of state institutions which have been inherited from the past regime along with a legacy of popular mistrust;
Supporting organs of civil society in their vital and complex role of re-building the social fabric and a popular culture of human rights necessary to underpin the paper rights contained within the negotiated constitution;
The experiences of key social constituencies such as the youth, and the importance of victim empowerment in respect of both criminal violence and past human rights violations;
The very gender-specific nature of violence in South Africa - which gives the lie to any notions of negotiated settlement as having resolved all conflict in this society; and
The competing claims to retrospective justice (whether economic, punitive or restorative) associated with amnesty for past violations, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, and the associated risks of contributing to a culture of impunity which services rather than undermines burgeoning criminality.
As we move into the last year of the millennium, the staff and Board of the CSVR remain dedicated to these enterprises, and convinced of their central importance - both to South Africa and the Southern African region.
Archbishop Desmond Tutu is the Honorary Patron of the Organisation. This is indeed a geat honour for all the staff of the CSVR.
The following people serve as members of the CSVR Board:
Mr. Steven Mokwena - Former CEO of the Youth Commission
Prof. Jacklyn Cock - Acting Head of WITS Sociology, Long-serving member of the CSVR University Steering Committee, Gender and Militarisation Expert and anti-gun and environmental activist
Ms. Gillian Eagle - Acting Head of WITS Psychology, Long-serving member of the CSVR University Steering Committee and prominent Trauma expert
Mr Frank Meintjies - Consultant to Deloitte and Touche, Long-serving member of the CSVR University Steering Committee, prominent former official of COSATU, prominent member of the NGO community and development expert
Mr. Jody Kollapen - Former Director of Lawyers for Human Rights and currently a member of the Human Rights Commission
Ms. Leila Patel - Deputy Vice Chancellor, WITS, Former member of the University Steering Committee (1990-1992), former Director General of Social Welfare (1994-1996) and prominent social welfare activist
Mr. Graeme Simpson - Co-founder and Director of the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation
At the CSVR's strategic planning session in 1997, a key issue to emerge was the need for a full time Human Resource function within the Centre. Through the course of 1998, this function has emerged as a key tool in transforming the Centre to meet the new demands of the NGO sector - a sector that is increasingly competing with Government and the corporate sector for resources, both human and financial. To this end, the Centre's management and staff participated in four key strategic processes; the finalisation of the Centre's Policies and Procedures document; an extensive exercise in Remuneration reform and professional Job Grading; the development of a system of Performance Appraisal and a concerted effort to streamline recruitment with a particular eye on Affirmative Action policies.
The Centre now relies on a policy document that clearly outlines the responsibilities of both employer and employee. This document was completed with full staff participation and marks the professional commitment of the CSVR to the Employment Equity Bill.
During 1998 the staff and management of the Centre contracted Marion Nell, from the consulting firm Nell and Shapiro, to execute a full overhaul of the CSVR's Remuneration Policy. With the key targets of equity, generic job gradings and competitive salaries, this process was extremely useful and successful. Nell and Shapiro conducted a survey of salary scales, comparing the three sectors of government, NGOs and business. Using this as a guide, management and staff workshopped new detailed job gradings for every position in the CSVR and then linked these to remuneration scales that were competitive with both the NGO and business sectors. The new scales and remuneration packages were implemented in September 1998. The CSVR is now more confidant that it can offer its valued staff members a more competitive and equity based remuneration package.
One of the key issues to emerge from this process was that staff and management took a decision to link remuneration increases consistently high quality performance in the job. This entailed the development of a Performance Appraisal System whereby managers of staff would be trained to evaluate performance of staff on a consistent basis and then tie these performance appraisals to an increase in salary. This task was given a six-month timeframe and should be fully operational by the middle of 1999.
Although these processes were extremely taxing and involved a great amount of time and commitment from staff, and particularly management, it has been an invaluable exercise in creating an environment of professionalism, transparency and equity.
With the streamlining and professionalisation of the human resource function within the Centre, we have been able to monitor and pro-actively shape recruitment of staff. The profile of staff of the organisation has shifted during 1998 due to an aggressive affirmative action policy. The staff is also in the process of workshopping issues around race and diversity, a project that is ongoing.
BA, Hons, MA, LLB
B Theology with Hons. Certificate in Management of Child Abuse
Manager, CJP Unit
Diploma Chartered Institute of Secretaries and Professional Administrators
Resource Centre Officer
Performer's Diploma, Speech and Drama
MA Social Work
Performing Arts Officer
BA Speech and Drama
Manager, Transition & Reconciliation
MA Clinical Psychology
Snr. Dept. Administrator
Std. 10, Certificates in Office Administration, Management Development Leadership and Early Childhood Development
BA Social Work
Manager, Youth Department
BA Social Work, BA Hons Psychology
BA Hons Psychology, Psychiatric Nurse Diploma
B Social Science, Hons Political Studies, Post Graduate Diploma in Applied Parliamentary Research Methodology
Hugo van der Merwe
BSc, Hons African Studies, MSc in Conflict Resolution
Snr. Consultant Income Generation
BSocSC(Hons) Criminology, MPhil Criminology
P.A. to Director/Funding/Public Relations
BA, Diploma in Business Relations Relations Management
Senior Researcher & Producer
BA Hons Psychology
Diploma in Women and Law
Manager, Trauma Clinic
MA Clinical Psychology
BA Social Work, Certificate in Early Childhood Education
BA Social Work, Diploma in Public Relations, Manager Development Certificate, Certificate of Training the Trainer
Secretarial and Bookkeeping Diploma
CISA Intermediate Certificate
Diploma in Practical Accounting
Resource Centre Assistant
Std. 10, Certificate in Secretarial Skills
BA Hons Psychology, B. Social Science
MA Clinical Psychologist
Receptionist, Trauma Clinic
Nursing Diploma, Reception, Typing and Computer Certificates
Technikon RSA Mediation and Conflict Resolution, Human Rights Theories and Practice
Manager, Education & Media Unit
BA Hons, Advanced Diploma in Conflict Management
BA, Certificate of International Conflict Studies, Management Development Programme
Human Resources Manager
B Comm Honours, Management Diploma
Project Manager, Youth
BA Social Work
The Trauma Clinic of the CSVR offers trauma management, victim empowerment and support services. We do this through direct service delivery, training and capacity building, community education, research, and advocacy. Services are offered by a multi-disciplinary team of psychologists, social workers, psychiatric nurse specialists, training experts, and volunteer counsellors.
In 1998 the Trauma Clinic continued to offer a direct counselling and debriefing service to survivors of violence. In addition to this direct service delivery, we expanded our work in training and research, as well as building, and finally establishing, a national coalition of trauma service providers.
Trauma counselling services were provided to a range of adult and child survivors of violence. During the year a total of 967 new clients were referred to the Clinic. Approximately 70% of these clients were women. Since the inception of the Trauma Clinic there has been a distinct change in the nature of the referrals we receive. When we first opened, the majority of our clients were referred for counselling as a result of political violence. Over the years there has been a shift to include more referrals related to criminal violence.
A review of Clinic statistics in 1998 indicates that 53% of referrals were the result of armed robbery and car hijacking, as compared to only 3% of cases referred for reasons of political violence. This shift in the nature of referrals to the Clinic seems to reflect the changing nature of violence in our society, where there has been a transmutation of political violence into criminal violence. Furthermore, most of the incidents of armed robbery we dealt with had occurred in the workplace - which emphasises the importance of targeting the workplace as a critical point of intervention.
A large percentage (17,6%) of clients referred to the Clinic were dealing with traumatic bereavement as a result of deaths due to violent crime and/or suicide. Trauma, complicated by bereavement, makes counselling more complex, longer term in nature, and places extra emotional demands on counsellors.
In addition to the individual referrals outlined above, we received a total of 128 referrals for group debriefings during 1998 (an average of 2,5 per week). Groups included families, friends and a significant percentage of employees who had been traumatised in the workplace in the course of armed robberies. In addition to debriefings related to armed robberies, we also responded to a number of disasters such as bus accidents, industrial accidents and fires.
The Clinic counselled children who had either been direct victims of violence, or had been indirect victims through witnessing violent events, or having family members involved in violence. As in the past, the primary reason for referral was child sexual abuse and rape. The interventions we have offered for children have included counselling of the child and the parents/caretakers, as well as teaching children safety skills and court preparation. In the course of 1998, the intimate working relationship between the Clinic and the CSVR schools-based youth programmes proved to be very fruitful. Not only were several children referred to the Trauma Clinic from these Soweto schools, but the Clinic staff were also able to offer direct assistance in the trauma management work being undertaken with teachers, parents and students.
Through this extensive interaction with children it is becoming increasingly clear that it is essential to embark on public education programmes regarding the impact of trauma on children. In many cases teachers and parents are not always aware of the fact that the child may be suffering from post traumatic stress reactions, and conduct is frequently ascribed to difficult or bad behaviour, rather than to trauma.
The Clinic has continued to render an outreach service at Zamokuhle Clinic, a centre dealing with child sexual abuse in Soweto. Clinic staff who work at Zamokuhle are faced with numerous difficulties such as massive case loads, shortage of staff and obstacles in the criminal justice system. These problems are not specific to this particular clinic, but are representative of general problems in the area of service delivery for abused and traumatised children in South Africa. The Trauma Clinic has been networking with other organisations working with children in an attempt to advocate more effectively for improved service delivery and management by the criminal justice system.
In order to cope with the increasing number of referrals, the Clinic has begun to make use of sessional psychologists. This has alleviated much of the pressure on our full time staff members and has created more time to engage in other activities such as rese arch and training.
The CSVR moved premises early in 1998. Our new office space is a more suitable therapeutic environment, which has been beneficial for our clients. In addition, thanks to a generous donation of toys by Toys R Us, the clinic now has two well equipped play rooms which has greatly enhanced our capacity to work with children and to conduct play therapy.
Over the past five years the Clinic has run a volunteer counselling programme. This year was no exception and a group of seventeen volunteers were trained, and graduated, in basic counselling and trauma counselling skills. In order to ensure professionalism we were selective in our recruitment of volunteers, all of whom were carefully screened and interviewed before and during the training. On completion of their training, the new volunteers joined the existing group of Clinic volunteers and receive regular supervision and skills training. Volunteer counsellors have played an invaluable role in bolstering the capacity of the Clinic for service delivery. A group of volunteers were trained in translation skills in order to assist those therapists who work with children, but who are unable to speak African languages.
Many of the volunteers working in the Clinic have experienced the Clinic as an invaluable practical training ground for gaining skills in dealing with trauma. This has assisted them in entering this field as a career choice.
As in previous years, a number of the volunteer counsellors who were trained have left the Clinic upon completion of the training. Although frustrating in terms of our capacity problems, this seems to be an inherent ramification of working and investing in the volunteer sector. Nonetheless, this also has some important and positive implications, as many of the volunteers do in fact return to deliver their services within the communities from which they have emerged, in this way contributing to the expansion of such services.
The Clinic is increasingly providing a practical training placement for students. During 1998, two social work students from Wits University completed their practical placements in the Clinic. Psychology Masters students from the University continued to see Trauma Clinic clients for counselling once a week. The Clinic has also begun to negotiate for internship status for psychology interns as of 1999. The practical experience gained in the Clinic in the area of trauma and violence will enhance the capacity of new graduates to respond to the enormous need for such services.
Over the past year we have substantially expanded our training capacity, mainly in response to an increasing number of requests received for training. It has also been based on a strategic decision to focus on increasing the capacity of frontline workers (who have first contact with victims) such as police, nurses, teachers, and justice officials, to offer effective trauma support and management. This is consistent with the aims of a multi-agency victim empowerment strategy. This expansion of Clinic training recognises the fact that there are insufficient accessible services to meet the enormity of need created by the high levels of crime and violence within South Africa, and that there is a need to train more people with skills to deliver trauma counselling services. The Trauma Clinic has developed a multi-layered or tiered approach to training and service delivery.
The first level of training focuses on developing skills in the identification of trauma, basic trauma support, and management and referral skills.
The second level of training is offered to those who already have basic counselling skills, and focuses on trauma counselling and debriefing skills training.
The third level of training is in the area of more specialised and advanced trauma counselling and therapeutic skills for professionals.
At all levels the CSVR Trauma Clinic offers a supervision and consultation follow-up service to training. Training workshops are also conducted, dealing with specialised and specific areas such as child abuse, crisis intervention and self care for care-givers. In addition to skills training workshops, we also conduct educational talks on trauma to raise community awareness and understanding.
In the course of the year the CSVR Trauma Clinic conducted thirty-five trauma training workshops, ranging from two days to two weeks in duration, within the NGO, state, corporate, private and parastatal sectors. Included amongst these training programmes was a training programme for mental health professionals in trauma debriefing and therapy which was advertised and self-financed. This workshop was highly successful and will be repeated in the future. During the past year we participated in a pilot inter-sectoral victim empowerment project, in partnership with Business Against Crime and other NGOs. We assisted with the design of training material as well as the delivery of training to personnel from the departments of Health, Welfare, Education, Safety and Security, Justice and community workers. We will remain involved in this project in the new year.
Together with the CSVR Criminal Justice Policy Unit we also conducted a pilot life skills training course in the Diepkloof Prison, working with both prison warders and juvenile offenders. This work with perpetrators represents a new, innovative and critically important area of work that the Clinic would like to extend.
The Trauma Clinic also responded to a number of training requests outside of South Africa. The extent of these requests reflects the growing international recognition of our unique expertise in this field. Trauma management workshops were conducted in Swaziland and England. The Clinic was also involved in an extensive training programme for ex-political prisoners and combatants in Northern Ireland. Three groups were trained in trauma support and management skills for application within community based organisations. We also conducted a needs assessment in Rwanda with a view to making training recommendations regarding trauma interventions and psycho-social assistance. This assessment was conducted on behalf of the South African Department of Foreign Affairs.
The training that has been offered in other countries has been well received. It is apparent that the skills and expertise gained from dealing with emotional trauma in the South African context is beneficial to others who are dealing with similar issues. Trauma Clinic staff have learned a great deal from these experiences and it has provided interesting comparative information, as well as an affirmation of our status as world class trend-setters in this field.
Due to our unique access to survivors of violence, there is enormous potential and a vital need for more analytical research in the Clinic. However, until recently, due to inadequate staff resources, relatively little research has been produced. However, 1998 marked an important turning point in this regard. We offered an eighteen month internship placement to a research psychologist and, with the assistance of this intern, the Clinic has begun to develop a culture of research and a research strategy. A number of research papers were produced for presentation at conferences. University students also conducted research in the Clinic during the year. A uniform client intake database was installed and a volunteer counsellor completed the task of capturing client information from previous years and entering new client information. This database has provided a rich source of information that can be used for future analysis and strategic research.
These research initiatives have generated important evaluative information that will contribute to the adaptation and improvement of the Clinic's counselling model. It has also had a positive impact on Clinic staff who have been engaged in and stimulated by this work, and found it useful in managing feelings of helplessness and burnout caused by doing only direct counselling services work. It is hoped that the steps taken towards developing a culture of research within the Clinic will contribute towards the CSVR's established reputation as an organisation that produces quality research. Our ability to translate our client database into research has the potential to significantly contribute to policy recommendations in the victim empowerment arena, and to the victim empowerment programmes being undertaken by government through the National Crime Prevention Strategy passed by Cabinet in May 1996.
In the course of 1998, substantial progress was made in the development of a national network of trauma service providers. The CSVR Trauma Clinic has played a leading role in this endeavour. A joint funding proposal has been submitted to the European Union for the establishment of the network. We have been collaborating with the National Peace Accord Trust, the KwaZulu-Natal Project for Survivors of Violence, and the Cape Town Trauma Centre for Survivors of Violence and Torture, as the lead agencies in the development of this Coalition. The aim of the network is to strengthen and consolidate the trauma sector and to ensure quality standards of service delivery, including services to inadequately resourced regions. The network is actively seeking a partnership with government in order to ensure the success of such a venture. The legal framework for the network has been drafted, and the network has already been awarded one government tender to train primary health care nurses in trauma support skills.
The strategic importance of this development to the sector cannot be underestimated. This unique cooperative venture, substantially driven and facilitated from its infancy by the CSVR, will, for the first time in South Africa, give both service providers and victims of violence and of human rights abuse an organised and coordinated voice. We anticipate that the Coalition will pave the way for dramatically expanded training and service delivery capacity which will reach into the rural areas and which will ultimately substantially enhance the capability of various state structures to offer such interventions and services across the country. Perhaps most importantly, this structure will also give us the ability to appropriately accredit as well as standardise training courses and the quality of services provided to clients.
During the past year the Clinic used several strategies to maintain staff and reduce burnout. These included the recruitment of sessional workers to do direct counselling, the provision of regular debriefing and supervision for staff, skills training, diversifying work to include more training and research, and promoting self-care techniques, such as reflexology, for counselling staff. Despite these measures there was still a high level of burnout and staff turnover as a result of the stress of constantly interacting with victims of trauma and violence. The exposure to victims of random crime and violence leaves staff feeling vulnerable and at risk. In certain instances this has been exacerbated when Clinic staff have conducted debriefings in certain areas which are particularly unsafe, causing staff to feel anxious about their own personal safety. We have recognised the need for a clear structure to manage burnout and for a policy around staff safety. This will be implemented in the next year in order to maintain the emotional well-being of staff and to prevent the damaging impact of vicarious trauma.
The CSVR Trauma Clinic has been an innovator in this specialised area of work and has pioneered these concerns in the South African context. We have also received recognition for our creative approach from international experts in this field. Staff self-care in this area of our work is a vital, proactive investment in our greatest resource - our human resources. It is also a visionary concern which - if absent - will undoubtedly result in ultimately undermining the capacity of caregivers to continue their self-sacrificing tasks.
The Clinic expanded its outreach work to include a focus on refugees, a group that has been identified as disadvantaged and experiencing high levels of trauma. Clinic staff have been actively involved in the Gauteng Refugee Forum. A needs assessment was initiated which will inform the Clinic as to future therapeutic interventions with refugees. This work will continue in the next year to include a focus on human rights violations within the refugee community, and to deal with the impact of burgeoning xenophobia.
Outreach work has continued at the Zamokuhle Child Abuse Clinic and at the Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital. Primary health care nurses have been trained in trauma counselling skills and receive regular supervision and support from Clinic staff. The Trauma Clinic also offers training, counselling and support to Khulumani, a survivor support group for victims of past human rights violations.
In 1998 the CSVR Trauma Clinic substantially improved its advocacy role and capabilities. This has enabled the CSVR to impact significantly on both policy development in respect of victim empowerment within government, as well as to increasingly draw public attention to the needs and concerns of victims of violence and human rights abuse. This advocacy function has largely operated through four vehicles - some of which have already been noted in passing.
Firstly, the role played by CSVR staff on both the National and Provincial Reference Teams on Victim Empowerment has been significant in assisting with the development of government policy in this sphere. Secondly, our direct approaches and frequent meetings with senior government personnel, particularly the MEC for Social Welfare in Gauteng, has proved to be an important mechanism for directly briefing such strategically positioned individuals. It is our belief that this also impacts on the precise manner in which policy is shaped at this level of government. Thirdly, the CSVR Trauma Clinic has developed an extremely powerful media profile in both print and electronic media in South Africa. Our ability to represent and reproduce the voices, needs and aspirations of victims and survivors through our unique access to them, has - within the boundaries of professional ethics and confidentiality - been a powerful tool for drawing public attention to these matters and for advocating for support for such service providers. This has in turn been vital to advocating a victim-centred approach to crime prevention, as well as to dealing with past human rights violations. Fourthly, the CSVR's role, alongside that of our partners, in establishing the National Network of Trauma Service Providers has already proved to be a critical tool in advancing our advocacy capacity through coordinated action.
The extent of these endeavours has contributed substantially to the impressive reputation that we believe the CSVR Trauma Clinic has now established internationally. This will be borne out early in 1999 when the Clinic hosts an international conference on Trauma. Furthermore, it has also contributed extensively to the progress that has been made in developing an African network, which will hopefully result in the launching of an African Traumatic Stress Society in the near future.
The past year presented a number of challenges to the Trauma Clinic. As mentioned, staff burnout and the need to develop more effective tools to promote self-care has remained a pertinent issue in the Clinic. Despite measures adopted to manage staff stress, the impact of this work was experienced in the form of vicarious traumatic responses in staff members, and staff turnover.
We have been faced with the need to develop more creative interventions and preventative strategies for dealing with violent crimes occurring within the workplace. On many occasions Clinic staff have conducted debriefings in companies in which employees have been exposed to multiple robberies and are at high risk for re-exposure. In these situations, traditional models of trauma debriefing are inadequate. There is also a concern that management of the various companies confronted with multiple robberies are not really addressing the need to develop comprehensive strategies to deal with violence in the workplace. By only offering a debriefing service to staff, issues relating to management's responsibility to deal with prevention and staff safety are overlooked. This presents an exciting challenge to the Clinic and the CSVR to develop new approaches to intervention that includes a focus on prevention and safety skills, in addition to trauma debriefing.
There is an ongoing need to refine and develop culturally appropriate brief-term trauma interventions, particularly for children. Strategies for dealing with complex and multiple trauma, as well as the presentation of anger and increased racial prejudice following trauma, need to be further explored. The CSVR Trauma Clinic has also responded to the challenge of using volunteer counsellors in a more effective manner within the Clinic, the Centre and through outreach into communities.
Another challenge relates to our response to the changing patterns of violence in society, and developing an analytical understanding of the causes and nature of this violence. Trauma victims and Clinic staff have had particular difficulty in understanding the apparent increase in the use of seemingly gratuitous violence. Explanations relating to the cyclical nature of violence and a culture of violence seem insufficient in explaining this phenomenon. We also need to draw on information from our client database and to conduct research that may contribute to understanding violence and prevention strategies.
With the launch of the NCPS Victim Empowerment Strategy, numerous organisations that offer victim support services, have emerged. While these initiatives are necessary and important, there has been some concern about the standards of service delivery offered by some of these organisations. One of the objectives of the National Trauma Network is to develop guidelines and quality standards for the delivery of professional trauma support services. Over the last year in the process of establishing services, the Clinic has consulted with many organisations regarding guidelines for best practice,. At no stage does our commitment to professional standards exclude the development of locally accessible services offered by lay persons.
Due to financial constraints the CSVR Trauma Clinic has been constrained in its ability to expand and implement projects. Repeated attempts to secure funding from government and the corporate sector were to no avail. Funding that was expected from the European Union has been delayed. It is of concern that the sustainability of the Clinic is dependent on foreign donors. It is imperative that local donors and government contribute to the Trauma Clinic to ensure the future of such a valuable service, particularly in view of the high levels of trauma in our society and the fact that both sectors utilise Clinic services. We have, however, developed some creative income generation strategies to supplement donor funding, which will be further refined in the next year.
The scope and magnitude of work within the Trauma Clinic has placed increasing demands on our staff members, and it has become clear that a broader management team needs to be created to cope with the diversified requirements of the Clinic in 1999 and beyond. It is planned to restructure the Clinic into project areas with specific managerial responsibilities. The goals of this restructuring are to facilitate staff development and promote self care, professionalise Clinic services, develop new clinical interventions, conduct research and evaluation, and maximise the potential for cross-departmental and inter-disciplinary work within the CSVR.
We aim to facilitate specialised therapy group interventions for vulnerable groups such as women, children and refugees. These groups will be run in conjunction with the CSVR's Youth Department and the Khulumani Support Group for survivors of past human rights violations.
A major focus over the next few years will be the professionalisation and marketing of training packages offered by the Trauma Clinic. This will be done in close consultation with the CSVR's Education and Media Unit. Training will be expanded to include a focus on violence prevention, stress management and safety skills.
Over the next few years, the Clinic will play a central role in the consolidation of the National Trauma Network and in the delivery of victim empowerment. Our unique access to victims of violence and human rights violations places us in a position to advocate and lobby for the rights of victims, and to make policy recommendations. It is hoped that the network will provide an important forum through which victims' voices will be heard.
All of these future aims are dependent on the Clinic securing sources of funding which are sustainable and that will enable staff to implement our proposed vision.
The clinic offers training and supervision for volunteer counsellors (covered in AR).
A dance therapist is working on a voluntary basis in the clinic. She has commenced work at Zamokhule child abuse clinic, using dance as a therapeutic medium with sexually abused children. Research will be conducted to evaluate the efficacy of dance as an alternative therapeutic medium in dealing with trauma.
The clinic responded to a number of training requests outside of South Africa. Trauma management workshops were conducted in Swaziland and England. The clinic was also involved in an extensive training programme for ex political prisoners and combatants in Northern Ireland. Three groups were trained in trauma support and management skills for application within community based organisations. The clinic conducted a needs assessment in Rwanda with a view to making training recommendations regarding trauma interventions and psycho-social assistance. This assessment was conducted on behalf of the Department of Foreign Affairs. The training that has been offered in other countries has been well received. It is apparent that the skills and expertise gained from dealing with emotional trauma in the South African context, is beneficial to others who are dealing with similar issues. Trauma clinic staff have learned a great deal from these experiences and it has provided interesting comparative information.
The clinic was awarded a number of training contract in 1998. These included a contract with Business Against Crime for the training of frontline workers in victim empowerment. A number of retail stores and a security company contracted the Trauma Clinic to provide trauma counselling services to staff exposed to violence. In addition a tender was awarded by the Department of Health for the training of primary health care practitioners, to commence in 1999. This tender has been awarded to the National Trauma network of which the Trauma Clinic is one of the founder members.
While not focussing on specific gender related projects, much of the work engaged in by the Trauma Clinic deals with gender related issues. Survivors of domestic violence and rape receive counselling in the clinic on an individual and group basis. According to clinic statistics, the majority of clients seen at the clinic are female.Our work with sexually abused children is complemented with a specific focus on the caretakers of the child survivors, whom are almost always female. The clinic is also involved in offering psychological support within the refugee community and is conducting a research study on Somali refugee women.
In addition to direct counselling services offered to women the clinic is also involved in advocacy regarding women's issues in relation to violence and participates in the sexual violence forum. It is anticipated that in the forthcoming year, the clinic will work closely with the CSVR gender unit to ensure that there is a more explicit focus on gender which will help to shape our research and clinical interventions.
A commitment to gender and race equity is reflected in the percentage of trauma clinic staff who are female and the profile of our volunteer counsellors (out of a total of 22 volunteers trained during the year, fourteen were women and fifteen were black).
The Education and Media Unit popularises the research and intervention work of the CSVR using film, comic, inter-active print, drama and training workshops. Popular education interventions aim to combat the high levels of crime and violence and build a culture of human rights and democracy. Substantive research in the form of focus groups and in depth interviews is used as the basis of the popular education interventions.
The CSVR's Education and Media Unit (EMU) focussed on seven projects in 1998, five main projects (three of which were particularly financially demanding and labour intensive) and two additional smaller projects. They have all been very exciting and innovative educational interventions, each very different from the other, and all providing the EMU team with excellent material for comparing the educational impact of different types of educational interventions. Each project also engages different forms of media, targets different audiences, and deals with different issues pertaining to crime, violence, reconciliation and human rights.
The five main projects were:
The development of a six part television drama series on building a culture of human rights in schools. The TV series is supported by classroom-based learner materials;
A public broadcaster media campaign to raise public awareness around crime, and to show youth different alternatives to participation in crime;
A reconciliation and conflict management project in the overcrowded township of Alexandra, using video as a tool for building bridges across a divided community;
Working with juvenile offenders in Johannesburg Prison in developing anti-crime messages through drama; and
The development of an educational pack for teachers on how to manage trauma in the classroom.
The EMU also completed a two smaller projects, less ambitious but no less important as interventions to combat violence and abuse and to build a culture of human rights. These were:
The production of an activity-based book for grade one teachers on issues relating to the building of a culture of human rights; and
The design of a course for community educators working with their communities in trying to combat crime and violence and to build reconciliation.
Each of these seven projects will be briefly reported on below.
At the start of 1998, the EMU began to conduct research into the issues facing 14 - 16 year old youth in South Africa in order to develop a dynamic educational intervention that would begin to build a culture of human rights among South Africa's youth. Through the generous support of Diakonia (Sweden), we set out to develop a six-part television drama which would depict the problems youth are dealing with in school, with a particular focus on exploring ways of resolving these problems.
This research began by setting up focus groups with 14 - 16 year old youth from all over the country. A fascinating picture of South African youth began to emerge. Far from enjoying the benefits of a rainbow nation, we discovered that young people were grappling with sustained racism, high levels of violence and bullying, as well as prevalent experiences of sexual abuse. In almost all of the 35 schools around the country in which the EMU conducted its research, there were stories of how students were feeling divided from one another and of how they were grappling to define an identity in a world which seemed confusing and conflict-ridden. Many students voiced their frustration at being unable to speak to their parents or teachers about their problems. Furthermore, these young people indicated that they did not see their own reality being reflected in the mass media or on television. These youngsters voiced the belief that they simply lacked the tools to begin to resolve their problems and did not feel that there was anywhere to turn for help.
In formerly white schools (previously labelled Model C schools), conflicts centred on problems associated with racism and intolerance. Many black students expressed their struggle to fit into what they perceived as the dominant white culture of the school. In almost all of the schools we visited, real or meaningful interaction between different race groups was glaringly absent. Teachers, feeling overworked and undervalued, also expressed frustration at not knowing how to deal with multi-cultural classrooms and at not being able to deal with issues of conflict in the playground. Many students still expressed racist feelings towards other groups - and it was quickly evident that these young people were not the happy forerunners to a new, rainbow-type nation, but that vital educational interventions were needed in schools to deal with issues of racism, conflict and problems of low self-esteem and confused identity.
The drama series, due to be screened in September 1999 by the SABC programme Take Five, highlights the problems students are facing, the conflicts they are trying to deal with, and the feelings they experience as teenagers in a difficult period of social transition in South Africa. The TV series is accompanied by a set of closely related classroom-based activities.
This educational intervention focuses on six main themes, all of which fall into the framework of building a culture of human rights:
Institutions and power - particularly, in this case, racist institutions. This theme explores the relationship between institutions and the individual, how an organisational culture which is racist or which undermines certain groups of people, can undermine children's self esteem and feelings of belonging;
Racism - how racism is played out in the school yard, and how teachers and students can begin to combat racism and build better relationships;
Identity - how young people can build their self esteem, how identity shifts, the relationship between culture and identity, feelings of not belonging, etc.;
The role of language in shaping relationships of social identity and power;
Dealing with conflict and violence;
Gender and sexuality - in particular the intervention focuses on the pressures placed on young men and women, the way in which this shapes their identities and self-images, and empowerment objectives to enable them to deal with these gender-specific social pressures.
The research phase of this project - undertaken during 1998 - has proved to be invaluable and although we have decided to start with the six main themes above, there are many other issues that we will pay attention to. A key challenge to the EMU will be in evaluating the educational impact of the TV series and print material. It will undoubtedly give some youth an opportunity to see their reality on the screen, but the real challenge lies in using this mirror to change attitudes and patterns of behaviour.
At the beginning of 1998, the EMU was asked to research and produce a television series and print material to support the Sport Against Crime Campaign, which was launched by the Department of Sports and Recreation. The Sport Against Crime Media Campaign has three main objectives. The first was to create a public awareness around crime which does not feed public hysteria or encourage feelings of helplessness - as is typically the case with so much of the television and newspaper representations of crime.
The second objective was to show youth, through the use of alternative role models, that there are real alternatives to a life of crime. In particular, the television inserts promote sport as a way of building a community spirit, being involved in team activities, and learning leadership skills. Sporting personalities were used in the inserts as positive role models, as opposed to gang leaders who are all too often looked upon as heroes by many young people.
The third objective was to link the five minute television inserts - due to be screened by SABC TopSport - with print material and other campaign activities, to support services and real programmes operating on the ground. The campaign is an excellent vehicle to channel youth to use social services where necessary, and enter positive, life-enhancing sports programmes.
The production of the Sport Against Crime television inserts involved a detailed research process that also served to uncover youth attitudes to crime and violence. There were four types of focus-group workshops undertaken as part of this elaborate research process. The first set of workshops was held with youth in schools and in community centres in different areas of Gauteng. These workshops established the attitudes and feelings of young people about crime. These workshops enquired whether youth perceive crime as a problem in their communities, who they think are the criminals, their attitudes to such criminal groups, their views of why people become involved in crime, and what the potential solutions might be.
The second set of workshops was run with youngsters who are already involved in crime. Some of these participants had spent terms in jail, but for the most part we interviewed young people whose lives were dominated by criminal activities and who were outside of prison. We found out how these youngsters became involved in crime, what their feelings were about their lifestyle and whether they would want to change, and whether they see themselves as having any alternatives. These focus group workshops with gangsters proved to be extraordinary in their value and the insights that they generated. They are a true testimony to the unique access and research innovation currently in place at the CSVR.
The third set of workshops was held with juvenile or young prisoners in Johannesburg Central Prison. A group of 120 long-term prisoners shared their personal histories with the CSVR researchers. They talked about their upbringing, their families, how they became involved in crime, what crime they were sentenced for and their awaiting trial experiences. The focus group workshops asked these inmates to think about ways of preventing young people from becoming involved in criminal activities.
The fourth set of focus group workshops was held with experts from the criminal justice system - including staff of the CSVR's own Criminal Justice Policy Unit - and crime reporters. These workshops established what experts believe to be the alternatives to crime and ways that these perspectives could be represented as effective messages aimed at a youth audience.
All the research undertaken through focus group workshops fed into the production of 52 television inserts and the creation of parallel print materials. The research also formed the basis of a report that the EMU is using in developing intervention programmes for youth. By the end of 1998, 39 out of 52 of these five minute television inserts had already been produced, and ten had been screened on SABC's national TopSport programmes.
The EMU has been working in Alexandra since 1994, designing and facilitating reconciliation processes for hostel dwellers and residents who were involved in bloody battle with one another in the early 1990s. With funding support from Diakonia, Sweden, we embarked on a unique follow-up project in 1998. The project aims to use video to build reconciliation in a small part of Alexandra - previously known as Beirut because of the violent conflict that dominated the area. Residents of this area have been trained as "video diarists": They have been trained to use a video camera to record their versions of the violence in 1992 and of the subsequent peace-making process that - until the present time - has held firm. The diarists' stories will be used in mid-1999 to facilitate reconciliation workshops among different sectors of the community. A broadcast version of the dialogue process will also be aired in late 1999.
The project is unique for a number of different reasons. It gives a voice to people who have been part of an extraordinary process over the period of the last seven years. The five diarists have all been intimately involved with a devastating war taking place on their very doorsteps, and have engaged in a subsequently difficult and painful peace process - often on different sides. They have participated in South Africa's first national election, they have experienced the pain and trauma of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, and they are now negotiating the processes of development (and the competing claims to the benefits which this will generate) in Alexandra township.
Apart from the unique participatory strategy of this project, it is also innovative in the manner in which it documents a process that can be critically evaluated as a case study of how peace has been built and sustained in a small but very divided community. The lessons to be learnt from this process will potentially be enormous - other communities will be able to see how peace has been brokered and sustained and how various factors (negative and positive) have influenced or shaped the process. Once again, through the Alexandra project, the EMU is demonstrating that it is a pioneer in the utilisation of creative educational media production in the enterprise of social fabric reconstruction.
The EMU, in conjunction with the Prisons Project of the CSVR Criminal Justice Policy Unit, successfully developed a drama performance focusing on the consequences of being involved in crime. This educational intervention was unique and creative not simply because of its subject matter, but because 15 juvenile offenders - all of whom were long-term prisoners incarcerated in Johannesburg Central prison - scripted and acted in the performance themselves. The performance in fact detailed and dramatised their own experiences of how they became involved in crime, and the consequences they suffered as a result of their involvement. The drama was performed before an audience of schoolchildren who then immediately participated in a follow-up workshop to discuss crime and its consequences. The school-going youth had an opportunity to engage with the performing prisoners in the workshop, which in itself was a very powerful educational tool in speaking to youth about crime.
However, this complex and innovate methodology remains to be carefully evaluated. Precisely because of the creativity of the prisoners who authored and acted in the prison play, the project ran the risk of a counter-productive glamorisation of crime. While youth viewed the performances in the prison and had an opportunity to speak to the actors/prisoners about crime, actors in the performances were attractive young men and some youth may have come away with the romanticised impressions that a life of crime is preferable to one of poverty. The workshops that were linked to the play were deliberately planned as an intervention to lower this risk - and in the most part appeared to be successful in doing so.
Nonetheless, such interventions need to be carefully structured and evaluated if their creative methodology is not to run the risk of being counter-productive. In any event, we certainly learnt a great deal about the kind of anti-crime messaging that does and does not work among youth, and the kinds of issues that in fact serve to add glamour to crime for this vulnerable social constituency. Partly due to a lack of sustainable funding and partly due to the high risk factor of such educational work, we decided to discontinue this work in the prisons in 1999.
In collaboration with the CSVR Youth Department, the EMU developed an educational pack, consisting of a twenty-minute video and accompanying manual aimed at equipping teachers to manage violence-related trauma through a classroom setting. The video dramatised scenarios in which children were traumatised: one dramatic scenario involved a rape by another student, whilst the other utilised a scenario of domestic abuse involving a relative. After each dramatisation, the video shows how teachers can possibly help the victim and gives them practical tips on how to manage the incident in the classroom and within the school setting. The video also outlines the process of counselling a child who has been a victim of such abuse.
The manual which accompanies the video, offers more detail for the teachers, outlining ways of dealing with child survivors and victims - both on a one to one basis and more generally within the context of the school. The Youth Department is already using the educational pack as part of its teacher training interventions, and this will continue into 1999 and beyond. In this way the video and manual will be deployed in over 40 schools in Soweto as part of an education and training programme, which not only equips teachers with the skills to deal with traumatised children, but also empowers teachers, students and parents to join the national Safe Schools campaign. The piloting of these educational tools and their deployment in the schools of Soweto, left little doubt that this educational package operates effectively as a very powerful training tool.
Although this is one of our smaller projects, this manual represents an important new initiative at the CSVR in that it seeks to reach younger learners than we have traditionally worked with. The manual was developed in the wake of the EMU's research for the television drama series reported on above. From that research it was clear to us that vital issues around race, identity and self-esteem need to be tackled at an educational level with children from a very early age. This manual aims to assist in building positive self-esteem, learning about and accepting difference, and instilling creative values associated with diversity. It will also help children at a vulnerable age to deal with the difficult feelings related to how to say no. Publishers Hodder and Stoughton have agreed to publish the manual as a textbook in early 1999. We hope that this work will act as precursor to even more innovative work in the future with pre-school children.
The second of the EMU's smaller projects was the development of an eight module course to deal with violence, reconciliation and trauma at community level. This course was commissioned by Wits University and the modules were developed based on the needs of community workers. Staff at the CSVR also piloted the teaching of the course and worked extensively with the course material, which creatively linked theory and practice through role-plays, simulation games and action theatre.
The CSVR Education and Media Unit experienced a creative and rapid learning curve during 1998. The five major projects outlined above were costly and labour intensive and this presented us with many challenges. The research undertaken in the Sports Against Crime Campaign, and in the drama series on human rights, has provided the CSVR with a new insight into youth in South Africa during this critical period of transition. These insights shatter the mould of entrenched conventional wisdoms about youth politics and culture in our society. Through our research and through the development methodology used to create our education and media products, the EMU is proving that the very process of production is both educational and has a role in rebuilding the social fabric in societies wracked with conflict. Although the research was designed to inform the development of educational media products, the outcomes of the research are more widely useful and the Unit is already planning how to use aspects of the research in developing other educational materials.
However, a key challenge for 1999 will be to more effectively evaluate the impact of these media and educational interventions. There are a number of different levels at which such evaluation needs to take place. Firstly, impact evaluation in respect of the issues that the EMU has chosen to work with is notoriously difficult to quantify. Crime, trauma, racism, positive self-identity, and other concepts all require complex educational interventions that are equally complex to evaluate in terms of their impact. Secondly, we are also keen to develop appropriate tools to evaluate the impact of educational interventions that make use of different forms of media - and this introduces a further level of complexity. Whilst the successful television edu-tainment series Soul City has documented the impact of multi-media interventions in relation to the public health sector, this remains a difficult and under-developed task in respect of the complex issues that we are seeking to evaluate and quantify.
However, the EMU's biggest challenge still lies in sustaining itself. Focus group research has excellent outcomes, but is costly and takes up a lot of time. Television production undoubtedly reaches a huge audience, but is extremely costly and most donors are not willing to fund such large amounts for one or two projects. The motivation for continuing to develop multi-media educational interventions will rely heavily on the quality and outcomes of the evaluation of our projects and products.
The Transition & Reconciliation Unit (TRU) focuses on the impact of violence associated with past political conflict on communities and institutions in South Africa, and on reconciliation as a strategy for dealing with the legacy of this violence. We engage in intervention and policy work in this area with the aim of entrenching a human rights culture, empowering survivors of apartheid violence, and healing the wounds of the past. We are developing constructive and holistic ways of dealing with changes in South African society. Over the last few years the TRU focused much of its work on the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC). As the TRC began to wind down in 1998 we made a shift to a range of new but related areas of work which would entrench the successes of the TRC process in our society.
The main areas of work of the TRU are evaluating the impact of the TRC, empowering civil society and victims in preparation for the end of the TRC, and creating reconciliation initiatives that will carry the work of the TRC forward in sustainable and practical ways.
To take forward the work in these three areas, the TRU is organised into three programmes:
This programme analyses the deeper theoretical issues around transition and reconciliation so as to feed into public education and debate. It evaluates the intervention projects of the TRU in order to identify their strengths and weaknesses with a view to ensuring successful reconciliation interventions. It also helped translate much of our practical reconciliation work into recommendations and submissions to institutions, policy makers and government, so as to assist with the South African reconciliation process. In addition, one of its main focus areas in 1998 was to evaluate the work of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission and to extract lessons for society in general as well as for the international community. This programme had a number of sub-projects:
The main research task of the Evaluation, Advocacy and Monitoring programme was a comprehensive evaluation of the TRC. We firstly did a critical assessment of the different components of the TRC (the Amnesty Committee, the victim support structures, the Investigation Unit, etc.), and secondly did an analysis of the impact that the TRC process has had on different sectors of society. The project turned out to be a massive endeavour, drawing on hours of interviews with key role players from both the TRC and civil society, video footage of the TRC process recorded over the last few years, and participant action-research. The final composite evaluation will only be collated and completed in 1999. However, a number of smaller research projects were compiled and distributed in the first half of 1998. Some of these are mentioned below.
Impact of the TRC on peace / conflict resolution organisations
We were contracted by the Aspen Institute to look at the relationship between NGOs and CBOs and the TRC. Our brief was to determine what lessons could be drawn from the process for other countries emerging from violence. The report tracked the role of a number of South African NGOs and organisations in the design of the TRC process, and their subsequent relationships with the TRC. An extensive report was published and a CSVR researcher was invited to address the issue at a conference on Civil Society in Transition held in Northern Ireland. These research findings will form part of the overall TRC assessment report to be completed in 1999.
The TRC as a tool for community reconciliation
This research project was based on a case study of the impact of the TRC on Duduza, a community outside Johannesburg. It was intended to give a clear picture of how the TRC had (or had not) impacted at a community level. The findings of this report were presented at the International Peace Research Association (IPRA) conference in Durban and reproduced in Reconciliation International. A summary of this case study was also included in the TRC Final Report.
While the word "reconciliation" is widely used in the South African media and political dialogue, its actual meaning remains unclear and untested. We therefore sought to generate public debate around the meaning and practical implications of reconciliation through media articles, information on the CSVR website, conference presentations, and through stimulating public debate. This debate was also fed into the TRC conference From Truth to Transformation, hosted by the CSVR. In 1998 we also launched a newsletter, Reconciliation in Review, that was intended to become a forum for debate around reconciliation.
Symbolic reparations have emerged as a key issue in the debate about reparations for victims of gross human rights violations. Given the possibility that some projects which are focused on the recognition of past suffering may in themselves produce conflict, the CSVR engaged in an initial evaluation of a number of these processes. We undertook an evaluation of the process of building the Thokoza Monument to assess the potential pitfalls involved in this form of victim recognition and community reconciliation. An assessment of the Thokoza Monument Project and other similar initiatives around Gauteng will be completed in early 1999, and the insights used to guide other communities involved in similar ventures.
The TRC only scratched the surface of institutional reconciliation processes when it engaged with South African organisations and institutions through sectoral hearings. One institution which has taken the TRC processes to another level through victim storytelling, investigations and institutional self-reflection, is the Wits University Faculty of Health Sciences. The CSVR conducted an evaluation of this Internal Reconciliation Commission (IRC), to assess the viability of this model for other organisations that may take up the challenge of examining their history under apartheid, and of addressing their own institutional legacy of discrimination. This evaluation will be completed in early 1999, and will be released at the same time that the IRC's final report is made public.
Evaluating other reconciliation initiatives
While the TRU recognised the TRC as the most prominent vehicle for reconciliation in South Africa, it also acknowledged the importance of many smaller and less-publicised initiatives aimed at healing the wounds of the past. This was thought to be essential particularly as the TRC was to close down in 1998. One key initiative was the NGO Poverty Hearings, which addressed broader questions of structural violence and involved greater levels of community participation than the TRC. Our evaluation of this initiative will be available in mid-1999.
The TRC final report
The TRC Final Report was made public in the fourth quarter of 1998. A series of local and international media interviews were conducted with members of the TRU during the TRC Final Report submission to government. The CSVR continued to raise issues of public interest around the TRC recommendations, particularly those related to victims, reparations, and prosecutions. We also undertook joint public education and advocacy exercises as part of the TRC NGO coalition, particularly in relation to the issue of blanket amnesty. We also did a preliminary analysis of aspects of the TRC Final Report. This will be extended and integrated into our evaluation work in 1999.
The coordinator of the Transition and Reconciliation Unit, Brandon Hamber, was selected as the 1998 Tip O'Neill Fellow in Peace Studies. He spent six months at the Initiative on Conflict Resolution and Ethnicity (INCORE) in Derry, Northern Ireland, where he worked on a project entitled Learning to Live with Peace: Some Comparative Lessons for Societies in Transition. The project focused on countries' experiences of moving towards negotiated settlement and how they deal with the violence of the past on an institutional and individual level. It explored how this impacts on the changing nature of violence in a country in transition. The project has proved extremely valuable for knowledge and skills development in the arena of reconciliation, as there was a fruitful exchange of ideas between South Africa and Northern Ireland. A book, Past Imperfect: Dealing with the Past in Northern Ireland and Societies in Transition, was completed during the fellowship and was edited by Brandon Hamber. The book was distributed mainly in Northern Ireland, but is available on the Internet. The aim of the book was to develop strategies for dealing with the past in Northern Ireland and elsewhere, based on lessons learned in South Africa.
The TRU also undertook a comparative research project focusing on Argentina and Chile. A contract researcher compiled two reports on the current levels of violence in these countries, with an assessment of how the truth commissions in these countries have (or have not) impacted on current levels of violence. Lessons for a post-TRC South Africa, based on this analysis, are currently being extracted from these reports.
In 1998 TRU staff were invited to speak about the South African experience in a number of international forums in the UK, Northern Ireland, Germany and the US. We also hosted an international seminar focusing on the effects of war and trauma on women around the world. The seminar featured four international speakers from El Salvador, Northern Ireland, Kenya and Rwanda, all working in the area of trauma. A summary of the seminar was included in Interfund's Development Update journal and a full transcript of the seminar was edited for publication.
Reparations and rehabilitation policy work
How survivors of apartheid violence will be compensated, both materially and physically, remains one of the largest challenges facing the post-TRC period. The TRU has been involved in a number of activities in this area. Firstly, two TRU fieldworkers/researchers conducted ten one-day workshops with Khulumani Support Group (KSG) branches in three provinces. These workshops focused on the TRC's reparations policy and were largely educational in nature. However, they also provided critical insight into survivors' views and suggestions on the TRC's reparations policy. These views were collated into a report that was forwarded to the TRC, together with a series of recommendations. The recommendations focused on what victims felt their reparations needs were and how the TRC could complete its work effectively.
Secondly, we submitted a number of articles on reparations to the TRC, and used media and other forums to influence TRC policy recommendations with regards to reparations. The CSVR and the Khulumani Support Group worked jointly on various media articles and held a series of meetings with other NGO partners in this regard. A process of networking with relevant government departments is still being pursued in order to ensure adequate reparation for victims. In 1998 substantial groundwork was done so that a more comprehensive public education and advocacy campaign around reparations can be taken up in 1999.
Amnesty and Legal Intervention Work
Legal support for the survivors of apartheid is as important as victim empowerment and psychological assistance. In 1998 the TRU began to focus to a greater degree on the legal aspects of the TRC. This included practical and policy work. The process of initiating a legal support network for survivors started to bear fruit towards the end of the year and is seen as a major project for 1999. The Khulumani Support Group, with the help of the CSVR, managed to initiate meetings with the Justice Department to set up a mechanism to follow up on cases left incomplete by the TRC. The production of a manual on how to follow up the TRC investigations was identified as one of our priorities and should be completed in 1999.
Two pilot groups focusing on disappearances have been set up and are facilitated by the CSVR and KSG. The idea of the project is to follow on the TRC database regarding further investigations and possible prosecutions. The TRC has focused mainly on the corroboration of information, and minimal investigative work was done - hence the need to assist victims in their pursuit of the truth.
As regards direct policy work; the amnesty process of the TRC was assessed and debates about its legal nature were explored. One of our foreign research interns conducted extensive research into whether (or not) the TRC and its approach to amnesty was compliant with international human rights laws and norms. She also assessed the strengths and weaknesses of the TRC against those of the proposed International Criminal Court. A public education newspaper article was written and a seminar held on this topic, providing the public, but also our staff, with valuable information and resources to assist their participation, locally and abroad, in the international debate about amnesty and war crimes.
Conference on Preparing Civil Society for the end of the TRC
In order to integrate much of the research and policy work undertaken by the TRU over the past few years, and to lay the terrain and prepare civil society for the post-TRC period, we hosted a successful two-day conference focusing on the TRC. An art exhibition, hung at the conference venue, helped to capture visually some of the challenges in coming to terms with a violent past.
Over 150 delegates from regional, national and international organisations (including El Salvador, Kenya, Rwanda, Northern Ireland, Australia, UK, and the USA), attended the conference. The conference theme was From Truth to Transformation. The first day of the conference focused on the work of the TRC to date and included a range of inputs and evaluative discussion. The second day looked at practical ways in which civil society could take the work of the TRC forward after its demise. Both days featured speakers from the TRC, relevant government bodies (South African Human Rights Commission, Gender Commission, etc.) and from key NGOs and CBOs.
The conference proved to be a valuable networking exercise for the CSVR and many others, and assisted NGOs and CBOs to mobilise and lobby around reconciliation and human rights issues. The conference helped breathe life back into NGOs that had previously worked with the CSVR on TRC-related matters. As a direct result of the conference, meetings were arranged between the Khulumani Support Group, and similar victims' groups based in Rwanda and Kenya. These meetings were funded by Action for People's in Conflict (AfPic) but were only made possible because of the conference itself. Documentation from the conference was distributed locally and internationally. Based on the success of the conference, the Catholic Institute for International Relations (CIIR) in London approached the CSVR to do a joint international publication on the Conference and the TRC's lessons for other countries. The content of this publication has been significantly shaped by the From Truth to Transformation conference. The report is due in 1999 and will receive international coverage.
A major consequence of the TRC (and because reconciliation by its very nature is a long-term process) is that civil society organisations are now charged with the responsibility to continue its mandate. They will have to initiate projects to address the legacy of apartheid divisions, whilst operating within the constraints of the present. The Community and Institutional Reconciliation (C&IR) Programme of the TRU was developed for these very reasons.
The C&IR programme was conceptualised as an extension of the TRU's previous survivor support work. Its goal was to go beyond merely creating sustainable survivor support groups and rather move toward building sustainable reconciliation initiatives and projects in a number of selected communities and institutions. It aimed to translate what we have learned about reconciliation through our research and policy work into practical interventions. Its main task was to develop a generic and adaptable reconciliation package that could be used in a range of constituencies. The materials needed for the project will be completed in 1999 and added to the package. These will include a reconciliation video and manual.
As this is a new programme, staff spent the first half of 1998 working closely with the researchers in the Transition and Reconciliation Unit to develop, evaluate and pilot models for reconciliation-based initiatives and interventions. A number of activities were undertaken in the course of 1998, some of which were direct practical reconciliation interventions, while others were laying the foundations for the project.
Audit of reconciliation work in South Africa
In order to develop a unique reconciliation package (and avoid duplication) we undertook to explore the work of other NGOs and CBOs in this area. This audit, augmented by the evaluations of other reconciliation initiatives conducted by the research programme, focused mainly on Gauteng, but did focus to some degree on reconciliation initiatives across the country. A list of organisations undertaking reconciliation work was compiled. This will ultimately be used as a reference guide for those working with the TRU victim empowerment and support programme.
Pilot reconciliation programmes
In 1998 the TRU tried to narrow the focus of its reconciliation work rather than offering broad reconciliation and education workshops as it had done in previous years. We decided to focus on a specific number of communities and undertake a targeted reconciliation programme that could be tested and evaluated. This approach was used so as to develop a comprehensive reconciliation package and model, which, if evaluated positively, could be replicated in other communities and institutions. To this end we ran a number of pilot intervention workshops focusing on reconciliation in targeted provinces adjacent to Gauteng. Specific areas of focus included Ermelo, Nelspruit and Pietersburg.
In addition we selected Eldorado Park as one of our pilot areas for intervention reconciliation work, specifically with the goal of running an intercultural reconciliation workshop in the area. Extensive fieldwork and interviews were conducted with the main community role players and organisations working in Eldorado Park. This was done in order to isolate the specific areas where interventions could be made, and to assess what the nature of those interventions should be. A need for the implementation of reconciliation programmes in schools was identified out of the needs assessment and primary information gathering exercise. The C&IR component of the TRU went into a joint venture with the Youth Department of the CSVR to lay the basis for a comprehensive youth-based reconciliation programme that will focus on past issues in order to heal the present. This programme will start in 1999.
Alexandra Community Dialogues
A TRU fieldworker worked with the CSVR Education and Media Unit to research and develop video testimonies of key role players of the Alexandra community, concerning issues of conflict rooted in the past but still affecting their community today. This process served as one of the pilot reconciliation interventions of the C&IR programme. By getting different parties who are in conflict to view 'the other side's story' we aimed to establish a direct conflict resolution mechanism in Alexandra.
By the end of 1998 community 'diarists' had been drawn from the constituencies of the key parties that have been involved in the conflict in Alex. Ordinary people (that is, not community leaders) were chosen so that the stories reflect original and honest experiences rather than party political positions.
In the short term the testimonies filmed by the community diarists will be edited into one film that will be shown to the entire community. In the long term the film will be used as an educational tool for future reconciliation packages that will be developed in 1999 under the auspices of the C&IR programme.
In conjunction with the C&IR programme, the Victim Empowerment and Support Programme (VESP) aimed to take our survivor support work forward during the last months of the TRC and beyond. It also aimed to help develop a model for the empowerment of victims still affected by the conflicts of the past. Although it was designed to eventually work with a variety of groups and institutions, the 1998 programme continued to work primarily with the Khulumani Support Group (KSG).
In 1998 the VESP areas of work included:
Building the capacity of KSG branches in Gauteng
Two fieldworkers conducted over twenty workshops and consultative meetings with the various regional Khulumani branches. These primarily focused on the TRC reparation policy at an educative and informative level, although others were utilised as more general education workshops around the TRC. They were aimed at building the knowledge of Khulumani members so as to enhance the capacity of the group. This was done with reasonable success in 1998, although the capacity of the groups was always constrained by limited resources.
Restructuring the Khulumani Support Group
Extensive work was done to build the capacity of the Khulumani staff and steering committee in order for the KSG to function as an independent and autonomous NGO, and to continue to offer effective services to those who testified before the TRC. The CSVR assisted in this long-term process by assisting Khulumani to draft a constitution for the group and coordinating a network of other NGOs and legal resources to support Khulumani in their transition to independence. We also undertook ad-hoc fundraising assistance to Khulumani to aid their independence. By the end of 1998 the group was in a position to run autonomously and the first new board meeting was due to take place in early 1999. In this sense, the funders who assist the CSVR are not only building an effective organ of civil society working in the reconciliation area, but are playing a crucial role in building other organs like Khulumani, a community-based organisation serving victims of apartheid violence.
Training and self-care for the Khulumani staff
The TRU worked with the CSVR Trauma Clinic to organise further trauma training and subsequent supervision for all the Khulumani office staff and fieldworkers. We also worked with the Trauma Clinic to organise services for Khulumani staff to develop the capacity for self-care, in order to prevent vicarious traumatisation of those who assist others with trauma. This happened several times during the year, but was not as consistent as we had hoped. Supervision and self-care of Khulumani staff will be a major focus in 1999 and as Khulumani stabilises it is anticipated that their staff will be able to attend the self-care and supervision sessions more regularly.
Outreach Programme for Khulumani Groups in Other Provinces
The TRU fieldworkers continued to create and build the capacity of survivor support groups in the Northern, North West and Mpumalanga provinces. Despite the difficulties of this undertaking, due to the distances from Johannesburg, we have continued to provide the crucial link between these outreach groups and the main Khulumani office in Braamfontein. The ongoing informal survivor support process in Gauteng and neighbouring provinces was also continued in 1998. This undoubtedly helped survivors who have minimal resources to interact with the TRC more consistently and opportunely. In 1999 the Khulumani Support Group will appoint a national fieldworker. This person will fulfil some of the CSVR outreach functions and ensure that the groups in outlying areas remain connected to the central office.
The Khulumani play
The Khulumani group has developed a play about their experiences of the TRC and the past. This play has travelled locally and internationally. The TRU community services coordinator assists the group in facilitating educational discussions about the play, and the issues it raises about reconciliation and the TRC in the communities and constituencies where the play is performed. This was done a number of times in 1998. Thloki Mofokeng, the community services coordinator, also traveled to Europe with the play and, after each performance, facilitated discussions about South Africa's reconciliation process with a variety of audiences.
Group counselling, referral and psycho-legal assistance
As part of the TRU's victim empowerment programme, group counselling initiatives happened on a regular basis in some parts of the Gauteng province. This work was done with the assistance of Khulumani's network of service providers. The ultimate aim is to have these initiatives in all the areas where Khulumani groups exist. This will be developed with the assistance of the CSVR Trauma Clinic's training component and the services of the National Trauma Network, and is one of our major targets for 1999.
The TRU has also assisted some KSG members with access to church groups and other support services. This was done through the Evangelical Alliance of South Africa (TEASA). Victims in need were also referred by the CSVR and Khulumani through TEASA to pastors of different churches who take responsibility for certain families or individuals.
In the second half of 1998 the CSVR hosted an American law student who played a key role in identifying and establishing structures to deal with the legal needs of Khulumani members. This entailed building a legal support network of lawyers, law clinics and law students as well as helping Khulumani members who had not been recognised as "victims" by the TRC to appeal this status.
CSVR and Khulumani disappearances project
In the light of the TRC's failure to solve the majority of disappearance cases presented to it, and given that dealing with disappearance is a long-lasting trauma, the CSVR and the Khulumani Support Group initiated a pilot project on disappearances in September 1998. The CSVR-KSG project firstly focused on bringing families and friends of the disappeared in one community (Katlehong) together in order to discuss what further action could be taken in these cases after the TRC. This initiative has laid the basis for a networking and social support group for these families. The Kathlehong pilot group marked the beginning of a larger project that will continue into 1999.
In 1998 it became strikingly apparent that, although the TRC process is ending, the need for reconciliation is ongoing. We therefore spent the year broadening the scope of the TRU beyond TRC-specific intervention and research into the broader areas of violence and reconciliation. In terms of research and policy work this meant, and means, that in future a greater emphasis will have to be placed on a critical evaluation of the impact of the TRC processes on our society as a whole. We need to integrate the lessons learnt into a sustainable human rights culture.
Much of our work focused on evaluating the TRC with the intention of applying its lessons locally and internationally. It is now apparent that the TRC recommendations need to be critically scrutinised as the parliamentary debates on the TRC Final Report begin. Civil society needs to remain active and vigilant in this regard. Therefore a critical focus of the CSVR in 1999 will be the TRC recommendations, and ensuring their implementation.
The other major challenge will be to monitor and ensure the implementation of reparations to victims of gross violations of human rights who appeared before the Truth Commission, and to guarantee psychological, financial and material support for these survivors. It is imperative that the victims of past conflict are mobilised and integrated into current victim empowerment processes.
The Transition and Reconciliation Unit aims to do this in 1999 through consolidating our experience of working with the Khulumani Support Group and various communities in the area of reconciliation. We will be producing a user-friendly and comprehensive reconciliation package, for use in communities and institutions, and to assist localised and ongoing reconciliation work.
The Transition and Reconciliation Unit made use of volunteer graduate students who are funded to do work in South Africa as part of their studies. The names and research topics of interns are listed below.
Wits University Internal Reconciliation Commission
TRC Legal Sector Hearing
Para-Legal assistance to KSG
NGO Poverty Hearings
Reparations and reconciliation - The role of foreign corporations (German) in the South African reconciliation process
Reparations and reconciliation - The role of foreign corporations (German) in the SA reconciliation process
Amnesty Research and Symbolic Reparations
TRC and International law
In 1998 the Criminal Justice Policy Unit (CJPU) continued to work towards strengthening the criminal justice system and making it more accountable, through providing support and training and education for community policing forums, and conducting research pertaining to the Independent Complaints Directorate. At the same time we continued our human rights training and policy work in correctional services institutions. For the first time the Unit expanded its work to include issues related to gender discrimination in the criminal justice system. At the end of the year the Gender Unit successfully raised funds and established itself as an independent unit. However, it will continue to work in close collaboration with the CJPU.
The capacity of the Unit was substantially enhanced through co-operative work with associate researchers, as well as research undertaken on criminal justice issues by our newly appointed Gender Co-ordinator.
The Criminal Justice Policy Unit continued to train police officers in the Vaal and Soweto in community policing, training 92 police officials during this period.
The CSVR was awarded a tender by the Department of Safety and Security to run capacity building training for Community Policing Forums (CPF's) in Gauteng. The tender was awarded to CSVR as the leader in a consortium of NGOs, consisting of IMSSA, Wilgespruit Fellowship Centre, Lawyers for Human Rights, and IDASA. CSVR coordinated the work of the consortium and, together with our partners, we conducted training of community members in Johannesburg, the East Rand, Vaal, Soweto, North Rand, and Pretoria. The CJPU provided training in community policing and crime statistics, while our partners conducted training in legal issues around community policing, conflict resolution, meeting management, leadership and communication.
We continued to offer assistance to CPF's in the Vaal area in the mediation and resolution of disputes, and in October assisted the Vaal Area Board executive to launch their anti-crime campaign. We also lent capacity to the Meyerton CPF and the Hillbrow CPF, and were invited by the Police Training College in Pretoria to train 24 constables in community policing.
A member of the Unit was invited to attend a workshop, "Breaking New Ground", hosted by One World Action and the British Council in London. The workshop explored ways in which civil society in Britain and Third World countries could improve the involvement of communities in local issues.
The CJPU received a request from the Independent Complaints Directorate (ICD) to train ICD staff on race and gender sensitivity issues. The programme was developed with the CSVR Gender coordinator and training commenced in the second half of the year. Five training workshops for a total of 46 people were held with the Johannesburg, Pretoria, KwaZulu-Natal and Western Cape branches of the ICD.
Training on violence against women for members of the Criminal Justice System
This was a collaborative project involving the training wing of the Department of Justice, the Justice College, and other organisations such as the NISAA Institute for Women's Development, the National Institute for Crime and Reintegration of Offenders (NICRO), the National Institute for Public Interest Law and Research (NIPILAR), Tshwaraneng Legal Advocacy Centre, and the CSVR. In December two workshops were held for prosecutors and interpreters, with further workshops being scheduled for the new year.
Human rights training in prisons
In 1997 the CSVR, in conjunction with Lawyers for Human Rights, initiated a one year pilot project aimed at providing prisoners and correctional services personnel with human rights training. The project took place with the cooperation of the Department of Correctional Services, was completed in November, and trained prisoners and correctional officers as human rights trainers. A training manual was produced and training conducted in four prisons in four provinces, Mpumalanga, North West, Free State and Gauteng.
An evaluation of the project was conducted during October, and the results indicate that the project was successful. We hope to expand this project into new prisons in the new year, as well as to provide ongoing support to those persons who have already received training.
A member of the Unit was invited to participate in a workshop on Torture Prevention in the Prisons and Police, run by the International Committee for the Rehabilitation of Torture Victims in Denmark. This provided an opportunity to present the outline and methodology of our training programme at an international forum, and to discuss various approaches to training police and prison officers.
Together with the CSVR Trauma Clinic, a life skills training course was run for young prisoners at the Johannesburg prison, as well as for correctional officers in that section. In a preliminary research process with young prisoners it was found that many young prisoners came from impoverished backgrounds with little or no family structure or support. They had had very little formal education and often found themselves in difficult situations as a result of poor communication, inappropriate problem solving skills, and peer pressure. The workshops were aimed at addressing some of these issues through training the prisoners in basic communication skills, conflict resolution, and problem solving. They also sought to address difficulties arising between correctional officials and inmates. It is envisaged that this work will continue in 1999.
The police, victims and the criminal justice process
The CJPU continued to conduct research on this project which aims to assist in improving the ways in which criminal justice officials work with victims. In Gauteng interviews were conducted with 60 police, prosecutors, magistrates and service providers from the Vaal, Soweto, Randburg and Alexandra. The study is being replicated by our partner from the University of Durban Westville in KwaZulu-Natal. The results of the study will be written and disseminated at the beginning of 1999.
Perspectives on crime prevention by station commissioners in Johannesburg and Pretoria
This project, which examined aspects of crime prevention from the perspectives of police station commissioners in greater Johannesburg, was initiated by CSVR associate Janine Rauch. The study was replicated in Pretoria by IDASA, and research reports were presented at a workshop attended by station commissioners of both areas.
Safer Cities Johannesburg
The Centre was involved in the Safer Cities Johannesburg project, which aims to devise strategies for improving safety in Johannesburg through a host of interventions ranging from policing and environmental design, to victim empowerment programmes. Our role included consultation around and drafting of the Safer City strategy with the police and other groups.
Pretoria Metropolitan Crime Prevention Strategy
CSVR research associate, Janine Rauch, assisted IDASA with the process design, development, and drafting of the crime prevention strategy for the Pretoria Metropolitan Area. The first round of consultative meetings to formulate the strategy was held with key role players.
Public order policing
Janine Rauch and David Storey co-authored a chapter on the policing of crowds for the Truth and Reconciliation Commission publication.
The police as perpetrators of domestic violence
A CSVR research intern conducted an exploratory study on the incidence of domestic violence perpetrated by members of the police on their intimate partners. The study examines the problems experienced by the women when attempting to seek redress from the criminal justice system.
Police Intervention in Domestic Violence
The Centre's Gender coordinator was contracted to conduct research on police intervention in domestic violence. This study, which is being conducted in the Sophiatown and Hillbrow Police Stations, aims to understand domestic violence from the perspective of the police, and to situate this within wider policing practices. The research will be written up early in 1999. It is anticipated that the study will provide a basis for developing appropriate interventions, such as training for the police.
This study aims to compare sentences handed down to men and women convicted of spousal homicide (uxoricide) during 1994 - 1997. Preliminary results have indicated that sentences handed down to women in these cases tend to be harsher than those handed down to men. Court records at the Johannesburg Regional Court and the Johannesburg and Pretoria High Courts are being tracked and analysed to establish sentencing patterns and any gender bias. The study will be concluded in the second half of the year and the results will be available in the new year. A presentation on 'The Legal System and Spousal Killing' was made to the Parliamentary Portfolio Committee on Justice. The paper was endorsed by several other organisations, notably the Tshwaranang Legal Advocacy Centre, POWA, NICRO, FAMSA, and the Maintenance Action group.
Metropolitan survey of women's experiences of gender violence
A study, provisionally entitled 'Woman Abuse in Three Metropolitan Areas: Survivors Speak', has been undertaken in collaboration with the Criminology Institute of the University of Cape Town and the Institute of Security Studies. Fieldwork has been completed and it is anticipated that a report will be available by March 1999.
Deaths in police custody and as a result of police action
Research dealing with deaths in police custody, specifically in relation to the mandate of the Independent Complaints Directorate, continued this year. At the request of the ICD the CJPU led a team of researchers from the Human Sciences Research Council and the Centre for Policy Studies in examining the occurrence of deaths in police custody, or as a result of police action, in Gauteng over a nine month period. This paper is part of a process aimed at developing strategies for the prevention of such deaths.
An invitation to present a paper at the Security Association of Southern Africa (SASA) provided us with the opportunity of updating our work on police corruption. Interviews were held with senior members of the Anti-Corruption Unit to gain insight into current police initiatives, and this has lead to a new police anti-corruption initiative which we are hoping to initiate in 1999.
Correctional Services legislation
The CJPU participated in a workshop hosted by the Human Rights Committee on the new draft Correctional Services Bill. Through legislation the Bill seeks to create a humane correctional system appropriate for a modern society.
The Penal Advocacy Network (PAN) was formed following a workshop on C-Max prisons hosted by the CSVR last year. The network is a coalition of organisations active in human rights and criminal justice. The network meets in Gauteng, where it is convened by the CSVR, and the Western Cape. The PAN also met to discuss the draft Bill after which it made submissions to Parliament, and submitted comments to the Department of Correctional Services on the introduction of the new Privilege System in prisons.Crime and violence in Johannesburg schools
A minor research project to investigate the state of crime and violence in six different schools around Johannesburg was initiated by the CJPU and the CSVR Youth Department. The major part of the research will be conducted in the first half of 1999.
Recent policy initiatives have tended to take into consideration human rights concerns and the needs of victims. However, the enormous pressure placed on the system as a result of increasing levels and severity of crime, public and political pressure on law makers, coupled with severe human and financial resource problems, has meant that the criminal justice system frequently lacks the capacity to deliver according to its objectives.
The challenges for our work therefore not only necessitate making policy recommendations to government institutions, but also looking at practical ways in which the service delivery of the criminal justice system can be enhanced in order to effectively implement such policy. In the policing and justice sector, greater sympathy and political will exists for strengthening structures to render more effective services. However, in respect of dealing with offenders, and given the context of human rights principles and developmental objectives, public outcries for retributive justice often result in less political will to render effective service delivery. The challenge therefore lies in demonstrating, through quality research, that humane interventions for offenders can have a greater impact on recidivism than draconian punishment.
To serve our aim of developing practical initiatives that make an impact on the criminal justice system we conduct our work through a process of field-based and policy research, which translate into pilot interventions to test our findings and recommended approaches. In 1999 we plan to extend our pilot projects to include issues relating to the relationship between victims, witnesses, and agencies of the criminal justice system; improving the contribution that they make to the justice process; and assisting the South African Police Service (SAPS) to develop mechanisms to deal with problems of police corruption.
The Youth Department's work in schools over the past five years has begun to reap rich rewards. In some cases our targeted schools have become islands of safety within conflict-ridden and violent communities. However, in most cases, endemic youth violence, violent crime and domestic violence are still having a tremendously negative impact on schools. This has resulted in racial hatred and violence, as in Vryburg, the death of teachers at the hands of students, and the death of students as the result of gang-related fighting on the school premises. There is a grave concern that children are still not safe from intimidation, serious injury or death, while at school or on their way to and from school. Safety for school students was a concern expressed by students themselves during a CSVR Youth Conference in Soweto in 1997.
The responses from society in addressing the safety of school children has been largely limited to calls for harsher treatment of perpetrators - the reinstatement of the death penalty and longer sentences for convicted criminals. This approach to curbing violence is shortsighted and rooted in panic. Desperately needed are new insights into the causes of this epidemic, and new strategies for making schools safer places of learning. Following on from the Soweto conference, the Youth Department worked the recommendations made by students into a programme of action for 1998. The programme encompasses the "working towards safety in schools" concept, an approach which views schools as springboards of safety for communities.
The Youth Department devised a programme with different components which can be implemented separately. Together these components form a comprehensive community approach to establishing safety in schools.
The Safe Schools Project was initiated in three communities. The history and diversity of the community in relation to issues of crime and violence played an important part in their selection for the project. We continued to use the established 40 Schools Project in Soweto as it provided a solid basis for further project development.
The Safe Schools Project comprises the following components:
The aims of the Safe Schools Project are to:
The Safe Schools approach regards teachers as playing a pivotal role in the driving and sustaining of programmes in schools. Equipping teachers with much-needed trauma management skills to cope with the often overwhelming situations in schools, was successfully carried out. Two teachers in each of the forty schools were trained in trauma management, conflict resolution, and dealing with sexual harassment. Teachers in Tembisa and Mohlakeng (Randfontein) also started to adopt the 40 schools concept, which meant clustering twelve schools in Mohlakeng and working towards clustering 56 schools in Tembisa.
This process enabled teachers to develop strong relationships with teachers from other schools in the neighbourhood. Apart from sharing experiences, resources and providing mutual support, they were able to develop a network of service organisations to draw on when necessary.
Together the Youth Department and the Education and Media Unit developed a video and manual for training teachers in trauma management. This will be used in the training of other caregivers and students in other parts of the country.
Students are one of our most important target groups. In our work with students, safety programmes have on many occasions been identified as a priority. At the abovementioned youth conference in Soweto there was a proposal that students receive basic peer counselling, peer mediation, and leadership skills. Students themselves expressed the need to be active participants in co-driving and shaping the 40 Schools Project.
During school vacations 20 students from each of the ten high schools in the 40 Schools Project received appropriate training. Staff from the CSVR Youth Department offered a peer counselling course, whilst the Independent Mediation Services of South Africa (IMSSA) offered a peer mediation course, and the South African Association of Youth Clubs (SAAYC) ran a leadership course. Thereafter students were expected to work with the teachers who participated in the teacher training and support component. This process did not work out exactly as planned. Enthusiastic students made demands on teachers who were not well prepared to play a supportive role. We arranged meetings with some of the schools to discuss the provision of physical space for the implementation and practice of newly acquired skills.
This year saw the development of a new Alternative to Violence training workshop package. It was felt that previous workshops were limited in their perspectives, and also dealt with issues, like racism, that were not necessarily a priority for students at black township schools. The new package includes issues and needs that were raised and identified in classrooms, as well as shortened versions of the trauma, mediation and assertiveness training modules. This package will be used by guidance teachers in schools when complete (mid-1999).
Parents are key figures of influence in the lives of children. Many parents acknowledge that they were never trained for parenting, that they generally do what they think best, and raise their children the way they themselves grew up. However, our violent society has spawned high incidents of children abused at the hands of their parents. Child abuse has traditionally been understood as sexual abuse and even members of the SAPS Child Protection Unit claim that other, non-sexual forms of abuse are hard to prove in a court of law. For these reasons the Youth Department organised a number of workshops to sensitise parents on issues of trauma, violence and abuse. It was encouraging to receive feedback from teachers noting a marked improvement in their pupils' behaviour after our parents workshops.
The South African Schools Act devolved considerable power to school governing bodies, where parents mostly form the majority. The Youth Department, together with the MEC for Education in Gauteng, Mary Metcalfe, and the 40 Schools committee, embarked on a strategy of working with school governing bodies to formulate a safe schools policy in the absence of any specific policy in the Act. The initial steps included a workshop in September with all chairpersons and secretaries of the governing bodies of the 40 schools, principals, the MEC, and the Youth Department staff. The workshop identified key issues to be incorporated in a safety policy. The process will continue in 1999.
The involvement in the Safe Schools Project of key government departments; Safety and Security, Health, and Education, as well as other NGOs such as IMSSA, SAAYC, SHEP (Sexual Harassment Education Project), and Gun Free South Africa, became critical in trying to achieve maximum impact. This involvement also ensured that the process was owned by all stakeholders, and that competition for turf was minimised. The initiative developed to an extent where the Youth Department was requested to include Safety and Security personnel from the School Monitoring Unit in training workshops. Dealing with difficult cases also became far easier as we received unwavering support from the police.
It was decided not to involve political party groupings in this initiative as this had the potential of dividing people who were active participants in the project. However, Community Policing Forums (CPF's) became a vehicle for reaching out to the community. Towards the second half of the year their involvement gave impetus to the idea of making schools a hub of safety.
All the components of the Safe Schools Project are to be coordinated through safety teams consisting of active members from the four components of the project. Their task is to monitor and drive the Safe Schools Project in their communities. It entails conducting their own needs analysis and isolating those things that make their communities unsafe places. It is expected that a diagnostic report will be one of the products of this initiative. The establishment of safety teams has been earmarked as a priority for 1999.
The impending redeployment and retrenchment of teachers has created a difficult environment as it contributes to feelings of insecurity. In some of the schools that the Youth Department worked in the situation was often tense, and principals and teachers felt that they were in danger. There were no interventions by the Department of Education in this regard; schools were largely left to their own devices. Our staff could do little more than play a supportive role.
The Youth Department formed partnerships with the Ministry of Education, in particular the Culture of Learning and Teaching component, and the Gauteng MEC for Education's office. However, we still had difficulty establishing smooth communication with several district offices. There is a certain amount of tension and confusion regarding the role of NGOs in education. There is also a perception that NGOs duplicate their services or "do not know their place", as they tend to challenge district officers. The trusting relationship that NGOs such as ourselves have developed with schools seems to be regarded with a measure of suspicion.
As our approach falls within the aims of the National Crime Prevention Strategy, we have made contact with the Gauteng MEC for Safety and Security. This relationship needs to be concretised and developed to a point where schools understand the role and involvement of the police in crime prevention.
There are positive indications that our efforts to work towards making schools safe places of learning, will come to fruition. The challenge for 1999 is to consolidate the different components of the project, and put extra effort into those areas that have not been fully developed. We hope that this project will serve as a springboard for a national campaign around safety in schools.
The CSVR Resource Centre continues to cover four main areas of work: the library and institutional memory; the archives, which house all research produced by the organisation since its inception; the sales of CSVR research and educational materials; and the design and maintenance of the CSVR website. We also provide training for CSVR staff on how to use the Internet as a research/networking tool.
After years of being located variously in the CSVR Administration and Education Departments, 1998 finally saw the Resource Centre find a more appropriate base in the Centre's newly established Research Committee. This move is fitting for a number of reasons. Given that the Resource Centre services all departments of the CSVR, it is appropriate that it is located within an interdepartmental forum, rather than within one of the departments of the organisation. This also allows the Resource Centre to remain informed of all of the research projects taking place within the CSVR, and so to remain better informed of the resource needs of the organisation's researchers. It also provides a base from which to formulate and drive fundraising strategies for the Resource Centre, which have now become critical if the Resource Centre is to be able to continue to service the needs of the growing CSVR.
The CSVR library services both staff and the public, from academics and the media, to students and members of community-based organisations and disadvantaged communities. The sale of publications continues steadily, though we continue to charge little more than the costs of duplication in order to make our information available to our clients and target constituencies from disadvantaged communities. A number of international mail orders are generated via the CSVR website.
During the course of the year we took a policy decision to begin to put all but the most recent of the CSVR's research online. This means that eventually all of the Centre's research, with the exception of anything produced in the last two years and still generating a small amount of income, will be available on the CSVR website. A substantial number of papers are already available there. We feel that the small amount of income that we would earn from the sale of these publications will be more than compensated for in the amount of publicity and the advocacy advantages that we will generate by making our research widely available.
The CSVR website also continues to provide a gateway to extensive resources; both to Centre staff and the broader virtual community concerned with issues of violence, crime, reconciliation, human rights, transformation and peace education. For this reason, even though the CSVR is no longer part of Wits University, our website was chosen as the featured site on SunSITE, the Wits server on which our site is located, for the months of November and December 1998. Statistics made available to us by Wits reflect a steady increase in the flow of traffic to the CSVR site, with access to different areas reflecting changing areas of concern. In the month of December for example, when there was a rise in the incidence of family murder in South Africa, traffic to a CSVR research article on the subject doubled.
The CSVR Resource Centre and its website remains an indispensable vehicle for the work of the Centre. The key challenge for the future is to secure independent funding for this vital service, which links us to the best in our field all over the world.
In 1998, the income received by the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation (CSVR) has almost tripled when compared to the preceding year - increasing from an amount of R3,516 million in 1997 to approximately R9 million in 1998. However, this increase reflects only a marginal improvement in the CSVR's ability to attracting domestic South African donor funding support and - in 1998, as in the preceding years - the CSVR remains dependent on foreign donor income. On the other hand, the Centre has begun to make some significant inroads in winning local contracts and tenders, although the financial benefits of this will probably only be noticeable in the course of the 1999 financial year. Indeed, in 1998, the CSVR's consultancy-based income does not match that generated in the previous year. The Centre's expenditure for the year increased by 63%, from R5,075 million in 1997, to R8,281 million in 1998.
Overall, the CSVR's financial position at the end of 1998 is positive. However, despite the substantial growth in the donor income received (and the parallel increase in the CSVR's expenditure), this income has been unevenly attracted to the various CSVR projects and Departments. As a result, there are some departments that are financially more secure than others. However, it is the firm and confident belief of the CSVR Board and management team that all of the CSVR's programmes will ultimately generate the funds necessary for their continued work over the short and medium term. This is because all of the projects and programmes being planned or undertaken by the Centre remain creative and innovative - and are fundamentally important to South Africa's processes of democratisation, reconciliation and transformation.
The CSVR's Core Operating Fund has been unusually well supported during 1998 and, indeed, for the three year cycle to the end of the year 2000. This is essentially due to the generous contributions of ICCO (Netherlands), the Royal Netherlands Embassy and a grant received at the end of the year from the Open Society Foundation (SA). Operating Fund expenditure increased in by approximately 23% in 1998, although the income received almost doubled when compared to the previous year. However this may be slightly misleading because, of all the CSVR's departments, we remain most anxious about the longer term funding prospects in this sector. Growing donor resistance to providing such core support will undoubtedly demand that CSVR consolidates alternative mechanisms for funding our core costs in the years ahead.
Furthermore, the healthy balance left in the Core account at the end of 1998 is also based upon the fact that most of the Core funds were in fact received towards the end of 1998 financial year, with the added consequence that the CSVR spent extremely frugally during the year under review - even temporarily sacrificing some of the activities that were planned for 1998 in the Core budget - until this funding was confirmed. Despite this conservative approach, a job-grading and salary restructuring exercise, coupled with additional recruitment, resulted in a substantial Core salary bill increase. In addition, the CSVR moved into larger offices - and this exercise also involved substantial additional costs.
The CSVR's Education and Media Unit also increased its income significantly during the year under review (by 62%) and the expenditure of this department continued to increase at a rate which outpaced the annual increase in income. However, this trend was anticipated due to the department's increased activities in the capital-intensive enterprise of producing multi-media educational materials. It is also anticipated that this will continue into 1999 Not only was this unit successful in securing substantial donor funding in 1998, but, also won a significant contract with Sport Against Crime (funded by Transnet) to produce a television media series. Although this unit has been quite successful in attracting funds for 1998/9, only limited additional funding has been confirmed for 1999-2000. Further fundraising will therefore be a priority for this Unit in the course of early 1999.
The expenditure of the CSVR's Criminal Justice Policy Unit effectively doubled in 1998 when compared to the previous year, largely due to this Unit attracting dedicated funding for specific projects during the year. Including our Community Policing Training Project and a human rights training project in Prisons. For the period 1999 to 2000, there remains a significant shortfall between the planned budget and the confirmed income for the Unit, but once again, there are strong indications of funding commitments, which will come on line during the course of 1999. In the short term, a substantial grant from the Royal Danish Embassy to conduct research on behalf of the Independent Complaints Directorate, will occupy much of the Units time during the first four or five months of 1999. The acquisition of further funding support will remain a priority for the Unit in the first half of 1999, and we hope to extend the support which we receive from the Irish Embassy, as well as attracting funding support in this sphere from the Ford Foundation (US).
Despite the fact that the level of expenditure in the CSVR's Trauma Clinic increased by 30% in 1998, as in 1997, this department is still operating on substantially less than its budgeted goals. The Clinic remains dependent on limited funding from the Swiss Agency for Development Cooperation, until such time as a prospective grant from the European Union comes through. Should this not occur by mid way through 1999, the Clinic will have to source additional short term bridging funding. It is anticipated that the National Department of Welfare will provide some of this short-term support, and further approaches will be made to the Swiss government in the hope that they will consider extending their support. In the interim, the Trauma Clinic will continue to operate - somewhat vulnerably - to the detriment of its planned expansion.
Expenditure increases during 1998 in the CSVR's Transition and Reconciliation Unit have been somewhat more modest than many of the other departments of the Centre - increasing by just 16% from 1997. However, this Unit has been successful in attracting funding which more than covers these increases. In particular, a new funding contract with the Ford Foundation will be vital to sustaining the work of this Unit through into the year 2000. It is also hoped that the Irish Embassy will continue their support for this unit (the current funding cycle ends in the first half of 1999). The unique dynamism of the Unit has also resulted in substantial commitments to short-term project funding for 1999, in particular from IDRC (Canada), which will substantially enhance the innovative policy research into violence in transition in South Africa.
Expenditure in the CSVR's Youth Department increased by 50% in 1998, when compared to the previous year. This increase in expenditure has been kept very small in proportion to the dramatic expansion of the Department's interventions, activities and advocacy, but nonetheless has precipitated a minor funding crisis in the Department. Although the Department has maintained a funding base which covers its increased expenditure (largely due to the generous donations of Bread For The World (Germany), and the Foreign Commonwealth Office (UK), via the British Council) it has not thus far been able to secure full funding for the levels of activity planned. This has made it difficult for the Department to expand in order to meet the growing demands for our work from both grass-roots communities, as well as from the Department of Education. Raising additional funding for the Youth Department for the period from mid-1999 remains a serious priority.
The CSVR's Gender Unit was established towards the end of 1998, largely due to the support of the Ford Foundation(US). The Unit has already supplemented its income through it ability to attract contract work, but more money will need to be raised if the Unit is to achieve its enormous potential in this vital field. The CSVR's established reputation in this sector, along with the prioritisation which violence against women is now receiving in the country, will undoubtedly assist us substantially in meeting our budgetary goals in the coming years.
Alderton, C, Dissel, A, Garcia, M, Kekana, B & Ngubeni, K
"Life Skills Training Workshop for Juvenile Offenders", Johannesburg Prison (February and March 1998)
Alderton, C, Dissel, A & Garcia, M
"Managing Juvenile Offenders", Johannesburg Prison (14, 19, 26 January, 1998)
Alderton, C & Fisher, C
"Trauma Management Workshop", Child Welfare, Johannesburg (25 July 1998)
"Managing the Use of Force: The Investigative and mental health responses to deaths in police custody or as a result of police action", Technikon SA Conference: Police as victims of trauma and crisis, Technikon SA Conference Centre (25-26 February 1998)
"Victims of Crime", Workshop for Station Commissioners, Centre for Applied Legal Studies (CALS) conference, (1998)
"Automatic Suspects: Some issues in the investigation of deaths in police custody or as a result of police action", CSVR Seminar, Johannesburg (4 November 1998)
"Human Rights Training for Prisoners and Officials in South Africa", at the International Committee for the Rehabilitation of Torture Victims Workshop, Copenhagen, (June 1998)
"Crime and Violence in South Africa: Its impact on victims and perpetrators", Address to the Southern Gauteng Sub-Group Psychiatric Association (14 October 1998)
Fisher, C & Nembahe, M
"Trauma Counselling for Volunteers Workshops", CSVR, Johannesburg (August and September 1998)
Garcia, M & Fisher, C
"Trauma Management in the Classroom", Houghton Primary School, Johannesburg (23 July 1998)
Garcia, M & Kekana, B
"Child Abuse: Detection and management", Save the Children Fund, Swaziland (2-4 June 1998)
Garcia, M & Sacoor, S
"Trauma Management Workshop", Pretoria Mental Health, Pretoria (17 June 1998)
Garcia, M & Godlongton, J
"Victim Empowerment Workshop", SAPS, Rosebank (19 August 1998)
Garcia, M, Nehambe, M & Fisher, C
"Victim Empowerment Workshop", Gauteng Department of Justice, Johannesburg (4 September 1998)
"Trauma Management in the Classroom", Montrose Primary School, Johannesburg (8 September 1998)
"Group Work with Children and Adolescents", (9 September 1998)
"Stress and Trauma Management in Adolescence", Address at World Mental Health Day, Soweto (10 October 1998)
"Working as an Interpreter in Counselling", CSVR volunteer counsellors, Johannesburg (11 December 1998)
Garcia, M, Kekana, B & Spencer, F
"Victim Empowerment Workshop", Gauteng Department of Education, Johannesburg (28 September 1998)
"Reconciliation in South Africa", Truth to Transformation Conference, Parktonian Hotel, Johannesburg, South Africa (21-22 April 1998)
"How Should We Remember? Issues to consider when establishing commissions and structures for dealing with the past", Dealing with the Past: Reconciliation Processes and Peace Building Conference, Holiday Inn, Belfast, Northern Ireland (8-9 June 1998)
"Reconciliation", Ethno-political Warfare Conference, INCORE, Derry, Northern Ireland (29 June - 3 July 1998)
"The South African Scenario", Presentation to the Republican Prisoners, The Maze Prison, Belfast, Northern Ireland (August 1998)
"Building a Culture of Human Rights or a Culture of Impunity? Some reflections on the relationship between truth recovery processes and prevention of future human rights violations", Burying the Past Conference, St Anthony's College, Oxford, U.K. (14-16 September 1998)
"Repairing the Irreparable: Dealing with the double-binds of making reparations for crimes of the past", UK Biennial Conference, Comparisons and Transitions, SOAS, University of London, London, U.K. (14-16 September 1998).
"Evaluating the TRC in a Comparative International Context", Evaluating South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission Conference, Sussex University, Institute for Developmental Studies, U.K. (18-19 September 1998)
"South Africa and the North of Ireland: Peace processes compared", Presentation at the Catholic Institute for International Relations, London (21 September 1998)
"Dealing with the Past: Truth recovery processes and the role of civil society", ECPCR Conference, Belfast, Northern Ireland, (9-15 October 1998)
"Violence and Development", Presentation to the Department for International Development, Belfast Waterfront Hall, Northern Ireland (October 1998)
"Who Pays for Peace? Implications of the negotiated settlement for reconciliation, transformation and violence in a post-apartheid South Africa", Public lecture, Annual General Meeting of the Catholic Institute for International Relations, London Voluntary Sector Resource Centre, London (30 October 1998)
"The Role of Clinical Psychology in Dealing with the Past in SA", Presentation to the Psychology Department, Coleraine Campus, University of Ulster, Northern Ireland (4 November 1998)
"A Psychological Perspective on the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission", Presentation to the Northern Ireland branch of the British Psychological Association, Belfast, Northern Ireland (November 1998)
"Negotiating Violence: Strategies for dealing with the past. South Africa and Other Perspectives", Address to interested delegates of the Northern Ireland Assembly, Stormont Government Buildings, Belfast, Northern Ireland (11 November 1998)
"Impunity", CIIR Conference Comparing Impunity in South Africa, Columbia, East Timor and Burma, CIIR Conference, London (November 1998)
"The Work of the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation", Genocide and Trauma Conference, Hamburger Institute, Hamburg, Germany (December 1998)
"A Psychological Perspective on the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission", Workshop at the Genocide and Trauma Conference, Hamburger Institute, Hamburg, Germany (December 1998)
Hamber, B. & van der Merwe, H.
"What is this Thing Called Reconciliation?" Goedgedacht Farm, Cape Town, South Africa (28 March 1998)
Kekana, B & Garcia, M
"Trauma Management Workshop", Walter Sisulu Centre, Johannesburg (2-4 December 1998)
"Victim Empowerment Workshop", Johannesburg Central Police Station, Johannesburg (10 December 1998)
"Child Abuse and Environmental Awareness", Diepkloof, Soweto (June 1998)
"Workshop on Peer Counselling", Mpumalanga (October 1998)
"Prison Speak Out Workshop", Johannesburg Prison (April 15 1998)
Lebeloane, M & Mdludli, D
"Trauma and Teachers Workshop", Kempton Park (May 1998)
"Teachers and Violence Workshop", Kempton Park (June 1998)
"Youth and Trauma", Soweto (June 1998)
"Peer Counselling Workshop", Kimberly (1998)
"The Role of Education in Societies that are in Conflict", Israel (September 1998)
"Working Towards Safety in Schools", Soweto (October 1998)
Nehambe, M & Garcia, M
"Trauma Management in Emergency Service Work", Benoni Emergency Services, Benoni (12 May 1998)
"The Police as Perpetrators of Domestic Violence", presented at a seminar hosted by the CSVR, Tshwaranang Legal Advocacy Centre, Johannesburg (1998)
"Towards Understanding and Combatting Police Corruption in South Africa", presented at the Southern African Security Association Seminar (October 1998)
"Trauma Support Skills for Emergency Service Workers". Technikon SA, Johannesburg (23 March 1998)
"Multi-Sectoral Victim Empowerment: A pilot project", Business Against Crime Open Day, Johannesburg (24 October 1998)
"Debriefing Skills Training Workshop", CSVR volunteer counsellors, Johannesburg (10 November 1998)
"Trauma and the Role of Play Therapy", CSVR Media Open Day, Johannesburg (11 November 1998)
"Trauma Counselling and Debriefing Workshop", Rockingham Forest Trust Health Authority, United Kingdom (16-18 November 1998)
Robertson, M, Sacoor, S & Garcia, M
"Trauma Support Skills Workshops for Community Based Organisations in Northern Ireland", NICRO, Cape Town and Belfast (April, August, September 1998)
Sacoor, S & Garcia, M
"Victim Empowerment Workshop", SAPS, Rosebank (5 August 1998)
"Victim Empowerment Workshop", SAPS, Alexandra, (16 September 1998)
"Managing Trauma in the Workplace", Traffic Department, Germiston (12 November 1998)
"Tell No Lies, Claim No Easy Victories - A Brief Evaluation of South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission", Conference on Apartheid and the Holocaust, Yale University Law School, New Haven, USA (February 1998)
"A Critical Examination of South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission", Robert F Kennedy Memorial Centre, Washington DC (February 1998)
"Civil Society and the Role of Non-Governmental Organisations in the Transition to Democracy in South Africa", Regional Strategy Conference for Central American NGOs, Oxfam, Antigua, Guatemala (February 1998).
"From Resistance to Reconstruction - Regional Strategies for Violence Prevention andReconstruction: The case of Southern Africa", Regional Strategy Conference for Central American NGOs, Oxfam, Antigua, Guatemala (February 1998)
"Critical Reflections on the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission: Lessons for Central America?", Regional Strategy Conference for Central American NGOs, Oxfam, Antigua, Guatemala (February 1998)
"Understanding Violence in South Africa: Politics, crime and impunity", Sociology Department Lecture to Community Medicine Class, University of the Witwatersrand, Braamfontein (March 1998)
TRU conference presentation (April 1998)
"South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission: Punitive versus restorative justice - listening to the voices of victims of gross human rights abuses", presentation to US Legal Academic Workshop, Lord Charles Hotel, Somerset West (May 1998)
"Evaluating the Truth and Reconciliation Commission: Lessons for other societies in the transition to democracy", paper presented to Foreign Diplomats, the South African International Diplomatic Association (SAIDA), Union Building, Pretoria (June 1998)
"Understanding Violence and Crime in South Africa", Visions in Action Volunteers, Braamfontein, (July 1998)
"Truth and Justice: Punitive justice and the South African TRC process - some challenges for the International Criminal Court", CSVR Monthly Seminar, (August 1998)
"Political and Criminal Violence in South Africa: Origins, impact and manifestations", series of three lectures presented to the Leadership Training Course, SA Defence College, Voortrekkerhoogte, Pretoria (August 1998) This lecture series was repeated twice in the course of the year.
"Law, Crime and Deviance in South Africa: A sociological and historical perspective", Sociology Department Lecture, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (September 1998)
"Victim Empowerment: A crime prevention perspective", talk to Trauma Counselling Volunteer Trainees, CSVR, Braamfontein (October 1998)
"Victim Empowerment Strategies - the Case of Marginalised Youth: Dealing with past trauma and present impunity", presentation to African Traumatic Stress Association Members, University of the Witwatersrand Psychology Department, Johannesburg (October 1998)
"From Reform to Transformation - Non-Governmental Organisations and the Negotiated Transition to Democracy in South Africa: The Truth and Reconciliation Commission as a case study", International NGO Forum on Indonesian Development (INFID) Conference and International Consultation on The Challenge of Democracy, Jakarta, Indonesia (October 1998)
"Critically Evaluating the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission: Some Possible Lessons for East Timor", presentation to East Timor Support Group, Jakarta (October 1998)
"Youth Culture, Politics and Violent Crime: A window on the world of township gangs", presentation to Staff of the Royal Netherlands Embassy, Pretoria (November 1998)
"Youth Crime and Politics: Strategies for crime prevention amongst youth at risk", IDASA Public Seminar, Pretoria (November 1998)
"Politics, Culture and Identity: Listening to the voices of youth on crime and violence", presentation to senior SAPS personnel, Pretoria (November 1998)
"Truth and Reconciliation? - Evaluating South Africa's TRC", presentation to Interfund Staff and Donors, Braamfontein (December 1998)
"Reflections on the Changing Nature of Violence in the Course of South Africa's Transition to Democracy", International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Braamfontein, (December 1998)
"Crime in South Africa - Perspectives from Youth and Government", Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Pretoria (March 1998)
"Youth Attitudes to Crime - A National Survey", Sport Against Crime Executive Committee and Transnet, Johannesburg (July 1998)
"Creating Anti-Crime Messages for Radio and Television", Television and Radio Producers Seminar, Johannesburg (July 1998)
"Crime in South Africa - Where to from Here?", Dutch Embassy, Pretoria (September 1998)
"Reasons for Youth Involvement in Crime", SAfm interview, Johannesburg (September 1998)
"Youth and Crime - Lessons for the Department of Welfare", welfare workers, Johannesburg (October 1998)
"Youth Perspectives on the Criminal Justice System", SAPS Regional Directors, Pretoria (October 1998)
Spencer, F, Garcia, M & Godlongton, J
"Victim Empowerment Workshop", Gauteng Department of Welfare, Johannesburg (24-26 August1998)
Spencer, F & Garcia, M
"Victim Empowerment Workshop", legal volunteers, Johannesburg (7 November 1998)
"Trauma Support Skills for Primary Health Care Nurses", Koos Beukes Community Clinic, Soweto (11 August 1998)
"Trauma Management Skills for Community Psychiatric Nurses", Gauteng Department of Mental Health, Soweto (16 October, 13 November 1998)
van de Merwe, H
"The Capacity of the African Democracies to Manage Conflicts: The TRC as an example of building cultural capacity", UNESCO Meeting, Maputo, Mozambique (July 1998)
"The TRC, Ideology and Social Order", Lecture to Sociology of Law Class, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (November 1998)
"Working with Rape Survivors", Black Sash Advice Officers' Training Sessions (Oct, Nov 1998)
"Legal Strategies for Dealing with Sexual Harassment Cases", Justice College Training Session, Pretoria (June 1998)
"Firearm Feminism", Seminar arranged by the Ceasefire Campaign (June 1998)
"State Structures and Violence Against Women", guest lecture presented to first-year Political Science students, the University of the Witwatersrand (May 1998)
"Some Preliminary Findings of a Pilot Study into Police Intervention in Domestic Violence", South African Sociological Association Congress (July 1998)
"The Gendering of Violence", guest lecture presented to second year Sociology students, the University of the Witwatersrand (August 1998)
"Services for Domestic Violence Survivors in Johannesburg", Jewish Family Services Seminar (August 1998)
"The Psychological Impact Upon Victims of Sexual Harassment", National Gender Conference, National Union of Metalworkers of South Africa (NUMSA)
"Violence against Women", Catholic Diocese of Johannesburg (November 1998)
"Intimate Femicide in South Africa", IDASA seminar organised on behalf of the SAPS (December 1998)
"Conflict Management for Primary Health Care Workers", Institute for Urban Primary Health Care, Alexandra (January 1998)
"Community Level Mediation: Lessons from South Africa", Advanced International Programme on Conflict Resolution, Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University, Sweden (April 1998)
"The Relationship between a Negotiated Political Settlement and Community Conflict Patterns", International Panel on Lessons in Conflict Transformation, Department of Political Studies, Uppsala University, Sweden (April 1998)
"Violence and Reconciliation - The Role of Community Leaders", Community Educators Course - 8 modules, Centre for Continuing Education, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (April - Sept 1998)
Vienings, T, Effendi, K and Mdhluli, D
"Comparing Educational Methodologoes for Intervetnions in Divided Societies", workshop presentation at International Conference on Conflict and Education, Givat Haviva, Israel (October 1998)
"Dealing with the Past", House of Democracy, Berlin (June 1998)
"Rehabilitation-Reconciliation, Coming to Grips with the Past from the Perspectives of Victims", Germany (June 1998)
"Youth and Violence", Nuremberg, Germany (June 1998)
"Dealing with the Past", Institute for International Solidariat, Salzburg/Austria (June 1998) Dealing with the Past, Renner Institute, Vienna (June 1998)
Hamber, B (ed.)
Past Imperfect: Dealing with the past in Northern Ireland and societies in transition. Northern Ireland: INCORE.
Butchart, A, Hamber, B, Seedat, M & Terre Blanche
"From Violent Policies to Policies for Violence Prevention: Violence, Power and Mental Health Policy in 20th Century South Africa". In D. Foster, M. Freeman & Y. Pillay (eds), Mental Health Policy Issues in South Africa, pp. 236-262. Cape Town: Medical Association of South Africa.
"The Past Imperfect: Exploring Northern Ireland, South Africa and Guatemala". In Hamber, B (ed), Past Imperfect: Dealing with the Past in Northern Ireland and Societies in Transition, Northern Ireland: INCORE, pp. 1-12.
"Remembering to Forget: Issues to consider when establishing structures for dealing with the past". In Hamber, B (ed), Past Imperfect: Dealing with the Past in Northern Ireland and Societies in Transition, Northern Ireland: INCORE, pp. 56-78.
"Conclusion: A truth commission for Northern Ireland?" In Hamber, B (ed), Past Imperfect: Dealing with the Past in Northern Ireland and Societies in Transition, Northern Ireland: INCORE, pp. 79-86.
"Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde: Violence and transition in South Africa". In Bornman, E, Van Eeden, R, & Wentzel, M (eds) Violence in South Africa, pp. 349-370. Pretoria: Human Sciences and Research Council.
"Reconstruction and Reconciliation: Emerging from transition", in Eade D, (Ed.) From Conflict to Peace in a Changing World: Social reconstruction in times of transition, Oxfam, Oxford (1998)
"Urban Crime and Violence in South Africa", in Petty C and Brown M, (Eds.) Justice for Children: Challenges for Policy and Practice in Sub-Saharan Africa, pp. 66-71. London: Save the Children (1998)
van der Merwe, H
"Some Insights from a Case Study in Duduza", Truth and Reconciliation Commission Final Report, Vol. 5, Chapter 9, pp. 423-429.
"Frozen Emotions: Women's experience of violence and trauma in El Salvador, Kenya and Rwanda", Development Update, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1998.
Reconciliation in Review (editor), Vol. 1, No. 1, April 1998. Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation.
"Living with the Legacy of Impunity: Lessons for South Africa about truth, justice and crime in Brazil", Latin American Report, Vol. 13, No. 2, July-December 1998, pp. 4-16. Centre for Latin American Studies: University of South Africa.
"The Burdens of Truth: An evaluation of the psychological support services and initiatives undertaken by the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission", American Imago, Vol. 55, No. 1, Spring 1998, pp. 9-28.
Hamber, B & Kibble, S
"Some Truth, Some Justice, Little Transformation: South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission assessed", African Topics, Issue 25, October-November 1998, pp. 15-17.
"An Overview of Rape In South Africa", Continuing Medical Education, (16), pp. 139-142.
Hamber, B & van der Merwe
"Rainbow of Reconciliation", New People, No. 55, July-August, pp. 19-22, 1998.
Syed T and Bruce D
"Police Corruption: Towards a working definition", African Security Review, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1998.
"Inside and Outside the Boundaries of Police Corruption", African Security Review, Vol. 7, No. 2, 1998.
"Working with Northern Donors: A view from the coalface - An interview with Graeme Simpson", Development Update, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1998, pp. 49-59.
Simpson GN and Kraak G
"The Illusions of Sanctuary and the Weight of the Past: Notes on Violence and Gender in South Africa", Development Update, Vol. 2, No. 2 (1998), pp. 1-10.
Theissen, G. & Hamber, B
"A State of Denial: White South Africans' attitudes to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission", Indicator SA, 15(1), Autumn 1998, pp. 8-12.
"Geography and Sexual Violence: Mapping rape in Johannesburg", Development Update, Vol. 2, No. 2 (1998), pp. 11-17.
Towards a Strategy for Prevention: The occurrence of deaths in police custody or as a result of police action in Gauteng, April - December 1997. This report was produced at the request of the Independent Complaints Directorate, 2 July 1998.
How Should we Remember? Issues to consider when establishing commissions and structures for dealing with the past. Occasional paper, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation.
Hamber, B, Maepa, T, Mofokeng, T & van der Merwe, H
Submission to the TRC: Survivors' Perceptions of the TRC and Suggestions for the Final Report, April 1998.
Levin, L, Dewhirst, P & Hamber, B
The use of Evsys for preparing a Human Rights Data Base for presentation to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in South Africa. Occasional paper, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation.
To Protect and Abuse: An exploratory study discussing the police as perpetrators of domestic violence. Paper presented at the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, Seminar No. 4, 4 June 1998.
Crime and Crime Prevention in Greater Johannesburg: The views of police station commissioners. Paper presented at the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, Seminar No. 2, 12 March 1998.
Rauch, J & Storey, D
The Policing of Public Gatherings and Demonstrations in South Africa 1960-1994. This paper was commissioned by the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) Research Unit, May 1998.
A Brief Evaluation of South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission: Some lessons for societies in transition. Paper written prior to the publication of the TRC's Final Report, October 1998.
van der Merwe, H
The South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission and Community Reconciliation. Research conducted with funding provided by the Jennings Randolph Programme of the United States Institute of Peace, October 1998.
van der Merwe, H, Dewhirst, P & Hamber, B
The Relationship between Peace/Conflict Resolution Organisations and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission: An impact assessment. Paper prepared for the International Study of Peace Organisations - SA, funded by The Aspen Institute, 7 October 1998.
"Community Police Forums alone are not the solution to problematic police-community relations", Star, 27 July 1998.
Hamber, B & Lewis, S "Crime's worst horror is all in the mind", Sunday Times, 1 March 1998.
Hamber, B & van der Merwe, H
"What is this thing called reconciliation?" Reconciliation in Review, CSVR Newsletter, Vol. 1, No. 1, April 1998.
"Rainbow of Reconciliation", New People, July 1998, pp. 19-22.
van der Merwe, H
"The TRC as a foundation for reconciliation?" Peace Office Newsletter of the Mennonite Central Committee, 28 July 1998.
"Lack of prosecutions undermines human rights culture", Sunday Independent, 8 Nov 1998.
van der Merwe, H and Kgalema, L
"The Truth and Reconciliation Commission: A Foundation for Community Reconciliation?" Reconciliation International, June 1998.
"The judiciary and husbands who kill their wives", Sunday Times, 26 July 1998.
"Adding up the costs of sexual harassment", Sunday Independent, 9 August 1998.
"War and the making of men and women", Sunday Independent, 16 August 1998.
"Domestic violence, murder and the law", Sunday Independent, 22 November 1998.
"Reporting on rape in South Africa", Women's Media Watch.
"Peace building after civil strife", International Newsletter of the Dept of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsalla Universtity, May 1998.
"The challenge is to change ourselves", Children First, Vol. 2, No. 18, April - May, 1998.
The Police, Victims and the Criminal Justice Process: Towards and integrated approach. Paper presented at the conference, Integrating a Victim Perspective within Criminal Justice. College of Ripou and York, at York, 17-18 July 1998.
Balancing the Load: Prosecutors and detectives and the criminal justice system. Paper presented at the World Conference on Modern Criminal Investigation, Organised Crime and Human Rights. Technikon SA, Sun City, South Africa, 21-25 September 1998.
Hajiyiannis, H, Alderton, C & Robertson, M
Through the doors of the CSVR Trauma Clinic: A view of crime, Paper presented at the International Conference for Crime Prevention Partnerships to Build Community Safety, Johannesburg, 26-30 October 1998.
Hajiyiannis, H & Sacoor, S
Vicarious Traumatisation - Healing the healers, Paper presented at the 5th International Conference for Health and Human Rights - Conflict, Health and Social Reconstruction, Cape Town, 3-6, 1998.
Reconciliation in South Africa, Truth to Transformation Conference, Parktonian Hotel, Johannesburg, South Africa, 21-22 April 1998.
How Should we Remember? Issues to consider when establishing commissions and structures for dealing with the past, Dealing with the Past: Reconciliation Processes and Peace Building Conference, Holiday Inn, Belfast, Northern Ireland, 8-9 June 1998.
Reconciliation, Ethno-political Warfare Conference, INCORE, Derry, Northern Ireland, 29 June-3 July 1998.
Impunity, CIIR Conference Comparing Impunity in South Africa, Columbia, East Timor and Burma, CIIR Conference, London, November 1998.
The Work of the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, Genocide and Trauma Conference, Hamburger Institute, Hamburg, Germany, December 1998.
A Psychological Perspective on the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Workshop at the Genocide and Trauma Conference, Hamburger Institute, Hamburg, Germany, December 1998.
Building a Culture of Human Rights or a Culture of Impunity? Reflections on the relationship between truth recovery processes and prevention of future human rights violations. Paper presented at Burying the Past Conference, St Anthony's College, Oxford, U.K 14-16 Sep 1998.
Evaluating the TRC in a Comparative International Context. Paper presented at Evaluating South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Sussex University, Institute for Developmental Studies, UK, 18-19 Sep 1998.
Repairing the Irreparable: Dealing with double-binds of making reparations for crimes of the past. Paper presented at the African Studies Association of the UK Biennial Conference, Comparisons and Transitions at SOAS, University of London, London, 14-16 September 1998.
Towards Understanding and Preventing Police Corruption in South Africa. Paper presented at the Corruption: The enemy within Conference, Security Association of South Africa (SASA), Midrand, South Africa, 13 October 1998.
van der Merwe, H
The TRC as a tool for Promoting Reconciliation. Paper presented at International Peace Research Association (IPRA) Conference, Durban, South Africa, July 1998.
Competing Conceptions of Reconciliation in the TRC's Interaction with Local Communities. Paper presented at Evaluating the SA's Truth and Reconciliation Commission Conference, Sussex University, UK, 19 October 1998.
|The Inter-Generational Legacies of Trauma||Dr Yael Danieli|
|Crime and Crime Prevention in Greater Johannesburg: The views of police station commissioners||Janine Rauch|
|Trauma and Change: A gendered perspective||Marie McNiece, Ester Mujawayo, Henrietta Shannon & Tecia Wanjala|
|To Protect and Abuse: An exploratory study discussing intimate partners of police as victims of domestic abuse||Jennifer Nix, Lindsay Breslin, Barbara Hechter & Thulani Nkosi|
|Prison Speak: Anti-Crime Drama||Bongani Linda|
|Doing Justice? The South African TRC and international law||Chrissie Hart, Graeme Simpson & Russel Ally|
|Beyond the Constitution: Building a culture of human rights in schools||Tracy Vienings, Glynis Clacherty & Peter Esterhuysen|
|Hola! AsiCamtheni, Magents (Let's talk, Magents)||Lauren Segal, Joy Pelo & Pule Rampa|
|The Role of Monuments in Building Reconciliation||Dr Margaret Mojapelo & Mario Saino|
|The Independent Complaints Directorate (ICD) and the Investigation of Deaths in Police Custody or as a Result of Police Action||David Bruce & Venitia Govender|
P O Box 30778, Braamfontein, Johannesburg, 2017, South Africa
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Trauma Clinic Telephone:
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+27 (11) 403-3256