The growth, achievments, expertise and creative energy of the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation would not have been possible without the extraordinary generosity and commitment of our many partners and donors. The following is a list of those who provided such support for our work over the year. We once again take this opportunity to express our gratitude and appreciation for the confidence they have shown in our vision and in our work.
1999 has been another extraordinary year for the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation (CSVR). During the year, the organisation has grown, innovated and challenged the boundaries of NGO work within our sector in South Africa - and beyond our borders. Once again this has been based upon the sustained commitment of three key groups who are responsible for the creative endeavours reflected in this Annual Report - and to whom I must therefore pay tribute:
On these solid foundations, CSVR enters a new and challenging millennium in the year 2000. Nowhere are the looming challenges more explicit than in the tricky enterprise that NGOs increasingly face in managing a "creative and critical partnership" with government in the context of a public moral panic about violent crime that is associated with a popular backlash against our embryonic human rights dispensation. These difficulties are exacerbated by an incomplete transition in which government institutions are slow to transform themselves and in which the entrenched, racially-based inequalities left by Apartheid have still not been adequately redressed except at the formal political and constitutional level.
The dilemma confronting NGOs such as CSVR is embodied in the fact that just days into the new century, an ANC Minister of Safety and Security was threatening to suspend the Constitution if necessary, in order to fight violent crime. In the course of 1999, the Minister had also attracted controversy by publicly encouraging SAPS members to "bloody the noses" of criminals before they even reached the police cells. He had also made clear his opposition to proposed amendments to Section 49 of the Criminal Procedure Act, which would restrict the use of lethal force by the police. Even if this sort of approach to criminal justice has little or no impact on the crime rate, it's danger lies in the fact that it feeds off and - in turn - reinforces popular sentiment.
Even the former Minister of Justice, Dullar Omar, a stalwart of the human rights movement in South Africa, became embroiled in this approach. As a substitute for dealing with incompetent magistrates (who grant bail as a matter of course instead of properly exercising their discretion), Omar drafted a severe new bail law. In so doing, he virtually endorsed junior judicial officers' eccentric interpretation of the Bill of Rights as suggesting that all suspects must be given bail. Worse still, that flagship of South Africa's constitutional democracy, the Constitutional Court, upheld the legislation.
Prior to the bail laws, South Africa's Constitutional Court had approved the National Unity and Reconciliation Act, which not only gave birth to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC), but which also approved a conditional amnesty for Apartheid's gross violators of human rights. Without disputing that this was "a compromise necessary to serving South Africa's democracy", one must presume that the Justices of that Court are at least a little embarrassed by government's complete failure to deliver on any of its promises of reparation for the victims and survivors who have thus been denied their rights of access to justice. Such an amnesty without reparation creates the distinct impression of impunity.
It is also somewhat hypocritical for those (primarily white) beneficiaries of Apartheid who remain silent about the non-delivery of reparations to Apartheid's impoverished victims, to be so vocal in decrying the lack of respect which criminals have for the Bill of Rights or the justice system. It is even worse when they ostensibly do so in the name of victims of crime. One simply cannot fail to appreciate the irony of authorizing a sense of impunity by reference to political necessity on the one hand, but railing endlessly about its inevitable consequences for non-effective criminal justice on the other.
It is this relationship between how we deal with the past on one hand, and how this relates to concerns over current and future justice in South Africa on the other, that lies at the heart of the transitional justice endeavour which is so central to CSVR's role.
This is not an abstract debate. The Independent Complaints Directorate (ICD) reported that in 1999, as many suspects were dying in police custody or as a result of police action, as was the case in 1985 - at the height of Apartheid's State of Emergency. The only difference is that it is criminal rather than political suspects who are bearing the brunt of this "over-zealousness". Yet when the ICD made these observations and when Dr Barney Pityana (head of the Human Rights Commission) complained that South Africa's human rights dispensation was under threat, Minister Tshwete's retort was that "human rights organizations are hallucinating."
Worse still, this approach suggests that it is South Africa's human rights regime that is responsible for the current crime wave, rather than the obvious deficiencies in the criminal justice system itself. The compromise to our human rights record and to the integrity of our integrated criminal justice system hardly seems worth the singular benefit of knee jerk public approval.
Perhaps these are problems that inevitably confront any fledgling democracy seeking to build an embryonic culture of human rights. It certainly places non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in a difficult position. Either they are cast as partners to government in the fight against crime, or as opponents due to their defence of human rights in the context of government's retreat from its constitutional guarantees in the name of the self-same crime-fighting endeavour. But NGOs such as CSVR are committed to transformation of criminal justice institutions, whilst at the same time being sensitive to the dilemmas and difficulties associated with policing in such a climate. We are also committed to a hard-hitting, targeted approach to the scourge of crime, but remain equally determined to achieve this within the boundaries of the human rights regime we hold dear - and subject to the overriding concern that short term enforcement strategies are worth very little without medium and longer term prevention strategies.
The CSVR, like most fellow NGOs in the human rights sector, remains committed to creative partnership with government in these endeavours, but we are equally protective of our independent role as watchdogs of South Africa's human rights dispensation. We ought not to be forced to make a false choice between the constitution and order in our new democracy. Yet if the trajectory of government's approach to these issues of justice continues to unfold in the manner recently suggested, then the tension between our roles as partner to government on one hand, and independent critic on the other, may become more and more difficult to reconcile. We cannot stand by whilst suspects are abused in police cells, nor can we simply watch as government reneges on its fundamental responsibility to provide reparations for survivors of past human rights abuse.
Despite this, much of the work of CSVR outlined in this report shows that there are remarkable opportunities to build creative public-private partnerships with government in various sectors. One such vital area for the future must be in dealing with entrenched racism and gender prejudice - which remain a dominant human rights concern in our society as we face the new century. However, many of the governmental and non-governmental initiatives that have appropriately identified this obvious and enduring problem have, however, conveniently dealt with the issue only at an ideological level. In some respects, the problem has been unwittingly exacerbated by a Truth and Reconciliation Commission process, which primarily dealt with the challenges of reconciliation by reference to political parties and political responsibility for past human rights violations. The unwitting consequence is that a politically driven transcript of our past may ironically serve to undermine race and gender as self-explanatory causal factors which lay at the root of much of the human rights violations of the past - and which consequently still dominate the unequal relationships in our society.
The problems associated with enduring racism in our society, are too easily used as an ideological retreat in the face of economic empowerment strategies that have largely failed to provide the anticipated "trickle down" benefits for the majority of black South Africans. There cannot be a more important or fundamental task than dealing with the legacies of race and gender-based prejudice in South African society. However, this must be about redress of historically entrenched inequities - which are social and economic, rather than merely political or ideological.
On the funding front, CSVR faces the new millennium with a combination of confidence and trepidation. On one hand we are most fortunate in our ability to rely on the sustained commitment and generosity of a broad base of foreign donors and partners - both governmental and non-governmental. This means that most of the Centre's projects and programmes are reasonably secure for the next two years. However, the core funding of the organization will undoubtedly be vulnerable from the end of 2000. Furthermore, despite the strides made by the organization in seeking to evolve an income generating capacity during the past year, many of our most creative programmes which minister to marginalized and impoverished South Africans will remain substantially dependent on donations. The challenges that we face over the next two years therefore demand the following of CSVR:
In the face of all these challenges, we must remain honest and self-critical in the evaluation of our strengths, our weaknesses and our contributions. In these respects at the very least, we are ready.
The effective management of CSVR's human resources continues to play a key role in developing our effieciency and effectiveness as an employer and therefore as a developer of people. The talented and dedicated staff of CSVR is clearly the organisation's greatest resource and despite budgetary limitations, CSVR has sustained it's commitment to staff development and training throughout the year.
During 1998 Human Resources focused on introducing and implementing performance management systems, restructuring the job grading system, streamlining recruitment and selection procedures and developing an internal pay-roll system. 1999 has seen the further refinement and upgrading of these systems and the embedding of the Human Resource function within the organisation.
CSVR embarked on a number of new projects in 1999 which have required an expansion in the number of staff employed. Staff numbers reached a total of 43 with a further 14 contractual staff members employed on various projects. CSVR is an internationally sought after internship placement and requests for placements are steadily increasing. In 1999 the Centre hosted 15 interns from local and international institutions and organisations. Human Resources will introduce a streamlined system for screening internship applications and aims to promote professional standards and quality supervision with regard to internship placements.
The Ford Foundation made funds available to employ two South African interns in 1999. Mzi Lwandle Memeza worked directly under TRU Coordinator, Brandon Hamber. He assisted with the research work of the Coordinator and was also assigned some independent projects which were treated as developmental. Due to the success of the appointment, he will move into other CSVR projects in 2000 as a fully-fledged researcher. Collet Ngwane worked in the Gender Unit, and it is expected that she will continue to work in this area during 2000. The Centre is committed to offering placements to South African students and strategies will be adopted to meet this commitment in 2000.
The Centre has recognised the need to manage diversity in the workplace in order to ensure a healthy and productive working environment in which all employees feel respected and valued. Over the past year a consultative process has been engaged in with all staff on diversity issues. With the expansion of CSVR, the Human Resources Manager will ensure that diversity is managed within the workplace by engaging in processes of recruitment and selection which take into account social demographics of the country and which meet standards of employment equity. Funding is being sought to support a sustainable and continuous diversity programme within the Centre.
A key component of CSVR's human resource management strategy over the past year has been to invest substantially in staff development and training. In part, the Centre's income-generation projects, undertaken under the auspices of the Sustainability Programme, have helped to supplement the budget in this endeavour. Numerous CSVR staff members were sent on Life Skills training, various computer courses, report and proposal writing courses and internal training was undertaken regarding research ethics. A number of CSVR staff were also funded to attend conferences, seminars and workshops as part of their staff development.
Particular attention was also given to upgrading the skills of CSVR's managers. Following the performance management training which managers underwent in 1998, further training was provided in Work Progress, Supervisory Management and Project Management, as well as technical training for the Financial Management team in order to enable them to administer CSVR's payroll internally.
The Human Resources Manager will continue to implement an organisational development programme which promotes training and development in a range of areas and which offers creative career pathing opportunities.
Personal Assistant to Director
Laureen Bertin (January - June 1999)
Jennifer Harris (June onwards)
Amber Mashiane - Manager
Morris Letsoalo - Bookkeeper
Nomdenni Nyembe - Accounts Clerk
Shamila Singh - Manager
Bella Montsho - Receptionist
Pule Rampa - Messenger
Mosima Selemela - Office Assistant
Mary Robertson - Manager
Sherbanu Sacoor - Training Coordinator
Frances Spencer - Psychiatric Nurse
Cathy Fisher - Psychologist
Ruksana Christian - Psychologist
Marivic Garcia - Social Worker
Boitumelo Kekana - Social Worker
Sophie Mulaudzi - Receptionist
Mpho Matlhakola - Administrator
Truth and Reconciliation Unit
Brandon Hamber - Manager
Tlhoki Mofokeng - Project Manager
Hugo Van Der Merwe - Project Manager
Elias Maepa - Community Facilitator
Polly Dewhirst - Researcher
Carnita Ernest - Researcher
Mpho Leseka - Researcher
Phumeza Mafani - Researcher
Jeffrey Ndumo - Researcher
Sibusiso Ntuli - Researcher
Lazarus Kgalema - Junior Researcher
Najwa Davids - Administrator
Violence and Transition Project
Piers Pigou - Senior Researcher
Goodwill Ditlhage - Researcher
Sasha Gear - Researcher
Bronwyn Harris - Researcher
Tebogo Mafokoane - Researcher
Nokuthula Skhosana - Researcher
Education and Media Unit
Tracy Vienings - Manager
Lauren Segal - Senior Researcher and Producer
Karima Effendi - Educational Specialist
Yvette Geyer - Senior Educationalist
Caron Kgomo - Senior Administrator
Criminal Justice Policy Unit
Amanda Dissel - Manager
David Bruce - Senior Researcher
Gareth Newham - Researcher
Kindiza Ngubeni - Community Facilitator
Dorothy Mdhluli - Manager
Wandile Zwane - Project Manager
Mosely Lebeloane - Social Worker
Alice Kgotleng - Trainer
Lisa Vetten - Gender Specialist
Joy Dladla - Researcher
Janine Rauch - Senior Consultant
Jonny Steinberg - Senior Consultant
Davina Cohen - Gender Unit
Susanna Chung - Criminal Justice Policy Unit
Carla Commijs - Youth Department
Algunde Corthouts - Criminal Justice Policy Unit
Tanya Goodman - Transition and Reconciliation Unit
Helen Hajiyiannis - Trauma Clinic
Crispian Kirk - Transition and Reconciliation Unit
Mzi Lwandle Memeza - Transition and Reconciliation Unit
Tshepo Nche - Youth Department
Collet Ngwane - Gender Unit
Gabriel O'Malley - Transition and Reconciliation Unit
Pranesh Ramjith - Administration (IT)
Maria Saino - Transition and Reconciliation Unit
Andrea Schelz - Transition and Reconciliation Unit
Fabienne Tailleur - Gender Unit
CSVR's Trauma Clinic offers trauma management, victim empowerment and support services through direct service delivery, training and capacity building, community education, research and advocacy. Services are offered by a multi-disciplinary team of psychologists, social workers, psychiatric nurse specialists, training experts and volunteer counsellors.
1999 has been a challenging and demanding year for the Trauma Clinic during which the workload has expanded in size and scope.
Counselling and Debriefing
Counselling services continued to represent a key pillar of the Clinic's work with a total of 891 clients referred during 1999. Services provided to clients included trauma counselling, play therapy, psychiatric assessment and management, court preparation for children, family and group debriefings, parent counselling, psycho-education and longer term psychotherapy. The first point of contact for Clinic clients was receptionist Sophie Mulaudzi, who won the Katlego award in 1999 in recognition of her efficiency.
As in the previous year, the client population was primarily made up of survivors of criminal violence, domestic violence, rape, child abuse and human rights violations. As a result of work undertaken with the refugee community, there has been an increase in the referral of refugees requiring trauma interventions.
The clinical team expanded in 1999 with a sessional psychiatrist, Dr Subramaney, joining the Clinic. This has led to the provision of a more comprehensive service and has increased the Clinic's capacity to respond effectively to the needs of clients, particularly children and the traumatically bereaved. Case management has improved as a result of regular supervision for all staff, case conferences and improved Clinic procedures. These developments have enhanced levels of professionalism and service excellence within the Clinic.
During 1999 Trauma Clinic outreach activities primarily focused on children and refugees as vulnerable communities. Boitumelo Kekana has continued to provide a service to Zamokhule, a child abuse clinic in Soweto. Training and supervision has also been provided to primary health care practitioners in Soweto dealing with child abuse.
Marivic Garcia and Frances Spencer have been instrumental in developing work with refugee communities in Gauteng. The Clinic is currently involved in an ad-hoc committee which supports the efforts of the Coordinating Body for Refugee Communities. A needs assessment has been conducted with women in a Somali refugee community. This community and the Clinic are currently working together to determine how the clinic can best respond to their needs. In collaboration with Lawyers for Human Rights (Netherlands), the Clinic has trained officials from the Department of Home Affairs on interviewing skills for refugee applicants.
The CSVR Trauma Clinic has also engaged in outreach activities for victims of past human rights violations. This has largely been through developing our relationship with the Khulumani survivor support group. Target areas for these interventions are the Vaal and East Rand. During 1999, an audit of services on the East Rand was completed and a programme to train group facilitators and field workers in the Vaal was initiated. The Trauma Clinic offered debriefing, supervision, training and counselling services to Khulumani staff and members.
The Trauma Clinic has remained involved in advocacy relating to child abuse and victim empowerment by participating in the national victim empowerment reference team, provincial victim empowerment fora and assisting with the development of child abuse protocols for care-givers. The Clinic won the NICRO Community Safety Award for Victim Empowerment in 1999 for the significant contribution it has made in the area of victim empowerment and healing in South Africa.
Training and Capacity Building
Training continued to be the major area of growth in Clinic activities during the year. Staff delivered a total of thirty-two training workshops in trauma management and victim empowerment. Recipients of this training included national and provincial government departments such as Health, Welfare, Home Affairs, and South African Police Services, as well as corporate clients, churches, NGOs and community organisations. A workshop was also provided for a local health authority in the United Kingdom.
Due to a steady increase in demand, a training coordinator, Sherbanu Sacoor, was appointed. She has worked closely with administrator, Mpho Matlhakola, in professionalising our approach and in identifying new areas for future training.
During the past two years the Clinic has embarked upon a strategy of training frontline workers such as nurses, police personnel, emergency workers, criminal justice officials and social workers. They are frequently the first point of contact for survivors of violence and in many cases may be the sole service providers in certain communities. Frontline workers who are well trained and adequately supervised can play an essential role in managing traumatic stress within communities, thereby reducing the likelihood of secondary traumatisation. This can contribute substantially to building capacity to respond to the many survivors of violent crime and trauma within South Africa.
The South African Network of Trauma Service Providers (SANTSEP) was awarded a tender from the National Department of Health for trauma management and victim empowerment training. Clinic staff worked together with SANTSEP partners in training 240 primary health care practitioners in eight provinces in South Africa. This project provided valuable opportunities for establishing networks with rural and inadequately resourced communities. Requests for further training and supervision within these provinces have emerged from this work.
Volunteer Counselling Programme
The Clinic continued its volunteer counselling programme in 1999, training fifteen new volunteers who assist with trauma counselling, client intake and switchboard relief. They play a critical role in boosting our capacity to respond to client referrals and to offer counselling in most official languages.
As in previous years, students from the University of the Witwatersrand were based in the Clinic as part of their course requirements. A third year social work student completed her practical placement in the Clinic as did Masters level clinical psychology students. During the year, students met clients at the Clinic rather than at the University as had previously been the case. This has led to improved integration of the students into Clinic programmes and a more productive relationship with the University. In addition, a research psychologist, Helen Hajiyiannis, completed part of an eighteen-month research psychology internship in the Clinic this year.
In keeping with the aims set for the Trauma Clinic in CSVR's 1998 Annual Report, 1999 saw the expansion and consolidation of the Clinic's research capacity. Information and record-keeping systems were updated and improved and ethical guidelines for Clinic research were developed. A total of six research papers were written for presentation at international conferences. In addition, two evaluative research projects were undertaken. The first was an evaluation of a training programme, and the second was an evaluation of a psychosocial support programme in Rwanda. Staff have been actively engaged in narrowing the gap between research and clinical interventions. Furthermore, students from the University of the Witwatersrand have also completed research in the Clinic under the supervision of Clinic staff.
In January 1999 the Trauma Clinic hosted a conference, "Traumatic Stress in South Africa: Working Towards Solutions". Guest speakers included leading trauma experts from around the world. The conference focused on addressing key issues pertaining to working with trauma in South Africa such as cross cultural relevance, dealing with youth and children, the relationship between trauma and restorative justice, brief therapeutic interventions, coping with secondary traumatic stress and responding to crime. This conference was made possible by the support of Bread for the World, ABSA and South African Airways.
This event provided valuable opportunities for establishing networking links with trauma experts in Africa and other parts of the world. Many of these links were extended when Trauma Clinic staff participated in trauma conferences in India and Turkey.
Clinic manager Mary Robertson devoted substantial time to working together with partners on the development of the South African Network of Trauma Service Providers (SANTSEP) which was legally constituted in 1999. A proposal to the European Union was finalised and work plans were formulated. The Department of Welfare allocated a grant of R1.4 million to the Network and member organisations. This, together with tenders awarded to the Network, indicates government recognition of SANTSEP as a leader in the trauma sector and points to a commitment to its goals.
The Network consolidated a successful working relationship through joint delivery of a training tender awarded by the National Department of Health. This provided the first opportunity for Network members to share skills and knowledge by working together on the development, delivery and evaluation of a large scale training project. Through this process partners have begun to develop a common vision of victim empowerment and training methodology. A further tender has been awarded to the Network by the Department of Health for pilot interventions in schools in three provinces, a project which will also involve CSVR's Youth Department in the coming year.
The development of the Network represents an exciting new chapter in the history of the Clinic and the trauma sector in South Africa.
Staff Self-Care and Development
Since the implementation of a structured programme of staff self-care and development, there has been a reduction in staff turnover and burn-out within the Clinic. The programme includes supervision, staff debriefing, massage therapy, monitoring of caseloads, staff training and development. The recruitment of additional sessional workers to the team has reduced the client load on full time staff.
In the year 2000 the Clinic looks forward to consolidating its work into key project areas which include clear objectives regarding research, intervention and advocacy. The Clinic aims to be proactive in marketing its services and in defining its contribution to the sector, thereby maintaining its position as a centre of expertise and best practice in the field.
The Education and Media Unit (EMU) has developed extensively over the last three years from being a small unit producing materials to support CSVR workshops, to a fully fledged production unit which produces high quality, professional, multi-media educational products for a national audience. Tracy Vienings manages the Unit, Lauren Segal is a senior researcher and producer and Yvette Geyer is an educationalist with extensive training skills. The Unit's capacity to develop substantial multi-media products has been enhanced by the extensive use of contract staff. Caron Kgomo is the Unit administrator who ensures the efficient coordination of a number of large and diverse projects. She will become increasingly involved in the marketing and distribution of the Unit's products. Karima Effendi also worked in the Unit in 1999, before leaving to pursue a career in the film industry.
Multi-Media Educational Interventions
In 1998 EMU launched the East Side Project, a multi-media intervention designed to focus on human rights issues among students at secondary school. The project was conducted in a number of inter-related phases spanning 1998 and 1999. Research was undertaken using focus groups in Model C and township schools in Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal and the Western Cape. The research revealed that students had a scant understanding of the meaning of human rights on a personal and interpersonal level. Although many students were able to cite examples of being discriminated against, the majority also expressed their own prejudices and discriminatory attitudes. In the Model C school context it was especially apparent that there was a high degree of racism amongst students. The team decided to focus on this aspect of a human rights culture in its intervention.
The researchers and a group of scriptwriters constructed a story that would encompass the many dimensions of racism and discriminatory practices at an average Model C school, without excluding the township experience. CSVR entered into a co-production agreement with SABC Education to produce the scripts in six 15-minute television episodes to be screened as part of the youth programme Take 5. The Shooting Party was employed to run the drama production and a cast of young and talented actors was chosen to bring the scripts to life. The series East Side was produced over three months with more than sixty people working on different aspects of the production.
East Side was screened on Take 5 to an audience of up to 500 000 viewers. CSVR and SABC Education organised three half-hour television talk shows that ran concurrently with the screening of East Side after the screening of each episode of the drama. These talk shows raised the central themes of discrimination, institutional racism and ideas for youth action in schools.
In addition, an East Side competition was launched at the end of each episode. Each week over 800 callers phoned into the SABC to enter the competition, which suggests a consistent audience for the series. The vast majority of callers rated the series as "excellent" or "very good".
A team of writers created the East Side magazine, a learning resource for youth aimed at deepening the impact of the drama series. The magazine was distributed to over 11 000 high schools through the SABC's Education Pack for schools. The magazine also appears on the SABC Education web site.
For the purposes of evaluation, focus groups were set up in a Model C school and in a township school in order to observe the responses of students watching the series. A structured discussion guide allowed the students to discuss their perceptions of each episode and the relevance of the issues raised in the series to their own lives. This research formed the basis of a snapshot evaluation of the series. The following are some of the quotes taken from the evaluation concerning what students liked about the series:
Students indicated that they learned the following from East Side:
The East Side project greatly enhanced the internal capacity and skills of the multi-media team and brought a new confidence in producing educational dramas with accompanying print campaigns. In addition, it increased the profile of the Centre in schools and on South African television.
Sport Against Crime
At the beginning of 1998, CSVR was commissioned to research and produce a television series and print material to support the Sport Against Crime campaign which was launched by the Department of Sports and Recreation and a marketing company, Makwetla, Cathrall & Associates. The project has continued to develop throughout 1999.
The Sport Against Crime media campaign had three main objectives. The first objective was to create appropriate public awareness around crime. The second objective was to demonstrate to youth the real alternatives to a life of crime. Sport was promoted as a way of building community spirit, encouraging team activities and learning leadership skills. Sporting personalities were used in media inserts as positive role models for the youth. The third objective was to use the television inserts and print material as well as other campaign activities to support services and sporting programmes on the ground. The campaign has been a successful vehicle for channelling youth into positive, life enhancing programmes.
The production of the inserts involved a detailed research process coordinated and driven by Lauren Segal. Workshops were held with: youth in schools and in community centres in different areas of Gauteng, youngsters who are involved in crime, a group of twenty long term prisoners in Johannesburg Central Prison; and experts from the criminal justice system and crime reporters. The workshops provided a fascinating insight into why people commit crime and how perpetrators and ordinary citizens perceive potential solutions to the current crime wave. They also formed the basis for the development of the scripts for the television inserts. In addition, the workshop findings have been written up into a research report which has been widely distributed to an academic audience. In order to reach a wider audience, newspaper and magazine articles have also been published. The inserts were first screened on national television in September 1998, with screenings continuing into 1999, mainly during prime youth viewing times.
A radio campaign was launched at the same time as the television series and played on eleven radio stations across the country, and a comic produced in collaboration with the Centre featured in the Saturday edition of The Sowetan.
The Sport Against Crime campaign afforded the EMU the opportunity to embark on a high profile public education campaign around crime in South Africa. The 52-part series also provided a unique opportunity to develop this Unit's working relationship with SABC Television and provided unique access to the national broadcaster. The team gained considerable expertise in creating popular messages for a mass audience and insights were also gained into the synergy between television, radio and print. The follow-up series of Sport Against Crime, expected in 2000, will allow the team to further refine these skills, placing us at the forefront of anti-crime messaging in this country.
Building Safe Schools
In partnership with CSVR's Youth Department, the Education and Media Unit has contributed to a number of initiatives aimed at making schools places of safety, free from violence and crime.
The Building Safe Schools Series
In conjunction with the Youth Department, the EMU has developed three exciting new resources for building a safe environment at our schools. Based on intervention and research work conducted by the Youth Department, the EMU has designed three manuals to target various stakeholders within the education system. The manuals are: How to Develop a Safety Policy for your School; How to Manage Trauma in the Classroom (accompanied by a training video) and How to do Peer Counselling. These educational materials break new ground in that they speak to the target group in their voice, not only through the language used, but also through the holistic nature of the visual package.
Working with the Education Ministry
Tracy Vienings of the EMU together with CSVR Director Graeme Simpson and the Youth Department, designed and facilitated a strategy development process for the National Education Ministry's COLTS (Culture of Learning and Teaching Services) Department, which was conducted in all nine provinces with senior school managers and principals. The workshops aimed to kick start provincial plans to make schools places free from crime and violence and assisted the provincial departments to develop local level action plans to fit into a national No Crime in Schools campaign. CSVR produced two analytical reports for the National Department of Education based on these workshops and strategic plans.
Radio Metro Inserts
In support of the television series Yizo Yizo, which was broadcast by the SABC as a drama series to engage youth and parents in the issues of crime and violence in schools, the Centre produced eight radio inserts for Radio Metro on the themes raised in the TV series. Themes such as date rape, bringing weapons to school and corporal punishment were aired with time for listener phone-in.
Reconciliation and Conflict Management
1999 saw the completion of Phase Two of the Alexandra Dialogues Project, which was the filming of four diarists in Alexandra. The diarists told their stories of how, before the violence in 1992, they had experienced Alexandra township as a happy and united community. When violence broke out in 1992, chiefly between IFP hostel dwellers and ANC township residents, each diarist was affected differently by the violence. The diarists also spoke of their involvement in reconciliation and peace building and in learning to live with loss and pain. The film will be edited in 2000, shown to the different communities in Alexandra and followed by workshops on reconciliation. It is also hoped that this unique film, documenting the complex and often incomplete process of building reconciliation, will be screened on national television.
Field Diplomacy Initiative (FDI) Belgium
Tracy Vienings of the EMU was invited to contribute a chapter to an international field book for practitioners working with violence, reconciliation and conflict management on an international and community level. The book will be published by International FDI in Belgium.
United Nations Early Warning and Preventive Measures Project
Tracy Vienings became a credited United Nations Trainer in Early Warning and Preventive Measures. She has been contracted by the UN to deliver a number of training courses in various countries over the next few years.
Evaluating Multi-Media Educational InterventionsEvaluation of Yizo Yizo
Yizo Yizo, SABC Education Television's thirteen-part, prime time television drama series, revealed what happens in township schools and how this affects learners, teachers, parents and the learning process itself. The television series was closely linked with the Department of Education's Culture of Learning and Teaching Services campaign and was intended to support that campaign by raising viewers' awareness of its aims and objectives. The drama series was broadcast between 3 February and 28 April 1999.
Following the end of the series, SABC Education commissioned an evaluation of Yizo Yizo to determine its value and impact. The evaluation was carried out over a three month period between May and August 1999. CSVR formed part of a consortium of four organisations which joined forces to undertake this task. The other organisations were Coordinated Management Consulting (Pty) Ltd, Helene Perold & Associates cc and The South African Institute for Distance Education.
Lauren Segal's work on this evaluation of Yizo Yizo afforded the Centre a chance to understand youth, as well as teacher and parental attitudes to messages about violence and crime in schools. The evaluation threw up fascinating issues in terms of perceptions of drugs, gangsterism, the factors that propel young people into a life of crime and the ways in which parents and teachers deal with these issues at home and in the classroom. Lessons gleaned from focus group discussions have already been used to shape future projects that the EMU will undertake. Furthermore, Unit staff became more highly skilled in the use of evaluation tools which can be applied to our own multi-media products.
Crime Prevention Training
Yvette Geyer acted as a guest facilitator on the Police Station Management Programme of the Joint Universities Programme for Management Education Trust (JUPMET). This is a joint initiative of six management development schools which are attached to universities across the country. It is a course composed of seven modules which police station managers attend for a week at a time over a period of three months.
Through interactive teaching methodology, assignments and exams, participants are awarded a management certificate ratified by six universities. This is a commitment by management schools and facilitators to improve one of the key development areas within the South African Police Service (SAPS) as part of the broader transformation process.
Emerging from the programme is an awareness of the increasing level of innovation in crime prevention programmes, a slow but sure increase in levels of trust between communities and SAPS and a significant appreciation of the role of information and learning in resolving crime. Participants have expressed appreciation of external training, innovative educational methodology and the opportunity to discuss with colleagues, in a reflective environment, the experiences they have on a daily basis as managers of the SAPS.
The challenges which face CSVR's Education and Media Unit for 2000 and beyond, lie in five key areas:
In the coming year the Education and Media Unit aims to group its work under one theme: Kgethangtema - Youth Facing the Challenges of Change. Projects will be undertaken which follow the methodology of: research; message formulation; design of print; television and training materials; production; distribution and training; policy and advocacy and evaluation.
Challenges facing youth will be addressed under six main themes:
The Transition and Reconciliation Unit (TRU) focuses on the impact of violence associated with past political conflict on communities and institutions in South Africa and on reconciliation as a strategy for dealing with the legacy of this violence. Intervention and policy work is undertaken in this area with the aim of entrenching a human rights culture, empowering survivors of apartheid violence and healing the wounds of the past. In recent years the TRU focused much of its work on the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC). As the TRC began to wind down in 1998 a shift was made to a range of new but related areas of work aimed at entrenching the lessons of the TRC within our society and addressing its impact.
Because the main activities of the TRC were completed by the end of 1998, 1999 provided the Unit with space for critical reflection. Of primary importance were deliberations on how best the TRC recommendations could be implemented. This requires ongoing evaluation of the TRC and its impact, as well as evaluation of the TRU's own intervention work in communities over the years. Interestingly, within the sector it appears that CSVR has been one of the few institutions considering the long term implications of the TRC and how best to build reconciliation in South Africa in the years to come. The Transition and Reconciliation Unit's activities for 1999 are categorised under two main programmes, namely the Research and Advocacy Programme and the Reconciliation and Intervention Programme.
Research and Advocacy Programme
Truth Commission Evaluation Project
A comprehensive evaluation of South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) has been the main task of the Unit for the last four years. The evaluation critically assesses the different components of the TRC and analyses the impact of the TRC on reconciliation in different sectors and communities. This massive action-research endeavour has drawn on hours of interviews, secondary source research and video footage. The Unit has written up a considerable number of interim reports and a composite report should be in final draft form by June 2000. The following are components of the overall evaluation project:
International Comparative Research
Throughout 1999 the Unit continued to use comparative experiences of transition and reconciliation as a backdrop for much of its research and advocacy work. TRU researcher, Hugo van der Merwe, spent a week in Spain engaging a range of audiences on the lessons from the South African experience. Similar comparative exchanges and conference discussions were undertaken in Northern Ireland, Russia, Indonesia and East Timor. CSVR Director, Graeme Simpson, also presented aspects of CSVR's comparative analysis at the Twelfth Annual Conference of the Academic Council of the United Nations System in New York. In 2000, the Transition and Reconciliation Unit will develop a specific focus on Africa in transition. Exploratory studies will begin in Zimbabwe, Namibia, Mozambique and Malawi.
Post-TRC Evaluation Project
In April 1999 the American Association for the Advancement of Science began working with CSVR on a large study to evaluate the impact of the TRC on victims of apartheid violations. The study aims to deepen understanding of the meaning of reconciliation for victims of human rights abuses and to assess the impact of the TRC on interpersonal and community reconciliation. The largest component of the study is a detailed analysis of the transcripts of the TRC's victim hearings. This analysis examines the way victims and Commissioners talk about their experiences and perceptions of reconciliation. Researchers, Phumuza Mafani and Carnita Ernest will have processed over 450 victim transcripts by mid-2000. The analysed transcripts will provide researchers, policy makers and politicians with a verifiable method for assessing views of the TRC and how its process unfolded.
Civil Society and Transition Project
This project aimed to understand the role of civil society in transition in order to strengthen civil society's role in political transitions elsewhere. The study assessed the role of South African non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in the TRC process. Thirty-five organisations were interviewed. The report was completed in 1999 and published by Politicon.
Health Sector Project
Since 1998 the Unit has been assessing the TRC's effect on the health sector as a way of trying to understand its overall impact on transformation of key government services. A paper assessing the TRC's final report and its impact in the health sector was completed in 1999. This will be published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 2000. The project also used the Witwatersrand University Faculty of Health Sciences Department as a case study. CSVR conducted an evaluation of the medical school's Internal Reconciliation Commission, its own "mini-TRC". The research in the health sector fed into a broader assessment of changes with regard to health and human rights in South Africa, which is being funded by the European Union Human Rights Foundation. This project will undertake comparative research on health and human rights issues and produce human rights and ethics materials to be used in medical schools.
The issue of reparations is considered vital to completing the TRC process. Much of the first half of the year was spent keeping in touch with the official reparations process and commenting in the media about the lack of government action with regard to reparations. A number of joint NGO meetings were held on the issue. In late 1999 the European Union Human Rights Foundation funded the Unit to undertake a more concerted reparations programme. The project began with workshops with the Khulumani Support Group and a public NGO meeting on the issue. Plans for 2000 include comparative research and four workshops to mobilise NGOs to engage with implementing the TRC's recommendations and pressurising government to complete the process. The use of media will also be prioritised as a way of furthering the reparations process. The prospect of CSVR and Khulumani playing a role in test litigation in this area will also be considered in 2000.
Symbolic Reparations Project
An evaluation of the process of building the Thokoza Monument and other similar initiatives around Gauteng was undertaken to assess the potential pitfalls involved in this form of community reconciliation and restitution. A research report on this process was released in 1999. The research findings fed into the production of a manual to assist other communities who are interested in engaging in similar symbolic reconciliation initiatives. This manual will form part of the TRU's reconciliation package which is discussed below in the Reconciliation and Education Programme.
Magistrates Research Project
In partnership with Paul Gready from the University of London, research was conducted regarding the role of magistrates in tolerating past human rights abuses and in protecting the rights of criminal defendants under apartheid. The study also examined current efforts to promote transformation in the magistracy. Preliminary findings will be presented to various audiences in early 2000 and a full research report will be released towards the middle of the year.
The issue of political disappearances is vital because it is one of the key areas where the needs of victims are ongoing and unresolved. In 1999 TRU researcher, Polly Dewhirst, worked closely with a pilot support group of families in the East Rand facilitated by the Ekupholeni Trauma Clinic. The group undertook a series of lobbying activities and worked with the SAPS Missing Persons Bureau to try to trace disappeared relatives. The group also took part in a series of discussions and therapeutic activities to deal with their ongoing trauma. This culminated in a retreat at the end of 1999 in which candle ceremonies, art therapy and drama brought the group together in a sharing of both grief and hope. CSVR designed a database and collected information on disappearance cases, resulting in an initial fifteen cases and photographs being computerised. This will be expanded in 2000 and submitted to relevant government authorities.
Prosecutions and Investigations Project
In 1999 CSVR advocated for the prosecutions of perpetrators who did not apply for amnesty. This was aimed at fulfilling one of the promises the TRC made to victims: that if people did not apply for amnesty they would be prosecuted. By June 1999 several interviews with key victims and lawyers had been undertaken. The findings were presented at The TRC: Commissioning the Past Conference held by the Unit. The prospect still exists that CSVR may become involved in test litigation in these spheres in coming years.
The TRC: Commissioning the Past Conference
In June, The TRC: Commissioning the Past Conference was hosted in partnership with the Witwatersrand University History Workshop. In addition to three round table discussions, approximately eighty papers were delivered at the conference and over 200 people attended. The purpose of the conference was to promote debate about the successes and shortfalls of the TRC and to build greater understanding among academics, civil society and government about the way forward. Specific initiatives emerged from the conference including: a network of people interested in the collection of oral histories; a proposal for the documentation of apartheid abuses beyond the South African borders; and a proposal for the development of an educational CD-Rom to take the lessons from the TRC to South African schools. Conference evaluations indicated a high level of satisfaction among delegates. An edited volume of conference papers will be published in 2000 and all the papers are available on the Internet. This conference, as well as the products emerging from it, was funded by the European Union's CWCI fund.
Reconciliation and Intervention Programme
Reconciliation Workshops and Education
Over recent years the TRU has done extensive reconciliation and TRC education work with victims of political violence. Over 200 workshops were run prior to 1999. However, in 1999 the Unit decided to move beyond creating sustainable survivor support groups for victims and to focus on other institutions and target communities. The TRU now aims to build sustainable reconciliation initiatives and projects in different sectors through consolidating the lessons learned about reconciliation whilst working with victims. A generic and adaptable reconciliation package that could be used in a range of constituencies was developed in 1999 for this purpose. The seven-module reconciliation package for use in communities and institutions will be piloted and finalised in the first half of 2000.
Pilot Reconciliation Interventions
In 1999 the Unit decided to target its reconciliation work rather than offering broad reconciliation and education workshops as it had done in previous years. Specific pilot areas were Ermelo, Nelspruit, Pietersburg and Eldorado Park. Although some workshops were run in these communities in the first half of 1999, it became difficult to pilot and develop the materials for the reconciliation package simultaneously. For this reason, the Unit concentrated more on the development of the new reconciliation package in 1999. In late 1999, as the package was finalised, the process of working with these local communities was re-initiated.
Alexandra Dialogues Project
TRU trainer Traggy Mapea, in conjunction with CSVR's Education and Media Unit, undertook research and intervention in order to develop a video of testimonies of key role players in the Alexandra community concerning a conflict which had centred on a housing dispute over the previous decade. The video will be taken back to communities and screened in the new year, with workshops on reconciliation linked to other modules of the reconciliation package (see also Education and Media Unit Report).
Victim-Offender Mediation Project
In 1997-98 CSVR, in partnership with Wilgespruit Fellowship Centre, initiated a Victim-Offender Mediation project, linked directly to Truth Commission work with past human rights violations. Twenty people were trained to operate as mediators. Unfortunately, by 1999 only two mediations had taken place. This was in part due to the fact that the amnesty applications of many perpetrators were still pending. CSVR decided to abandon the idea of facilitating a range of mediations related to the TRC, although the Centre remains available for ad-hoc mediations. A focus on victim-offender mediation will be maintained as part of the development of our comprehensive reconciliation package.
Victim Empowerment Project
Although it was originally conceived that this project would eventually work with a variety of groups and institutions, in 1999 work continued primarily with the Khulumani Support Group. Extensive work was done to build the capacity of the Khulumani staff and steering committee in order for the group to function as an independent NGO and to continue to offer effective services to victims who testified before the TRC. Khulumani was largely in a position to run autonomously by June 1999, although CSVR continues to administer the finances of the organisation on behalf of the Khulumani Steering Committee.
Khulumani Support Group Projects
Throughout 1999 the TRU assisted Khulumani directly on a number of projects. A joint initiative with the Trauma Clinic to consolidate CSVR-Khulumani's victim-support programme was established. CSVR also continued to offer supervision and self-care to Khulumani staff. The capacity of survivor support groups was built as the CSVR fieldworkers continued to assist developing groups in outlying areas. The Khulumani National Fieldworker was trained to take this process over in the future. In addition, Tlhoki Mofokeng continued to assist Khulumani in facilitating educational discussions after staging a reconciliation drama which Khulumani had developed. He travelled to Europe with the drama group in 1999 and facilitated discussions in London and Sweden.
A veil of inactivity seems to have fallen over government in the year following the TRC report. The TRC report was released in October 1998 but has barely been discussed in parliament and government claims that there is no money for reparations. Either government has shifted its focus to other priorities (such as service delivery) or it is resistant to continuing efforts to deal with the past. On a day-to-day basis CSVR staff are confronted with the ongoing needs of victims as well as with questions of impunity (ongoing deaths in custody, police torture, vigilantism), all of which suggest that the TRC process alone has not been enough to put the ghosts of the past to rest. It is of concern that the issue of general amnesties (particularly in KwaZulu-Natal) remains on the political agenda. The political will to prosecute those who did not apply for amnesty seems to be waning along with any willingness to meet the reparation needs of the victims of political violence. Clearly the process of reconciliation is not complete.
The main challenge for CSVR's Transition and Reconciliation Unit therefore is to ensure that South Africa, like many other countries in transition, does not start to close off the process of dealing with issues of the past prematurely.
A focus on the TRC recommendations, specifically in the area of reparations, is critical for the year 2000 if the TRC process is to be seen through to its logical conclusion. Much energy will be applied to the issues of reparations, dealing with the ongoing needs of victims and the TRC's impact on specific sectors, namely the health sector and the judiciary. The need to mobilise the victims of past conflicts into current victim empowerment projects is also glaring. The lessons from CSVR's evaluation of the TRC will need to be integrated into current initiatives in South Africa and abroad where countries continue to struggle with the legacy of human rights violations. Addressing the issue of ongoing impunity is a concern. Africa needs specific attention in this regard and the Unit will begin an African reconciliation focus in 2000. In addition, the comprehensive reconciliation package will become a vital CSVR tool for ensuring that reconciliation is sustained in communities and institutions long after the life of the TRC. Internally, the Unit is cohesive, and a team of over ten dedicated staff have been assembled to take up this challenge in the year 2000.
CSVR's analysis of the shifting trajectory of violence within societies in transition evolved considerably in 1999 with the development of several research projects.
Violence and Transition Project
In late 1998 a two-year project called the Violence and Transition Project was undertaken, funded by the International Development Research Centre (Canada). The broad objective of the project was to describe and analyse various forms of violence and their changing nature in South Africa over the two decades from 1980 to 1999: the period of transition from authoritarianism to democracy. This project comprises six separate elements and is critical to the evolution of CSVR's analysis in this field. Detailed research has commenced in each of the spheres outlined below.
1. Revenge Violence and Vigilantism
Vigilantism, or communities taking the law into their own hands (often violently) is a major threat to democracy in South Africa. Goodwill Ditlhage has completed a literature review on vigilantism in South Africa and fieldwork has begun. A number of interviews with NGOs, community members and the police in Alexandra, Tembisa, Ivory Park, Gugulethu and Mamelodi have taken place. His initial findings suggest that an interplay between the violent legacies of the past and deficiencies of the criminal justice system, lies at the root of the current manifestations of vigilantism. The complexity of this hypothesis, as well as the implications for prevention, will come under further scrutiny as the fieldwork, including a special focus on Mapogo a Mathamaga in the Northern Province, continues in the year 2000.
Researcher Sasha Gear has surveyed the literature dealing with ex-combatants. She has established contacts with relevant academics, researchers, veterans' associations and a number of ex-combatants (from both the apartheid security forces and the liberation movement), as well as other organisations and businesses that have employed former combatants. Her initial research has confirmed that there has been both a formal and a continuing informal demobilisation process in South Africa, with the latter receiving less attention than it demands. Focus groups and interviews will begin to test this, amongst other findings in 2000. This process will attempt to clarify the impact of the demobilisation process on current crime levels, including whether or not ex-combatants are substantially involved in current violent crime.
3. Violence involving Hostels and Hostel Residents
A comprehensive literature review is being conducted by researcher Piers Pigou. Contact has been made with various experts in the field and in particular those who have collected primary data with hostel residents. The focus will primarily fall on how past hostel violence has mutated in the current context. There are indications that some hostels may be "hotbeds" for organised criminal operations. The complex relationships between the spill-over of past violent activities into the present will be explored in 2000 when the project will undertake hostel research in six different sites: two in KwaZulu-Natal and four in Gauteng.
4. State Security Forces
Researcher Tebogo Mafokane has completed a literature review and continues to collect information on the issue of violence by security forces especially in the 1980s. There is much information to analyse given the revelations made before the Truth Commission. However, the project does not simply aim to revisit these findings but rather to explore the current situation with regard to security forces both in and outside of formal structures. In-depth interview and focus group guidelines have been developed and the interview process has begun. In part, these interviews focus on the current whereabouts and activities of former security personnel, monitoring their current involvement in security companies and any current illegal activities. The study aims to elucidate the relationships (if any) between past and present involvement in violence.
5. Xenophobic Violence and Violence involving Foreigners
Researcher Bronwyn Harris has compiled a draft report revealing that there is little existing South African research on the subject of xenophobic violence despite increasing levels of xenophobia. Key role players, including individuals from refugee, migrant and immigrant communities, have been identified and interviewed, as well as service providers, institutions, academics and researchers who work in this field. This in-depth interview process will be complemented by a series of focus groups amongst selected groups of foreigners who have been linked as either perpetrators or victims of violent crime. Initial findings indicate that xenophobia, particularly towards African foreigners, is rife in South Africa and propagated by almost all sectors of the population. A racial dimension exists in that most of those who are victims of xenophobic violence are Africans, with other types of foreigners receiving less hostility. African foreigners are often persecuted directly by working class South Africans and the police, as well as structurally, due to an inefficient system for dealing with refugees, migrants and immigrants.
6. Violence and Democracy Activists and their Families
Nokuthula Skhosana has completed a comprehensive literature review on this topic. A separate overview of geographic areas focusing on the intensity and the nature of violent acts aimed at democracy activists and their families in the 1980s and early 1990s has also been completed. Fieldwork has focused on activists at grassroots levels and a deliberate undertaking has been made not to focus on activists who have a particularly high profile. The project is investigating the impact of apartheid political violence on the present lives of individuals. Experiences such as the loss of breadwinners; the failure of government to provide reparations to victims of political violence; and structural disadvantage (e.g. missing out on education due to political activity) have been among the issues identified as still impacting on the lives of many former activists at grassroots level. Fieldwork has begun in a number of areas including Pretoria and the East Rand in Gauteng, Potchefstroom in the North West and in the Eastern Cape. Additional research is planned in Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal.
Contracted Support Work
The following aspects of the Violence and Transition research programme have been sub-contracted to CSVR partners in other provinces of the country, thereby broadening the scope of the project.
In addition to the above elements of the Violence and Transition research programme, CSVR Research Consultant Jonny Steinberg is working on an 18-month research project funded through an individual grant to him by the Open Society Institute and the Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation. The project focuses on the epidemic of violent attacks against white farmers that began in earnest in 1994 and will explore whether there is a connection between this new pattern of violence and the birth of democracy in South Africa. The researcher is testing the hypothesis that the symbolic force of political equality has profoundly reshaped the mores of the rural poor, eroding the legitimacy of the caste-like relations that characterized the South African countryside, leaving the once powerful families of the South African hinterland vulnerable to attack. Ethnographic studies will be conducted in three farming districts that have witnessed a series of recent attacks, charting the changing relationship between black and white communities during the transition to democracy.
The work done so far by Jonny Steinberg on violence on farms has already positioned CSVR to undertake work on behalf of the Department of Safety and Security's rural safety task team in respect of their rural safety plan. This has included an evaluation of the rural safety plan in Piet Retief, the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands, Tzaneen and Mooi River, as well as advice to the National Safety And Security Secretariat on the construction of a national research project on rural crime.
The aim of the Criminal Justice Policy Unit (CJPU) is to contribute to building the capacity of the criminal justice system so that it can deliver effective services within the boundaries of the Bill of Rights. While the foundations of democracy have been firmly established in post-apartheid South Africa, high levels of crime with roots deeply embedded in our past, threaten the stability and consolidation of the new dispensation. It is imperative that government's increasing emphasis on improved service delivery occurs within the framework of social justice and human rights. The Unit's work focuses on three broad programmes: human rights and abuses of power in the criminal justice system; developing an effective and integrated criminal justice process; and effective treatment of offenders.
During 1999 the CJPU focused on consolidating a number of major research projects using both Centre staff and external researchers, thereby broadening and deepening our research expertise. The projects are outlined below.
Independent Complaints Directorate
During the latter part of 1998, the Royal Danish Embassy asked the Criminal Justice Policy Unit to coordinate an extensive research project on behalf of the Independent Complaints Directorate (ICD). The ICD is the statutory body responsible for investigating deaths in custody as a result of police action and for oversight of the system for investigating alleged police misconduct and criminality. The project, coordinated by David Bruce, resulted in the production of several research reports addressing the following concerns:
Victims, Witnesses and the Criminal Justice Process
Late in 1999 a collaborative research project between CSVR's CJPU and the University of Durban Westville in KwaZulu-Natal was completed. The project entitled, The Police, Victims and the Criminal Justice Process: An Integrated Approach, was funded by an award for team research by the National Research Foundation. The research aimed to address victim empowerment and the effectiveness of the criminal justice process. Witness issues such as: the quality of statement taking; language and literacy issues within the criminal justice system; the identification and tracing of witnesses; and witness intimidation were identified as key areas where there was room for improvement. The report by David Bruce and Gareth Newham traced the different issues that affect victims and witnesses across the different stages of the criminal justice process and aimed to identify priority issues within the context of South Africa's high crime society and limited financial and human resources.
Informal Policing (Vigilante) Activities at Modal Interchanges
The CJPU was involved in a research project relating to the phenomenon of vigilantism in South Africa, focusing on police attitudes to vigilantism. An article reflecting the main findings of the research was published in the journal Crime and Conflict towards the end of the year. The research formed part of a broader project involving the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and the Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC), concerned with crime and crime prevention on public transport and at public transport interchanges in Pretoria, Durban and Cape Town. The project was funded through a tender awarded by the Department of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology (DACST).
Violent Young Offenders
Amanda Dissel from the CJPU, in conjunction with academics from the University of East Anglia in the United Kingdom, conducted research with young offenders sentenced to imprisonment. The research followed the methodology of an earlier study conducted in the UK with violent offenders convicted of crimes when they were children. The South African study was a pilot study which aimed to explore the extent to which young violent perpetrators had themselves been victims of violence, as well as to look at their backgrounds and their experiences of abuse and loss. The results of the South African study were similar to those found in the UK, although the South African offenders reported slightly higher incidences of physical and emotional abuse. Most of the offenders who took part in the pilot study had experienced many traumas in their personal lives, and this was frequently coupled with severe shortages of money for basic needs such as food and clothing. The results of the research will be published during 2000.
Towards the end of the year the CJPU commenced a new research project, also with young violent offenders in prison. This project, which is run in collaboration with Clacherty & Associates and the CSVR Trauma Clinic, aims to explore why these young people became involved in crime and how they think they might be prevented from re-entering the criminal world once released from prison. The research, which will commence in the new year, will make use of participatory action research methodology. The second aspect of this project is to provide an intervention programme to assist the young participants of the research to deal with some of the reasons which led them to become involved in violent crime.
Reintegration and Development Programmes for Prisoners
Following a workshop co-hosted by CSVR and the Institute for Security Studies (ISS) on reintegration and development programmes for prisoners, a task team was established to conduct an audit of services available to prisoners. The audit was completed by CSVR during July 1999 at a Johannesburg prison. It assessed the nature and extent of programmes provided both by the Department of Correctional Services and by community based and non-governmental organisations. The completed report provides a unique analysis of the options available to ex-prisoners in Gauteng.
Human Rights Training for Correctional Officials and Prison Visitors
After many years of planning and advocacy, a pilot human rights training project for prison officials and prisoners was conducted by CSVR and Lawyers for Human Rights (LHR) and completed towards the end of 1999. An evaluation of the project took place and an evaluation report was compiled.
In addition, Amanda Dissel took part in training seventy members of the Department of Correctional Services as trainers in human rights. The training was sponsored and coordinated by the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. The trainers were tasked with providing human rights training to every member of correctional services. The manual developed by CSVR and LHR entitled Human Rights for Correctional Services was printed and distributed to assist in the training.
The CJPU was also invited by the Judicial Inspectorate to train the newly appointed independent prison visitors and prison inspectors. One training session was held in March. The Office of the UN High Commission for Human Rights was asked to coordinate the training of all Independent Prison Visitors (IPVs) to be appointed during 2000. The Unit participated in the planning and development of a training programme and is likely to continue to assist in the training of the IPVs in the new year.
Capacity Building for Community Police Forums
Our work in coordinating capacity building training for members of the Community Police Forums (CPFs) in five areas in Gauteng was completed during 1999. In the course of this project, twenty-one workshops were held with CPFs in the Vaal, Soweto, Yeoville, Pretoria and Hillbrow. The five project partners were: The Institute for Democracy in South Africa (IDASA); Wilgespruit Fellowship Centre; Independent Mediation Services of South Africa (IMSSA); Lawyers for Human Rights and CSVR. Participants from CPFs were trained in topics such as:
This process was coordinated by Kindiza Ngubeni from the CJPU. At the conclusion of the training an independent evaluation was conducted by the Community Agency for Social Enquiry (CASE), and the results are awaited.
The CJPU adopts the approach of developing pilot interventions to test innovations in the criminal justice system. The following pilot projects were run during 1999:
Victim-Offender Conferencing Project
CSVR, together with the Wilgespruit Fellowship Centre, Conquest for Life, the West Rand Justice Centre and the Community Dispute Resolution Trust, forms part of a steering committee for a Victim-Offender Conferencing (VOC) Project. This is an eighteen month pilot initiative which will be run in three parts of Gauteng: Dobsonville / Roodepoort, Alexandra, and Westbury. The project aims to establish more effective ways of dealing with petty crimes using alternatives to the criminal justice process. It aims to reduce the number of cases being processed through the courts, while approaching the crime in a way that is restorative both to victim and offender.
At each site the project is managed by one of the partner organisations operating in that area. The magistrate's court in the area refers cases to the VOC project to be mediated instead of the offender being prosecuted in the usual way. After a series of interviews a conference between victim and offender is held and is mediated by trained mediators. Usually a resolution is arrived at whereby the offender may be required to make good for his or her offence in some way. The process is monitored through the courts and a report of the conference is submitted to the court that referred the case. The mediators monitor the resolution and a final report is submitted to the courts. Forty-five cases have been referred to the VOC since mediators were trained in August 1999 and completed mediations were held in twenty-seven of these cases.
The Hillbrow Policing Project
As part of its endeavours to assist with transformation and to provide practical assistance to the South African Police Service, CSVR entered into a partnership with the Hillbrow police station in late 1999. The Centre is located within the Hillbrow precinct and is assisting station management as part of its social responsibility programme. In late 1999, CSVR designed and managed a one-day consultative workshop with representatives of various community groups and stakeholders in the Hillbrow precinct. The workshop was regarded as a success and five sectoral steering committees were identified which will meet and take forward the initiative in early 2000. An effective working relationship has developed between senior management of the Hillbrow police station and CSVR and it is envisaged that this work will continue during 2000.
The Prevention and Control of Police Corruption and other Abuses of Power
Late in 1999 CSVR received funding from the Ford Foundation for a practical intervention project intended to reduce abuses of power by the police. The project aims to identify and develop practical police management techniques to increase the detection and prevention of police corruption at station level. To be completed by the middle of 2001, the ultimate objective of the project is to pilot a local level model for improving police management, preventing corruption and abuses of power. It is hoped that this will feed into the development of new practice throughout the police service. Gareth Newham is coordinating this project.
President Mbeki has stated that crime prevention is one of South Africa's seven priority areas. Much of the emphasis will fall on the criminal justice sector during the next few years, yet all of the institutions in the sector are under-resourced and many of the members are unskilled. For example, approximately one quarter of all police officials are functionally illiterate. Any attempt to improve the services offered by the police, courts and correctional services has to take account of basic skills, as well as deepening professional skills.
During 1999 the Ministry of Police and Correctional Services attempted to deal with public concern for rising crime through statements threatening to "act tough on criminals", often at the expense of human rights. Not only do these statements represent a regression to the law and order approach of the former government, but they demonstrate no clear link to improving the efficacy of crime prevention. It is imperative that government's increasing emphasis on improved service delivery (which in the criminal justice sector means a higher number of arrests and successful prosecutions) occurs within the framework of social justice and human rights. In the coming year the CJPU will continue to identify research and pilot programmes which render the criminal justice sector more effective without compromising the rights of affected individuals.
During 2000 CSVR's Criminal Justice Policy Unit aims to look at concrete ways to assist the criminal justice system to enhance its capacity to implement policies. For this purpose, the Unit will be piloting projects which are designed to improve particular functions within the criminal justice system.
The Gender Unit undertakes research aimed at understanding the causes and effects of gender-based violence and offers training programmes aimed at increasing understanding of gender-based violence. The Unit aims to contribute to the transformation of state institutions at local, regional and national level; generate policy and legislative recommendations aimed at improving the treatment of survivors of gender-based violence; and undertake interventions aimed at preventing such violence. CSVR's Gender Unit is active in advocacy work both independently and in partnership with other NGOs in this field. The Unit seeks to integrate gender into CSVR projects by building knowledge and skills in the organisation around gender.
In 1999 the Gender Unit entered its second year of existence. Two new researchers were employed, several new projects were developed and a number of government tenders were secured.
During 1999 three research projects were completed and a range of new studies initiated.
The report Violence against Women in Metropolitan South Africa: A study on impact and service delivery was completed. This report explored the experiences of 269 women living in Durban, Johannesburg and Cape Town and was a collaborative initiative between CSVR, the Institute for Security Studies and the University of Cape Town's Institute of Criminology. Findings were also presented to the inter-departmental task team on domestic violence established under the auspices of the National Crime Prevention Strategy.
As consultant to the Gauteng Department of Safety and Security, the Unit conducted an audit of activities undertaken in connection with violence against women in Gauteng. The audit aimed to identify gaps and make preliminary recommendations for the Department's Crime Prevention programme.
Fieldwork for a study comparing the sentencing of men and women convicted of killing their intimate partners was completed. A preliminary analysis of the data indicated that the variables potentially influencing individual sentences were more complex than originally thought. This led to the expansion of the original questionnaire design and continuation of the fieldwork. The study will be completed in 2000.
New Studies Initiated
In 1998 the Gender Unit had begun to research police interventions into domestic violence cases. With the Domestic Violence Act coming into operation in December 1998, this was expanded into a six-month project monitoring the implementation of the Act.
Concerned by the unreliability of most rape statistics, the Unit began collecting and reviewing studies of the incidence of reported and unreported rape in South Africa. On this basis a brief critique of two victimisation surveys was published in the journal Development Update.
The Nisaa Institute for Women's Development also commissioned research which will form two chapters in a book to be published in early 2000.
In November, researcher Joy Dladla, was appointed to undertake a two-year research and intervention project focusing on improving the safety of women in inner-city Johannesburg.
Training, Education and Awareness Raising
Activities in this area absorbed much of the Gender Unit's time, indicating the degree to which the Unit's expertise is recognised by a range of organisations and institutions. While some of these activities were undertaken in response to requests, the Unit also finalised a number of pre-planned training programmes.
Creating Awareness of Domestic Violence and the new Domestic Violence Act
A number of activities were undertaken to increase awareness of the new Domestic Violence Act. Presentations were made to 200 community members in inner-city Johannesburg and Randfontein. Workshops were run for community health volunteers based at a Soweto clinic, as well as for nurses and social workers in the Benoni health district. A further workshop aimed at promoting inter-sectoral cooperation around the implementation of the Act was run in Sebokeng for court clerks, SAPS members and a range of organisations working in the area.
The Unit developed a pamphlet outlining the scope and workings of the Act. This was printed by the Gauteng Department of Safety and Security and distributed extensively throughout the province. Demand for the pamphlet led to a reprint in November 1999. The CSVR Gender Unit participated in a range of community based activities around 25 November (National Day of No Violence Against Women).
A national hotline dealing with violence against women was established. Staffed by Lifeline counsellors, this was the result of a collaboration between Soul City and the National Network on Violence Against Women. CSVR's Gender Unit was contracted to compile a national directory of services on violence against women in each of the nine provinces. At the request of the National Network on Violence Against Women, information materials and training around the psychological effects of domestic violence were provided to Lifeline counsellors staffing the national hotline.
Training and Awareness Raising on Spousal Murders (Uxoricide)
In its training and education work around spousal (or partner) killing, the Unit has focused on the criminal justice system. Following its protest to the then Witwatersrand Attorney-General's office around the prosecution and sentencing of Sandy Ramontoedi (a prison warder convicted of killing his wife in the Johannesburg maintenance courts), the Unit was invited to present a workshop on intimate femicide to State Advocates. This was delivered in conjunction with organisations belonging to the Justice For Women Alliance (JFWA).
As part of sixteen days of activism to end violence against women, CSVR's Gender Unit and the Legal Resources Centre presented a mini-workshop to women's organisations on intimate femicide and the laws and legal proceedings relevant to the prosecution of such cases.
Finally, to create awareness around spousal murders, the Unit, in consultation with its partners in the JFWA, created a pamphlet explaining how society and the legal system frequently fail abused women. A chapter explaining the law and legal procedures relevant to intimate femicide was also commissioned by the Tshwaranang Legal Advocacy Centre and published in mid-1999 in the National Legal Manual for Counsellors of Raped and Battered Women.
Training and Education on Rape
A number of presentations on rape were made to audiences ranging from law students to male prisoners convicted of gender-based violence. Workshops were provided to para-legal advice office workers attending a Black Sash course and medical staff in the Albertina Sisulu Rape Crisis Centre at Sunninghill Hospital.
A training programme for prosecutors specialising in sexual violence was initiated in late 1999. This series of workshops will be accompanied by community based workshops aimed at equipping people with knowledge of sexual violence and the criminal justice system, and their rights in relation to that system. These workshops will be conducted in conjunction with CSVR's Trauma Clinic. Consultation with the Department of Justice on its training programmes has been completed and the courts, communities and organisations to be involved in the training are being identified.
The year closed with the Gender Unit being awarded a tender to provide technical expertise to the Department of Justice on the establishment of the sexual offences courts. This training programme will be developed and implemented with CSVR's Trauma Clinic and Education and Media Unit.
Justice College Violence Against Women Training Programme
In conjunction with the Nisaa Institute for Women's Development, NICRO and Tshwaranang Legal Advocacy Centre, the CSVR Gender Coordinator facilitated ten workshops in Gauteng, Northern Cape and North West Province. In total 178 people (including magistrates, prosecutors, interpreters and clerks) participated in the various workshops. The project ended in October 1999 and was assessed by external evaluators who found that it had had a noticeable effect on the attitudes, perceptions and behaviour of the trainees. On this basis, the project has been extended for another year to allow for its institutionalisation within the Justice College, which is the main training unit within the Department of Justice.
Training of Primary Health Care Nurses
The Unit secured a tender on a pilot basis from the Gauteng Department of Health to train nurses in the Alberton health district in the monitoring of evidence of domestic violence amongst female patients. Approximately sixty nurses were trained. The impact of the training and use of the guidelines it generated is being evaluated on an ongoing basis. This information will assist with the design of future similar programmes.
Developing CSVR Capacity in the area of Gender
A key role of CSVR's Gender Unit has been to motivate the focus on gender issues within all of CSVR 's departments and projects. In this regard the Unit has created an impetus for cross-departmental involvement in research and training on gender violence issues. During the course of 1999 each CSVR department nominated a "gender guardian" and an audit was conducted to assess the degree to which gender was featured in departmental projects. This subsequently led to internal mini-workshops exploring different approaches to gender and how these approaches influence research design, analysis and writing-up. Gender Unit staff also provided information and assistance to departments around specific projects.
The Unit and other JFWA members combined with the Western Cape Network on Violence Against Women to oppose an amnesty application by former Security Branch policeman Michael Bellingan. Bellingan is serving a 25-year sentence for the murder of his wife, which he claimed was politically motivated. As the killing had much more in common with domestic violence killings than politically motivated killings, it was considered important that he should not abuse the TRC process to escape responsibility for his actions. By the end of 1999, no decision had been made regarding Bellingan's application. The Unit has provided expert testimony on the phenomenon of spousal murder in a number of cases. It is intended to draw judicial notice to the frequency of the killing of intimate female partners by men, as well as the broader context of domestic violence in which such killings occur.
Work continued with a group of women serving time in Johannesburg Prison for killing their abusive partners. Meetings were arranged with the Departments of Correctional Services and Justice to discuss prison conditions and the possibility of securing presidential pardons for some of these women.
In September 1999 the Gender Unit commented on the South African Law Commission's discussion paper on the substantive law of sexual offences, at a number of workshops discussing the proposed bill.
An anti-rape advertisement featuring actress Charlize Theron was aired during the year. Following complaints to the Advertising Standards Authority, the advertisement was banned on the basis that it discriminated against men. CSVR staff members, in conjunction with the Commission on Gender Equality and Men for Change, organised a protest against the decision.
In the past year the relationship between rape and HIV / AIDS came to the fore. Concerned by the Department of Health's proposal to make AIDS a notifiable disease, the Unit facilitated a workshop for members of the Gauteng Network on Violence Against Women (GNVAW) to develop a submission opposing the proposal.
As a member of the GNVAW, the CSVR Gender Unit participated in workshops to develop a submission to the Department of Justice on the regulations contained in the Domestic Violence Act. Together with GNVAW members, a series of awareness campaigns were undertaken in order to educate communities, SAPS and Justice officials about the Act. Gender Unit staff, along with members of the GNVAW and Soul City, also participated in various community based activities to raise public awareness about the Act and domestic violence in general.
Finally, at the request of the Parliamentary Committee on Quality of Life and Status of Women, the Unit presented some of its research findings to parliamentary hearings on violence against women.
In undertaking all these activities, the Unit was aided considerably by its two volunteer interns, Davina Cohen from the USA and Fabienne Tailleur from France.
Publicity and Media Profile
The Unit developed a unique and impressive profile in the media in relation to most of its work. This was especially due to the Gender Coordinator, Lisa Vetten. The Coordinator provided comment on the Domestic Violence Act as well as on the problem of domestic violence to newspapers, radio and television. In-depth comments and interviews on various aspects of rape were provided to newspapers and to television and radio programmes.
CSVR's Gender Unit was requested to run three workshops for journalists on reporting on violence against women for the Institute for the Advancement of Journalism.
The National Network on Violence Against Women also nominated Lisa Vetten to act as its consultant on domestic violence to the television series, Soul City 4, a television project of the Institute for Urban Primary Health Care. At the request of Soul City 4, the Unit was contracted to rewrite and edit a resource booklet for journalists entitled Violence Against Women in South Africa. The Gender Unit continues to act as a consultant on the follow-up series, Soul City 5, which will be broadcast in 2000, and which contains a focus on rape.
This unevenness was particularly troubling with regard to HIV / AIDS. People are by now well aware of the link between rape and HIV / AIDS, and testing of alleged rapists and the provision of free anti-retroviral drugs for rape survivors have been called for. But these measures leave untouched the whole problem of domestic violence and HIV / AIDS and represent a fragmented approach to the problem of gender-based violence and its relationship to HIV / AIDS.
These problems have been compounded by the battle of the statisticians in which constantly competing claims have been made over the rate of rapes per minute occurring in South Africa. These uniformly unverifiable and unsubstantiated claims have arguably done more damage than good. In reality, despite indications that South Africa experiences a high incidence of rape, no reliable or valid projections have been put forward, so that the actual incidence remains unknown. Instead, the issue has become a mere football of sensationalised press reporting.
Such a shift presents challenges, given that South Africa lacks a strong tradition of crime and violence prevention. Without valid, reliable statistics it is impossible to know whether violence against women is increasing or decreasing, whether particular violence prevention activities are effective, whether women are more willing than before to report crimes against them, or whether the nature and types of violence are shifting.
In 1999, CSVR's Youth Department continued its long-standing work with young people in schools. Nearly ten years ago, this work originated as a project designed to "build bridges" between young school-goers from across the racial and class divides inherited from Apartheid society. Thereafter it evolved into a trauma management programme and then soon developed into a teacher training and violence prevention programme more generally. At this time the project had expanded into the schools of the Soweto districts of Zola, Emdeni, Jabulani and Zondi and became known as the "40 Schools Project". In 1999, the 40 Schools Project evolved as a fully-fledged "Safe Schools" initiative, seeking to evolve the school-community relationship and to use the schools to build greater community participation in community safety issues.
CSVR's schools interventions have thus become well known - both within these communities of Soweto, as well as within the Departments of Education and Safety and Security. Despite this, violence and crime remain serious issues in the school environment and the imperative for improvements in school safety strategies continues. The flagship of CSVR's schools-based youth work remains the "40 Schools Project", based in Soweto.
Direct Work with Youth
Alternatives to Violence
A pilot training programme on "Alternatives to Violence" was undertaken, working with Grade 8 to 10 learners from three high schools in the 40 Schools area. CSVR trainer Alice Kgotleng worked closely with the guidance teachers in each school and she was allocated teaching periods during the school day for running life skills training workshops. Teachers coordinated the programme in each school and were responsible for ensuring that other school staff were fully informed, for monitoring progress, as well as for evaluating the programme and making recommendations for it's improvement.
The training workshops aimed to impart life skills to young people at risk, specifically in relation to issues of crime and violence. The workshop content included conflict management skills development, as well as several other skills development areas and also debated various perspectives on violence. A draft report has been completed and will be finalized in early 2000 and the content of the workshop experiences are also being used to develop a more generic training manual.
Peer Counselling and Mediation
Each of nine high schools in the 40 Schools area of Soweto, sent twenty learners to be trained on peer counselling and mediation. This was done in partnership with the Independent Mediation Services of South Africa (IMSSA). Training was undertaken during the Easter and winter holidays. The learners were committed to and consistent in attending the programme for the entire week. Participant feedback about the quality and utility of the training was extremely positive and through ongoing work with the trainees it is apparent that they are putting their training to good practical use.
A support structure was established to provide ongoing support to these peer counsellors and mediators. Monthly meetings were arranged to supervise the learners in the implementation of their new skills. The success of the project was also indicated by the high learner demand for training, which became increasingly difficult to satisfy due to resource limitations.
A Peer Counselling Manual was developed in conjunction with the CSVR's Education and Media Unit for use in follow-up peer counselling training.
In partnership with the Gauteng Department of Safety and Liaison, the CSVR Youth Department developed and ran an anti-crime holiday programme during the vacation period in December 1999. More than 2 000 children participated in the programme, which included various sporting and cultural activities, such as: rugby, soccer, netball, dancing, modeling, theatre play, mural painting and karate. Various youth clubs in the community were invited to participate and ran clinics for children, offering training in a variety of skills. Workshops on HIV/AIDS, crime and violence were also undertaken as part of the holiday programme.
The holiday programme was a highly successful innovation and consequently also attracted the attention of many parents, who were interested in finding out more about the aims and long term objectives of the project. These parents along with the youth who had attended the programme expressed the hope that their children's talents could be further nurtured and that the programme could be repeated or extended.
From CSVR's perspective, the holiday programme was an excellent mechanism for building wider community and organisational participation via the schools infrastructure. Furthermore, through providing recreational facilities to kids who are often otherwise idle and prone to criminal involvement during these periods, the programme also initiated an embryonic involvement in community-based crime prevention during the school holidays.
CSVR staff continued to deal directly with a number of reported cases involving both learners and school staff. These cases included: rape, sexual abuse by individuals or gangs, alcohol and drug abuse (especially involving marijuana or mandrax), assaults with weapons such as knives and firearms, suicide and attempted suicide, theft, vandalism of school property, high rates of absenteeism by teachers and learners, as well as numerous others. CSVR staff also supervised teachers who handled many sensitive cases, but several of the more severe cases were still referred on to CSVR staff. There was also a notable improvement in relationships between these teachers and the parents and relatives of the children concerned.
Work With Parents, Teachers and School Governing Bodies
Trauma Management Training for Teachers
During 1999, more teachers in the 40 Schools Project area of Soweto, were trained in basic trauma management. These teachers are now recognised in their schools as being equipped to handle difficult behaviour in learners. They have managed to establish systems for dealing with such issues despite time constraints and frequently without any guidance from the Department of Education's support services arm. During 1999, teachers from neighbouring schools (outside of the 40 Schools Project) also began to group together in order to meet regularly to create a supportive context in which ideas, problems and resources could be shared in a similar fashion.
Demand for CSVR's trauma management training continued to grow during 1999 and courses were also offered to teachers in Mohlakeng on the West Rand. A total of eleven schools (eight primary and three high schools) participated in the programme. Two teachers from each school were trained so that they could then train their colleagues, thereby hopefully contributing to the sustainability of the project. A similar initiative was to be undertaken in Tembisa, but CSVR staff battled to obtain permission from district department officials at a time when there was particularly volatile industrial conflict playing itself out in the schools of the area. As a result, this delayed the training in that township.
Experience derived from working in these schools was used to develop a Trauma Management Training Manual with an accompanying video. This manual and video enabled staff to impart skills utilising practical examples and case studies. This is a tool not only for teachers in the 40 Schools but also for teachers elsewhere in South Africa and beyond. Positive feedback on the usefulness of the manual has been received from service providers such as psychologists, religious counsellors, community human rights activists and officials from the Culture of Learning and Teaching Services (COLTS) campaign in the National Department of Education. At the end of 1999, the Department of Education indicated their intention to place a bulk order for copies of the manual for potential distribution in schools around the country. The manual and accompanying video was produced by CSVR's Education and Media Unit and Carla Commys, a Dutch volunteer from the Volunteer Services Organization, in consultation with the Youth Department. The grassroots work in the 40 Schools Project was coordinated by Dorothy Mdhluli, Wandile Zwane and Mosley Lebeloane.
School Governing Bodies and Parents
Pursuant to the evolution of a Safe Schools Strategy, in 1999 it was considered critical to substantially expand the CSVR Youth Department's work with school governing bodies, so as to assist the latter in the development of policies to ensure the safety of children in schools. The framework which was developed as a guideline for policy development was based on the following four pillars:
Safety on School Premises
This included measures which could be undertaken on school grounds, such as denying access to strangers, the strict control of drinking and drug abuse on school property, as well as strategies for eliminating the presence of guns or gangs on school premises.
This involved making recommendations for the improvement of the physical environment in and around the school grounds. This included such proposals as: the installation of appropriate school fencing, effective lighting at and around schools, the availability of publicly accessible telephones, proposals for alcohol free areas (particularly the regulation of shebeens or taverns in the vicinity of school premises) and ensuring that school grounds look presentable.
Care in Education
This included much of the work that the CSVR had already been undertaking, such as the establishment of systems to help victims of violence, as well as the provision of crime-prevention workshops and life skills training for learners, teachers and parents.
This involved the facilitation of school interaction with appropriate outside agencies including civic organisations, community police forums, youth structures, etc. with regard to safety issues.
For this programme to be effective, CSVR encouraged each school to appoint a "Safety Team" consisting of the principal, teachers, members of the school governing body, a police officer from the schools monitoring unit, high school learners and members of the Community Police Forum. The mandate of these teams has been to develop a safety plan for the school, delegate tasks and monitor the implementation of the policy. The establishment of Safety Teams has been uneven in the 40 Schools area. Some schools have been keen to progress more quickly whereas others have worked at a slower pace, often for internal reasons.
The Safety Teams were launched in September 1999 at an event attended by the Gauteng MEC for Safety and Liaison, the Gauteng MEC for Education, and other key members of the National Department of Education. This points to growing government support and interest in this innovative project.
Tiisa Thuto ( Strengthening Education )
In recognition of the achievements and potential of CSVR's 40 Schools Project, Business Against Crime (BAC) offered to support the involvement of various other NGO service providers which could be connected with the Soweto schools. These organisations were to provide additional expertise and a broader base of services to complement the CSVR's own work on the project. The NGOs that became involved in this new partnership included: Sports for Peace, IMSSA and Both Sides of the Story. The new cooperation has been called Tiisa Thuto, a south Sotho expression meaning: "strengthening education". This is seen as a particularly useful pilot exercise in building partnerships between NGO service providers.
The various NGOs will continue to provide services in the 40 Schools area during 2000 and lessons learned will be compiled into a report that will inform the production of a manual. This programme may be replicated in other areas should additional funding be secured.
Gauteng Education Task Team
In the course of the year under review, the former MEC for Education, Mary Metcalfe, invited CSVR to join a task team investigating ways of assisting "red light" schools in Gauteng (those experiencing particularly poor performance based on educational results) to develop intervention strategies to deal with crime and violence. In many of these worst off schools, crime and violence were cited as key reasons for poor school results. The team consisted of representatives from the Departments of Safety and Liaison, Welfare and Education, as well as Wandile Zwane from CSVR. A needs analysis was undertaken and an interim report documenting the outcomes was produced. Unfortunately, further work by this team was interrupted due to the reshuffling of the Gauteng cabinet.
National Facilitation for the Department of Education
In the course of 1999, CSVR was commissioned by the Culture of Learning and Teaching Services (COLTS) Desk of the National Department of Education to design and facilitate workshops for each of the nine provincial departments of education. CSVR's mandate was to assist each of the provinces to develop provincial plans of action to support the National Department's No Crime in Schools campaign. CSVR Director Graeme Simpson, EMU Head Tracy Vienings and the Youth Department's Manager Dorothy Mdhluli designed and facilitated two-day workshops in each of the nine provinces.
An action plan was developed for each province and these were documented by CSVR. In addition, CSVR provided an analytical report to assist the National Department of Education in identifying a range of problems and possibilities for school safety strategies that were thrown up by the comparative experience of the provincial facilitation workshops. Feedback received from the Department has been extremely positive and the whole enterprise provided an invaluable opportunity for CSVR to translate its local pilot programmes into a model for critical scrutiny in other provinces and under different conditions.
When President Thabo Mbeki took office in June 1999, he expressed concern at the levels of crime and violence in schools and identified as a key priority the restoration of a culture of learning and teaching. A coordinated strategy was expected from the various Departments, aimed at eradicating crime, including crime in schools. However, these initiatives do not yet appear to have made an impact on the rising incidence of crime involving youth.
Nonetheless, a major development has been the launch, by the office of the State President, of the National Programme of Action (NPA) 2000 and Beyond, on the status of children in South Africa. The NPA covers a range of Government priorities regarding children, including the issue of HIV/AIDS, which has become a primary concern. It is hoped that this initiative will provide the context for growing government support for the youth crime prevention programmes of CSVR.
A further positive development has been the pledge and commitment to partnership by the Department of Safety and Liaison, in a drive to make Gauteng schools safe. The Department has stated that it aims to ensure that there are programmes across Gauteng and in doing so, has drawn heavily on CSVR's strategy for the establishment of Safety Teams.
Furthermore, CSVR hopes to continue to test its schools-based work on a pilot basis in other provinces and in rural areas. This will be facilitated by a tender which CSVR and its SANTSEP partners has won from the Department of Health, that involves the initiation of a Violence Intervention Project in three provinces. The Department of Education has expressed interest in the project, so a challenge will be to ensure the establishment of an effective partnership in order to ensure the optimum opportunity for successful delivery. In addition, the Youth Department will continue to work to influence national policy formulation on Safe Schools.
There is concern over the number of young people swelling the ranks of the unemployed and the inability of the corporate sector to absorb young people who are graduating from high schools. This has a negative impact on initiatives aimed at fighting crime. Furthermore, it has been suggested that despite having played an active role in the struggle to end apartheid in the 1980s, youth were largely excluded from both the negotiation process and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission process, and that this has contributed to their re-marginalisation during the post-Apartheid phase. Young people lack a voice in shaping issues that impact on their lives, which means that initiatives to help them deal with the past have been largely inadequate. It is widely perceived that the Youth Commission has not delivered any tangible benefits since its inception five years ago.
For these reasons, CSVR's Youth Department has noted an increasing need to both understand and provide services to out of school youth, in addition to our various services aimed at young people within schools. CSVR has already undertaken some innovative research with youth gangs and with juvenile offenders (by CSVR's Education and Media and Criminal Justice Policy Units). The challenge remains for CSVR's Youth Department to seize the initiative on this front in the coming years.
Challenges within the Safe Schools Strategy
Substantial challenges will surface if CSVR's Safe Schools Strategy is to unfold as planned and meet it full potential. Firstly, involving parents in the life of the school remains a major challenge, as many parents lack the confidence to approach teachers. This can make it more difficult to work with the parents of children experiencing problems. Frequently, parents express a wish to be educated along with their children and this is often difficult to accommodate.
Some teachers remain reluctant to report cases of abuse, fearing intimidation by the perpetrators and wishing to avoid the unfamiliar legal territory this may involve them in. Furthermore, developments in the education sector with regard to redeployment and retrenchment of teachers can generate feelings of insecurity and low morale, causing teachers to become preoccupied with their personal situation and to lose focus on the children. The new emphasis on Outcome Based Education means that more of teachers' time is spent in workshops acquiring these new skills.
Finally, the enormous challenge of driving successful school safety teams, sustaining broad participation and ultimately forging the link between school and wider community safety, is a major challenge that lies ahead.
Despite all these difficulties and challenges, young people have demonstrated remarkable resilience. They dominate alternative popular culture, for example shaping trends in music and language which have lead to changes in the thinking patterns of society. CSVR Youth Department staff have worked with many young people who are highly committed to development. In Soweto, as elsewhere in the country, many youth organizations implement innovative and groundbreaking programmes despite a lack of support from Government or other sources. In the coming year the department will:
CSVR established a Sustainability Programme in April 1999 with the aim of identifying innovative ways to generate income in order to supplement donor funding. Janine Rauch was appointed as a Senior Consultant to run the programme. Jonny Steinberg joined the team in late 1999 and will move on to a Centre research project commencing in 2000.
The programme aims to supplement the Centre's donor funding by facilitating staff to offer client services under contract, in order to build a reserve fund for use in subsidising the Centre's activities and for investment in internal capacity building initiatives. Incentives are provided for members of Centre staff who undertake income-generating work and the programme creates opportunities for cross-departmental and multi-disciplinary work within the Centre.
Establishing the Programme
The principles of the Sustainability Programme were structured in accordance with the Centre's aims and objectives, and approved by the Board. A set of rules and procedures for income-generating work was agreed by the Centre's Management Committee. The introduction of strict guidelines, business planning and budgeting requirements ensure the rigorous regulation of the programme.
During 1999 CSVR staff completed almost forty projects for external clients. Most clients were government departments at national, provincial and local level followed by businesses in South Africa and foreign or multinational agencies. Projects undertaken included:
Almost half the Centre's professional staff (approximately twenty people) participated in income-generating projects in 1999. Most of the projects were delivered by individuals working alone as experts assisting a range of clients (largely government). A number of junior staff participated as "learners" on the projects, giving them exposure to income-generation work and to areas which fall outside of their regular job descriptions.
Income Generated and Other Benefits
In total, approximately R1 million was invoiced by CSVR for income-generating projects in 1999, netting approximately R200 000 to the Reserve Fund. The income in this Reserve Fund has been spent on upgrading infrastructure in the Centre: a new LAN with an e-mail network for all staff; a new computer centre; storage units for the Resource Centre; and a project management training course for twenty Centre staff. The year-end evaluation of the Sustainability Programme was extremely positive, both financially (breaking even within eight months of starting up), and in terms of organisational development. The regulation and professionalisation of client-based service delivery within the Centre has had positive effects on staff morale and staff have benefited from the improved infrastructure and training subsidised by the earned income.
One of the fundamental challenges facing staff who wish to participate in income-generating work is the tension between the regular, planned requirements of their donor-funded programmes and the unpredictable, high-pressure demands of income-generating work. The Sustainability Programme may be restructured in 2000 to take into account these competing demands. Furthermore, almost one third of the income-generating projects were run out of individual CSVR Units or departments, so that few of the projects were truly cross-departmental in nature. This aspect of the scheme will be strengthened in the coming year.
In the year 2000 the Sustainability Programme will continue to be developed towards the dual goals of supplementing CSVR's strong donor-income base, and providing meaningful incentives to staff who contribute to this progression.
The Resource Centre distributes CSVR research publications and information about the organisation to staff and to the public. Those who access this information range from individuals and organisations who are involved in grassroots interventions to those concerned with policy formation at a government level. The Centre maintains and distributes an archive of CSVR research and educational materials. It maintains the CSVR web site and trains staff in the use of e-mail and the Internet as networking and research tools.
A Living Archive
A key task is the maintenance of an accessible archive of the research which has been produced over the last eleven years by CSVR. In 1999 the major achievement of the Resource Centre and its manager, Andie Miller, has been the creation of a living archive of the organisation's work by publishing the first ten years of Centre research online. This is available on the web site at http://www.csvr.org.za/res/pubslist.htm. As a result, this research is now freely available to anyone who has access to the Internet. For those who do not have Internet access, papers are still available at CSVR at a fee covering the cost of duplication and postage.
There has been an extremely positive response to this web site, which has generated substantial publicity for the organisation. The increased profile and accessibility of CSVR work increases its capacity to market its services as well as to inform donors about our expertise and achievements.
Of significance is the fact that many of CSVR's grass roots constituencies with limited financial resources will now be able to gain access to the Internet at educational institutions or community centres in the areas in which they live. This goes a long way towards fulfilling the Centre's mission to become "a gateway to the virtual community of all those concerned with the issues of violence, crime, reconciliation, human rights, transformation and peace education".
While details of research produced within the last year can be found on the web site, these papers are available at a cost from the Resource Centre or by mail. This facilitates the monitoring of interest in CSVR's most recent work, as well as continuing to generate a small amount of income which is re-invested in meeting the running costs of the Resource Centre.
A Networked Centre: Skilling Staff
A computer network was installed in the Centre during 1999 and all staff were trained in its use, which has resulted in an exponential leap in the capacity of CSVR staff to understand and utilise these tools and research opportunities. There is a growing awareness of the effectiveness of the Intranet as a communication tool and a means of information sharing as well as a means of reducing the amount of paper circulated within the organisation.
Since 1996 CSVR has grown from a total of forty staff members to over seventy including contract workers and interns. A key challenge for the Resource Centre will be to find ways of attracting financial resources in order to expand its human resource complement and to develop its library in order to meet the increasing needs of CSVR and our growing client base.
Given the changing nature of information management, there is a growing need for the Resource Centre to identify an accessible space within the CSVR premises where books can be centralised and stored securely, and where staff members can work quietly when necessary.
It has become apparent that a database which tracks all resources held by CSVR would be useful. The Resource Centre's Administrator, Rosey Seseng, will play an integral role in the development of such a database in the coming year. Furthermore, there is an urgent need to centralise the unique training materials produced by the organisation in order to make them more accessible to members of the public. This constitutes a key task for 2000.
The primary goal for the Resource Centre in 2000 will be to work towards the creation of an integrated information management system within CSVR. A further key priority will be to raise the funds required to expand the capacity of the Resource Centre in order to match the expansion throughout the organisation as a whole.
CSVR's financial growth has matched the organisation's expansion, both in its size and in its activities. This has been due to increased success in project funding within the organisation, still largely provided by foreign donor agencies.
The total income received by the Centre increased by 27% from 1998 to approximately R14 million in 1999. However, a significant amount of the donor income received in the 1999 financial year was in fact allocated to expenditure for activities that will take place or continue into 2000. The Centre was also more successful in winning local contracts and tenders in 1999, with the total income raised from such ventures increasing from approximately R300 000 in 1998 to approximately R1 million in 1999. All of this income was raised on a cost recovery basis and was reinvested in CSVR's various non-profit activities. However, of the income received in 1999, 78% was still comprised of funds from foreign donor agencies. This indicates that despite the Centre's success in expanding its funding from local sources, it remains predominantly dependent on foreign grants.
In 1999 the Centre was still able to attract funding for all its departments and activities, but in many cases this was based upon donor support for short term project funding rather than medium to long term support. Although not universal, this trend will also affect CSVR's core funding from the end of 2000, with fewer and fewer donors willing to support overheads or fixed organisational costs, seldom adequately building these costs into their preferred project funding. The overall effect is that there remain significant risks to the longer term financial sustainability of CSVR's core funding, and this imposes an even greater obligation to develop a reserve fund or endowment for the future. However, as will be seen below, CSVR's various departments and units are reasonably secure for the coming year or more. Fuller detail is available in CSVR's audited financial statements.
CSVR's annual expenditure for 1999 has also reflected the organisation's growth in size and activity. This resulted in a parallel increase in spending of approximately 40% over the R8.2 million spent in 1998.
CSVR'S Core Operating Fund has remained stable in the light of funding confirmed until the end of 2000. However, as noted, there is some concern about the prospects of longer term core funding prospects. Total expenditure on the core account increased by 25% from R1.7 million in 1998 to approximately R2.1 million in 1999. In part this is attributable to investment in upgraded technology and capital equipment for the whole organisation, including the networking of the CSVR's computer infrastructure, the installation of a new switchboard system and the purchase of a photocopier.
The Education and Media Unit's expenditure decreased in 1999, as projects undertaken in 1997 and 1998 drew to a close. In addition, the relative insecurity of the Unit's funding for 2000 resulted in the delayed commencement of some planned projects and a particularly conservative spending approach.
The Criminal Justice Policy Unit's income and expenditure did not change dramatically in 1999. The Unit was particularly successful in securing funds for short term, specific projects but at the end of 1999 also secured generous support from the Irish Embassy, which offers security for 2000 and beyond.
Trauma Clinic expenditure increased by 22% from 1998 to 1999. This was partly due to the need to increase sessional service delivery in order to cope with expanding client demand on the Clinic's skeleton staff. The Trauma Clinic has acquired promises of significant funding from the European Union for 2000 - 2003 as part of the development of a national network of trauma service providers. It is hoped that ongoing Swiss support will help to secure the Clinic's future, which has been somewhat precarious in the short term due to delays in receiving EU funds.
The Transition and Reconciliation Unit's expenditure has almost doubled from R1.2 million in 1998 to R2.4 million in 1999. This Unit has been particularly successful in attracting both short term project funding and longer term support and is therefore well placed for the coming two years.
In 1998 CSVR's Youth Department appeared less financially secure than other Units. However, the Department has almost doubled its funding base in 1999. The Department now looks secure for 2000, based both on donor assistance and on contractual work for the Department of Safety and Security.
1999 has been the first full year that the Gender Unit has operated. This Unit has received significant support from the Ford Foundation and has also attracted funding for specific short term projects. The acquisition of follow-up funding from mid-2000 remains a priority for the Unit.
"The Causes and Prevention of Deaths in Police Custody or as a Result of Police Action", Presentation to senior management of the Independent Complaints Directorate (ICD), Secretariat of Safety and Security, ICD Head Office, Pretoria, South Africa, 20 August 1999.
Commijs, C & Zwane, W
"Crime and Violence in Schools", Institute for Democracy in South Africa (IDASA), Pretoria, South Africa, June 1999.
"Truth, Reconciliation and Disappearances", Presentation to the Intercontinental Forum on Enforced Disappearances, United Nations, Geneva, Switzerland, April 1999.
"Post-TRC Prosecutions: An instrument to reveal more truth", TRC: Commissioning the Past Conference, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, 11-14 June 1999.
"Human Rights and Prisons", Institute for the Advancement of Journalism , Parktown, Johannesburg, South Africa, 17 February 1999.
"Human Rights and Prisons", Institute for the Advancement of Journalism, Parktown, Johannesburg, South Africa, 16 March 1999.
"Reporting on a Human Rights Training Programme for Prisoners", Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation and the Institute for Security Studies workshop on Reintegration and Development Programmes for Prisoners, Midrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, 24 March 1999.
"The Right to Development: Some thoughts from South Africa", United Nations symposium on the Right to Development, Geneva, Switzerland, 8 September 1999.
"Human Rights Challenges facing the Department of Correctional Services", Pretoria, South Africa, 10 December 1999.
Garcia, M, Harris, B & Spencer, F
"Foreigners and Violence in South Africa", Information Stall at Africa Human Rights Day, Yeoville, Johannesburg, South Africa, 21 October 1999.
"Lessons from Community Mediation: Alexandra as a case study", University of South Africa and Wilgespruit Fellowship Centre, In depth Conflict Transformation Course, Roodepoort, Johannesburg, South Africa, June 1999.
"Trauma and the Truth Commission", Paper presented at the Traumatic Stress in South Africa: Working Towards Solutions Conference, Johannesburg, South Africa, 27-29 January 1999.
"Community Psychology in South Africa", Presentation to Masters in Clinical Psychology students, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, 17 February 1999.
"Reality & Perception: Harnessing potentials within a culture of violence", Presentation to businessmen, Hebrew Order of David Centre, Johannesburg, South Africa, 4 May 1999.
"Past Imperfect: Strategies for dealing with past political violence in Northern Ireland, South Africa and countries in transition", Paper presented at the Fourth International Conference of the Ethnic Studies Network, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, 8-11 June 1999.
"Psychologising the Truth", Paper presented at the TRC: Commissioning the Past Conference at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, 11-14 June 1999.
"Contextualising Violence in South Africa", Presentation to Trauma Clinic volunteers, Foundation for Global Dialogue, Braamfontein Centre, Johannesburg, South Africa, 22 June 1999.
"Evaluating the TRC: A response to Barney Pityana and Charles Villa-Vicencio", Goedgedacht Forum, Cape Town, South Africa, 21-22 August 1999.
"Reconciliation in the Mbeki Era", Political Briefing, Interfund, Johannesburg, South Africa, 29 November 1999.
"The Challenge of Embedding Peace", Paper presented at the Community and Governance in Times of Transition Conference, Northern Ireland Voluntary Trust, Belfast, Northern Ireland, 9-10 December 1999.
Hamber, B & Wilson, W
"Symbolic Closure Through Memory, Reparation and Revenge in Post-conflict Societies", Paper presented at the Traumatic Stress in South Africa: Working Towards Solutions Conference, Johannesburg, South Africa, 27-29 January 1999.
"Xenophobia: A new pathology for a new South Africa?" Normality and Pathology: Fifth Qualitative Methods Conference, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, 8-9 September 1999.
"The Impact of Symbolic Reparations (Monuments) in the Lives of the Communities", TRC: Commissioning the Past Conference, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, 11-14 June 1999.
"The Role of Facilitation and Conflict Resolution Skills in Community Theatre", Address to Victory/Sonqoba Theatre Company, Alexandra, Johannesburg, South Africa, 3 November 1999.
"Conflict Resolution and Reconciliation Processes in South Africa", Address to visiting Swedish students, Berea, Johannesburg, South Africa, 15 December 1999.
"The 40 Schools Project", National Crime Prevention Strategy Committee Meeting, Pretoria, South Africa, February 1999 Crime in Schools, Atlanta, USA, October 1999.
"The South African Police Disciplinary System: Towards police reform", Presentation to senior management of the Independent Complaints Directorate (ICD), Secretariat of Safety and Security, ICD Head Office, Pretoria, South Africa, 20 August 1999.
Savage, K & Bruce, D
"Investigation of Police Misconduct: The Independent Complaints Directorate and the duty of members of the police service to answer questions", Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, Braamfontein, Johannesburg, South Africa, June 1999.
"Youth Perceptions of Yizo Yizo", Presentation to South African Broadcasting Corporation Education (SABC), Johannesburg, South Africa, August 1999.
"The East Side Television Series", Radio interview on SAfm on A.M. Live, South Africa, September 1999.
"How Do we Tackle Racism in the Schools?" Radio interview on the afternoon show on Khaya FM, South Africa, September 1999.
"The Lessons to be Learnt from Yizo Yizo", Presentation to the Yizo Yizo research and production team, Johannesburg, South Africa, September 1999.
"Making Educational Television for Youth", Radio interview with the Community Radio Network, South Africa, October 1999.
Segal, L & Vienings, T
"Dealing with Racism in Schools", Presentation to South African Broadcasting Corporation's Take Five producers and presenters, Johannesburg, South Africa, September 1999.
"Contextualising Violence in South Africa: Politics, crime and trauma", Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, Conference on Traumatic Stress Studies in Africa, Johannesburg, South Africa, January 1999.
"Gangs, Guns and Gutter Education: Youth culture and violence in South Africa", Presentation to the National Crime Prevention Strategy cross-departmental workshop, Pretoria, South Africa, February 1999.
"Shifting Patterns of Violence in South Africa: The challenges of sustainable reconciliation", Presentation to the internal International Development Research Centre staff seminar, Johannesburg, South Africa, February 1999.
"Political and Other Manifestations of Violence in Post-Apartheid South Africa", Series of four lectures, South African Defence Force Leadership Training Course, SANDF Training College, Voortrekkerhoogte, South Africa, March and August 1999.
"Understanding Patterns of Violence in South Africa", Jewish Community Services Seminar, Our Parents' Home, Johannesburg, South Africa, April 1999.
"'Storm in a Teacup': Prospects of violence during the election of 1999", Presentation to the Board of Business Against Crime (Gauteng), Sandton, Johannesburg, South Africa, May 1999.
"Getting to Grips with Crime and its Causes", St Johns High School Student Seminar, Johannesburg, South Africa, May 1999.
"Youth Sub-culture and Violence in South Africa", Presentation to the Royal Netherlands Embassy staff, Pretoria, South Africa, June 1999.
"Competing Truths: An evaluation of South Africa's TRC", TRC: Commissioning the Past Conference, CSVR and History Workshop, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, 11-14 June 1999.
"'Tell No Lies, Claim No Easy Victories': An evaluation of South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission - some lessons for societies in transition", Twelfth Annual Conference of the Academic Council of the United Nations System (ACUNS), New York, USA, June 1999.
"The Impact of Violent Crime on the Workplace", Middle Level Management Workshop for Retail Outlets, Alberton, Johannesburg, South Africa, July 1999.
"Redefining the Gender Violence Agenda: Men and sexual violence in South Africa", Tshwaranang Legal Advocacy Centre Public Seminar, Johannesburg, South Africa, August 1999.
"Debating the Causes and Solutions to Violence in South Africa", Sociology II Lecture, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, August 1999.
"From Safer Schools to Safe Communities", Launch of CSVR's Safe Schools Safety Teams, Soweto, South Africa, September 1999.
"Criminalisation of Politics and the Politicisation of Crime", Presentation to SANDF Strategy Team, Armscor Building, Pretoria, South Africa, November 1999.
"South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission: Lessons and limitations", Paper presented to Burundian and Rwandan Parliamentary Delegations, Rosebank Hotel, Johannesburg, South Africa, December 1999.
van der Merwe, H
"Community Reconciliation in South Africa: Lessons from the TRC's intervention in two communities, Promoting Justice and Peace through Reconciliation and Coexistence Alternatives", American University School for International Service, Washington DC, USA, February 1999.
"The TRC and Community Reconciliation: A case study of Duduza", University of the Witwatersrand Sociology Department Seminar, Johannesburg, South Africa, May 1999.
"National Narrative versus Local Truths: The TRC's engagement with Duduza", TRC: Commissioning the Past Conference, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, 11-14 June 1999.
"Reconciliation in South Africa: The role of the TRC", Presentation to Peace and Conflict Studies class, University of Irvine, Irvine, California, USA, October 1999.
"Reconciliation and Confrontation: The TRC and community memory", Seminar at University of Irvine Social Ecology Faculty, Irvine, California, USA, October 1999.
"Assessing the TRC's Contribution to Justice, Truth and Reconciliation", Paper presented at International Fellowship of Reconciliation (IFOR) Conference, Madrid, Spain, November 1999.
"Assessing the TRC's Contribution to Justice, Truth and Reconciliation", Seminar presented at Bilbao University, Bilbao, Spain, November 1999.
"Assessing the TRC's Contribution to Justice, Truth and Reconciliation", Briefing to Bishop's office, Bilbao, Spain, November 1999.
"Assessing the TRC's Contribution to Justice, Truth and Reconciliation", Briefing to Basque Parliament Human Rights Committee, Vitoria, Spain, November 1999.
"Personal and Community Reconciliation: Assessing the impact of the TRC", public seminars in Pamplona, San Sebastian and Vitoria, Spain, 4-6 November 1999.
"The Findings from the Institute for Security Studies Study", Presentation to the government's Domestic Violence Committee, South Africa, 19 February 1999.
"Using the New Domestic Violence Act", presentation to organisations in inner-city Johannesburg, South Africa, 22 February 1999.
"Using the New Domestic Violence Act", presentation to organisations in Randfontein, South Africa, 23 February 1999.
"An Overview of Prevention Activities in Relation to Rape", Presentation forming part of UNISA seminar on rape, South Africa, 23 March 1999.
"The Links between Gender and Violence", Lecture to second year sociology students, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, 25 May 1999.
"South African Law and Domestic Violence", Lecture to final year law students, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, 26 May 1999.
"The Process of Making Law around Violence against Women in South Africa", Lecture to second year anthropology students, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, 3 June 1999.
"Crime and Violence in South Africa", Union of Jewish Women, Johannesburg, South Africa, 26 July 1999.
"Power, Crime and Violence", Lecture to third year sociology students, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, 4 August 1999
"Violence as an Obstruction to Gender Equality", Department of State Expenditure, Johannesburg, South Africa, 6 August 1999.
"Violence and Abuse: A chronic societal problem", Union of Jewish Women National Conference, Johannesburg, South Africa, 31 August 1999.
"An Overview of the Law on Rape and the Role of the Medical Officer in Rape Cases", Sunninghill Hospital, South Africa, 1 September 1999.
"HIV/AIDS and Violence against Women", Congress of South African Trade Unions, 12 November 1999.
"Breaking Cycles of Violence", Krugersdorp Men's Prison, Krugersdorp, South Africa, 8 December 1999.
"Why is There so Much Violence in South Africa?" Presentation to Christian University Students' Union, Lund University, Sweden, May 1999.
"Human Rights Training for Prison Inspectors and Independent Prison Visitors", Cape Town, South Africa, 30-31 March 1999.
"Human Rights Training for Members of the Correctional Services", on behalf of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Krugersdorp, Johannesburg, South Africa, 17-28 May 1999.
Garcia, M, Spencer,F & Kekane B
"Victim Empowerment for Criminal Justice Officials", Department of Justice and Anti Hijack Team, Johannesburg, South Africa, March 1999.
Garcia, M & Robertson, M
"Interviewing Skills for Refugee Applicants", Department of Home Affairs, Pretoria, South Africa, September 1999.
"Setting up a Cross-community Trauma Service", Kairos Group, Holiday Inn, Belfast, Northern Ireland, 20 September 1999.
"Conflict Resolution, Trauma and Reconciliation in South Africa", Lumkho Institute, South African Catholic Bishops Conference, Magaliesburg, South Africa, 23-24 November 1999.
"Safe Schools", South African Breweries Baragwanath plant, Johannesburg, South Africa, May 1999.
"Safe Schools and School Governing Bodies", Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa, June 1999.
"Children, Violence and Teachers", Tembisa/Kempton-Park District, Johannesburg, South Africa, August 1999.
"Safe Schools", Bloemfontein, South Africa, August 1999.
"Trauma Management and Teachers", Tembisa/Kempton-Park District, Johannesburg, South Africa, September 1999.
"Policy Formulation for Safe Schools", Jabulani, Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa, October 1999.
"Safe Schools and Teachers", Ithembalihle Primary School, Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa, October 1999.
"Safe Schools", Tlhologelo Primary School, Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa, October 1999.
"Safe Schools and Parents", Phakamani Primary School, Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa, November 1999.
"Safe Schools and Parents", Letare High School, Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa, November 1999.
"Safe Schools and Parents", Mxolisi Primary School, Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa, November 1999.
"Safe Schools and Parents", Jabulani Technical High School, Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa, November 1999.
"Safe Schools and Parents", Ithembalihle Primary School, Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa, November 1999.
"Safe Schools and the Police", Dobsonville Police Schools Monitoring Unit, Dobsonville, Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa, November 1999.
"Safe Schools and Teachers", Emathafeni Primary School, Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa, November 1999.
"Safe Schools and Teachers", Ekuphumeleleni Primary School, Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa, November 1999.
Lebeloane, M, Mdhluli, D & Zwane, W
"Peer Counselling for Students", Zola, Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa, March 1999.
"Trauma Management for Teachers", Jabulani High School, Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa, April 1999.
"Sustainable Community Reconciliation", Workshop on Youth and Violence in Southern Africa: Building cultures of peace, Durban, South Africa, 18-23 July 1999.
"Community Discussion Workshop on the Developments of Truth and Reconciliation Commission", Ermelo, South Africa, 3 September 1999.
"Community Discussion Workshop on the Developments of Truth and Reconciliation Commission", Alexandra Township, Johannesburg, South Africa, 2 November 1999.
Maepa, T & Mapela, R (Khulumani Support Group)
"Community Discussion Workshop on the Developments of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission with Regard to Reparations and Strengthening Khulumani", Pietersburg, GaMatlala, South Africa, 15 April 1999.
"Community Discussion Workshop on the Developments of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission with Regard to Reparations", Burgesfort, South Africa, 16 April 1999.
"Community Discussion Workshop on the Developments of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission", Tumahole, Parys, South Africa, 10 November 1999.
Maepa, T & Mofokeng, T
"Community Discussion Workshop on the Developments of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission", Mafikeng, South Africa, 30 April 1999.
"Community Discussion Workshop on the Developments of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission", Mafikeng, South Africa, 22 May 1999.
"Community Discussion Workshop on the Developments of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission", White River, Mpumalanga, South Africa, 24-25 November 1999.
"Creating Safe Schools", Zola, Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa, October 1999.
"Safe Schools and Parents", Zola, Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa, December 1999.
Mdhluli, D, Simpson, G & Vienings, T
"Dealing with Crime and Violence in Schools", series of nine provincial workshops, South Africa, January - December 1999.
"Update on Reparations", Pimville, Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa, 23 October 1999.
"NGO Workshop on the Call for the Implementation of the Final Reparations", Devonshire Hotel, Johannesburg, South Africa, 4 November 1999.
Mofokeng, T & Khumalo, D (Khulumani Support Group)
"Setting up New Khulumani Groups and Developing an Expansion Strategy", education and information in the KwaZulu-Natal province, Durban, South Africa, 7 September 1999.
"Trauma Counselling and Self-Care", Rockingham Forest Trust, Northampton, United Kingdom, May 1999.
Robertson, M, Sacoor, S, Spencer,F, Garcia, M, Kekana, B & Hajiyiannis, H
"Victim Empowerment and Trauma Management for Primary Health Care Practitioners", Northern Province, North West & Mpumulanga Departments of Health, South Africa, March - November 1999.
Robertson, M & Sacoor, S
"Stress Management and Self-Care for Journalists", Institute for the Advancement of Journalism, Johannesburg, South Africa, November 1999.
Sacoor, S, Christiaan, R & Fisher C
"Trauma Management Workshop", South African Airways, Johannesburg, South Africa, February 1999.
Sacoor, S, Garcia, M, Kekane, B, Spencer, F & Robertson, M
"Victim Empowerment Training for 10111 Operators", Johannesburg, South Africa, March - September 1999.
Sacoor, S & Garcia, M
"Trauma Awareness Workshop", KG Holdings, Johannesburg, South Africa, August 1999.
Spencer, F, Sacoor, S & Kekane, B
"Victim Empowerment Training", Katlehong Police Station, South Africa, November 1999.
"Reporting on Violence Against Women", Institute for the Advancement of Journalism, South Africa, 15 February 1999.
"Using Expert Testimony in Cases of Gender Violence", Mini-workshop at Justice College, South Africa, 25 February 1999.
"Prosecuting Cases of Intimate Femicide", Workshop for State Advocates at Witwatersrand High Court, South Africa, 8 April 1999.
"Assisting Rape Survivors", Workshop, the Black Sash, South Africa, 22 April 1999.
"The Psychological Impact and Effects of Domestic Violence", Lifeline counsellors, South Africa, 12 June 1999.
"The Use of Screening Guidelines to ask Female Patients about Domestic Violence", Department of Health nurses' training, South Africa, 27-28 July 1999.
"The Use of Screening Guidelines to ask Female Patients about Domestic Violence", Department of Health nurses' training, South Africa, 16-17 August 1999.
"Magistrates and Violence Against Women", Justice College Violence Against Women Training Partnership, Gauteng, South Africa, 18-20 August 1999.
"The Use of Screening Guidelines to ask Female Patients about Domestic Violence", Department of Health nurses' training, South Africa, 23-24 August 1999.
"Magistrates and Violence Against Women", Justice College Violence Against Women Training Partnership, Northern Cape, South Africa, 25-27 August 1999.
"Magistrates and Violence Against Women", Justice College Violence Against Women Training Partnership, North West Province, South Africa, 8-10 September 1999.
"Assisting Rape Survivors", Workshop, the Black Sash, South Africa, 14 October 1999.
"Inter-sectoral Approaches to Dealing with Violence Against Women", Justice College Violence Against Women Training Partnership, Germiston, Johannesburg, South Africa, 28-29 October 1999.
"Newsworthiness and Crime Reporting", Institute for the Advancement of Journalism, South Africa, 1 November 1999.
"Violence Against Women in South Africa", Wizo, South Africa, 2 November 1999.
"Reporting on Violence Against Women", Institute for the Advancement of Journalism, South Africa, 4 November 1999.
"Implementing the Domestic Violence Act", Benoni Local Health Authority, Johannesburg, South Africa, 11 November 1999.
"An Introduction to Dealing with Cases of Intimate Femicide", Members of GNVAW, South Africa, 23 November 1999.
"Inter-sectoral Approaches to Dealing with Domestic Violence", Sebokeng, South Africa, 26 November 1999.
"Implementing the Domestic Violence Act", Alexandra community members programme put together by the Department of Justice, South Africa, 7 December 1999.
"Community Conflict Mediation: The case of Alexandra", Workshop to International Students at the Advanced International Programme for Conflict Resolution, Uppsala University, Sweden, May 1999.
"Violence and Transition: The case of South Africa", Workshop to International Students' Union, Lund University, Sweden, May 1999.
"Skills for Facilitators", Workshop for United Nations Trainers, ILO Training Centre, Italy, September 1999.
Chapters in Books
Effendi, K & Hamber, B
"Publish or Perish: Disseminating your research findings", In M. Terre Blanche and K. Durrheim (eds), Research in Practice: Applied Methods for the Social Sciences, 1999, pp. 178-190, UCT Press, Cape Town.
van der Merwe, H
"Community Reconciliation in South Africa: Lessons from the TRC's intervention in two communities", in M. Abu-Nimer (ed.), Promoting Justice and Peace through Reconciliation and Coexistence Alternatives, American University Conference Proceedings.
"Femicide", National Legal Manual for Counsellors of Raped and Battered Women, 1999, pp. 420-438, Tshwaranang Legal Advocacy Centre Sexual Harassment (co-authored with Patricia Kumalo), National Legal Manual for Counsellors of Raped and Battered Women, 1999, Legal Advocacy Centre.
Bruce, D & Komane, J
"Taxis, Cops and Vigilantes: Police attitudes towards street justice", Crime and Conflict, No. 17, Spring 1999, pp. 39-44.
"Kids Behind Bars: Talking to young inmates", Crime and Conflict, No. 17, Spring 1999, pp. 17-22.
"Have No Doubt it is Fear in the Land: An exploration of the continuing cycles of violence in South Africa", Zeitschrift für Politische Psychologie, Jg. 7, Nr. 1+2, 1999, pp. 113-128.
van der Merwe, H, Dewhirst, P & Hamber, B
"Non-governmental Organisations and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission: An impact assessment", Politikon, 26(1), 1999, pp. 55-79.
"The Influence of Gender on Research: A critique of two victim surveys", Development Update Vol. 2, No. 4, 1999 pp. 41-47.
Strategic Priorities of the Independent Complaints Directorate, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, June 1999.
Bollen, S, Artz, L, Vetten, L & Louw A
Violence Against Women in Metropolitan South Africa: A study on impact and service delivery, Institute for Security Studies, Pretoria, Monograph Series No. 41, September 1999.
The Skill of Policing: Improving the management of the use of force in the SAPS through administrative review, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, June 1999.
Bruce, D & Komane, J
Police Attitudes to Informal Policing (Vigilante) Activities at Modal Interchanges, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, May 1999.
Bruce, D, Newham, G & Reddy, S
The Police, Victims and the Criminal Justice Process: An integrated approach, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, December 1999.
Bruce, D & O'Malley, G
In the Line of Duty: Shooting incident reports and other indicators of the use and abuse of force by members of the SAPS, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, June 1999.
Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation & Lawyers for Human Rights
Final Project Report: Human rights training in prison, April 1999.
Chung, S & Dissel, A
Reintegration and Development Programmes for Prisoners in Johannesburg Prison, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, August 1999.
Criminal Justice Policy Unit
Submission Regarding the Proposed Independent Complaints Directorate White Paper, October 1999.
Children Serving Gaol Sentences: A profile on children sentenced to prison, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, August 1999.
Dissel, A & Ngubeni, K
A Lonely Way to Die: An examination of deaths in police custody, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, June 1999.
Evaluation of National Pilot Training Programme for Primary Health Care Practitioners in Victim Empowerment and Trauma Management, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, 1999.
Hajiyiannis, H & Viennings, N
Arguing for the Inclusion of Trauma Counselling in Medical Health Insurance, Occasional paper, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, 1999.
Past Imperfect: Strategies for dealing with past political violence in Northern Ireland, South Africa and countries in transition, Occasional Paper, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, Johannesburg, South Africa, 1999.
Hamber, B & Kibble, S
From Truth to Transformation: The Truth and Reconciliation Commission in South Africa, CIIR Report, Catholic Institute for International Relations, London, 1999.
Hamber, B & Wilson, R
Symbolic Closure Through Memory, Reparation and Revenge in Post-conflict Societies, Paper presented at the Traumatic Stress in South Africa conference hosted by the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation in association with the African Society for Traumatic Stress Studies at the Parktonian Hotel, Johannesburg, South Africa, 27-29 January 1999.
Symbols of Hope: Monuments as symbols of remembrance and peace in the process of reconciliation, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, October 1999.
Training Needs Analysis Conducted for the Independent Complaints Directorate, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, June 1999.
Fine Tuning the Transformation of the SAPS: The relevance of the disciplinary system, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, June 1999.
Robertson, M & Hajiyiannis, H
Evaluation of the Psychosocial Support Programme - World Vision Rwanda, Report commissioned by World Vision Rwanda, November 1999.
Investigation of Police Misconduct: The Independent Complaints Directorate and the duty of members of the police service to answer questions, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, June 1999.
Rebuilding Fractured Societies: Reconstruction and the changing nature of violence - Some self-critical insights from post-apartheid South Africa, Research report commissioned by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) 1999.
Wedge, P, Boswell, G & Dissel, A
Key Factors in the Backgrounds of Serious Young Offenders, unpublished report, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, July 1999.
Reconciling with the Beast: Understanding and dealing with the impact of trauma work on therapists, Paper presented at the Sixth European Conference on Traumatic Stress - Psychotraumatology, Clinical Practice and Human Rights, Istanbul, Turkey, 5-8 June 1999.
The Nature of the Beast: Presentation of psychological trauma in South Africa, Paper presented at the Sixth European Conference on Traumatic Stress - Psychotraumatology, Clinical Practice and Human Rights, Istanbul, Turkey, 5-8 June 1999.
Hajiyiannis, H & Robertson, M
Counsellors' Appraisals of the Wits Trauma Counselling Model: Strengths and limitations, Paper presented at the Traumatic Stress in South Africa: Working Towards Solutions Conference Johannesburg, South Africa, 27-29 January 1999.
Taming the Beast: Modes of intervention in South Africa, Paper presented at the Sixth European Conference on Traumatic Stress - Psychotraumatology, Clinical Practice and Human Rights, Istanbul, Turkey, 5-8 June 1999.
Sacoor, S, Hajiyiannis, H & Spencer, F
Challenges and Obstacles Faced by Mental Health Professionals in Assisting Torture Survivors in South Africa: A case study, Paper presented at the Fifth International Seminar for Torture: A Challenge to Health, Legal and other Professions, New Delhi, India, 22-25 September 1999
Spencer, F, Garcia, M & Sacoor, S
Xenophobia: Somali refugee women's psychological functioning pre- and post- migration to South Africa and suggestions for intervention strategies, Poster presentation at the Sixth European Conference on Traumatic Stress - Psychotraumatology, Clinical Practice and Human Rights, Istanbul, Turkey, 5-8 June 1999.
Gender, Development and Militarisation within the SADC Region, Paper presented at the Ceasefire conference: The Struggle for the Soul of SADC - Development or Militarisation? Mayfair Convent, 16-17 April 1999.
Rape and the Legal System, Paper presented at the Women and the Law Conference, Rand Afrikaans University, 1-2 June 1999.
"Book Review: Cries without tears", Article 40, Vol. 1, No. 3, November 1999, p. 5.
"A Review of Islamic Fundamentalism: Myths and realities", Ahmad S. Moussalli (ed.), The Ethnic Conflict Research Digest, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1999, p. 10.
Terre Blanche, M & Hamber, B
"The Guts to Fight Back", Psychology in Society, No. 25, 1999, pp. 60-62.
"Why we can't give police more firepower", Sunday Times, 19 September 1999.
Hamber, B & Rasmussen, K
"Reparations debate must start anew", Business Day, 29 October 1999.
"Frustrated prosecutors near breaking point", Business Day, 27 January 1999.
Robertson, M & Hajiyiannis, H
"Counselling for crime victims", Sowetan, 18 February 1999.
"Freedom Breeds Crime: Grist for authoritarian mill", Business Day, 15 September 1999.
"Expo 2000 casts wary eye on human achievements", Business Day, 14 October 1999.
"In sight: Fight for future dominance is behind latest taxi violence", Business Day, 14 October 1999.
"Holocaust monument scuffle", Sunday Independent, 28 October 1999.
"Ngcuka's pied piper charms a host of scorpions", Business Day, 2 November 1999.
"Constitutional Court can take cue from foreign experiences", Business Day, 11 November 1999.
"SA cannot overlook civilian oversight of police", Business Day, 2 December 1999.
"The gamble isn't worth the prize", Mail & Guardian, 5 December 1999.
"Rape in the public eye", Saturday Star, June 1999.
"How far have we come in dealing with violence against women?" The Sunday Independent: Reconstruct, 8 August 1999.
"Rape is about gender and power" (co-authored with Cathy Albertyn), The Sunday Independent: Reconstruct, 7 November 1999.
Education and Media Unit
East Side, six part drama series on racism and human rights issues for Take Five, SABC 1, September 1999.
Sport Against Crime, 52 five-minute inserts for Topsport, March - December 1999.
Educational Books and Manuals
Peer Counselling in Schools, Education and Media Unit, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, September 1999.
Vienings, T (ed.)
Opening Pathways: Life skills for grade 8, Hodder & Stoughton, Johannesburg, December 1999.
Vienings, T, Clacherty, G & Geyer, Y
East Side: Dealing with racism in schools, Education and Media Unit, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, July 1999.
Vienings, T & Commijs, C
Trauma Management in Schools, Education and Media Unit, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, September 1999.
Vienings, T, Geyer, Y & Commijs, C
Safe Schools Policy, Education and Media Unit, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, September 1999.
|Election '99: Pre-empting PotentialViolence and Intimidation||Network of Independent Monitors Urban Monitoring and Awareness Committee - The Electoral Institute of SA|
|Wits Health Science Faculty's Internal Reconciliation Commission: Lessons & Implications||Professor Max Price, Dr Mohammed Tikly & Tanya Goodman|
|Health Care Provision for Refugees: Challenges and Obstacles||Frances Spencer & Marivic Garcia|
|Managing Conflict in Society: Public Order Policing in Partnership||Eddy Hendricks & Dominique Van Ryckeghem|
|Guns and Crime: Raising the Voices of Victims and Perpetrators||Gift Motaung & Lauren Segal|
19 August 1999
|Confronting Torture in the 'New' South Africa||Peter Jordi, Frances Spencer & Dr Tertius Geldenhuys|
|Proposed Legislation to Deal with Rape and HIV/AIDS||Lebo Malepe, Judge Edwin Cameron & Lisa Vetten|
In 1999 CSVR instituted an internal seminar programme. These seminars, held by staff for fellow staff members, were aimed at broadening CSVR's internal knowledge base. The structured forum gave researchers and other interested staff time to reflect and debate current questions and issues. It also provided a forum in which staff could present initial research findings and draw on the experience of their colleagues in interpreting complex information. Staff were encouraged to present their own seminars and also had the option of inviting guest specialists. This process will be continued in 2000 as it proved extremely beneficial in deepening the knowledge base of CSVR.
8 November 1999
Proposed Legislation to Deal with Rape and HIV/AIDS
Presenters: Lebo Malepe, Judge Edwin Cameron & Lisa Vetten
5 March 1999
The Need for Post-TRC Prosecutions
Presenter: Polly Dewhirst
19 March 1999
Old Enemies in Bed! Consequences of an ANC-IFP Alliance?
Presenter: Mzi Lwandle Memeza
16 April 1999
Lessons from History and How These Can be Applied to the South African Context
Presenter: Kim Feinberg
23 April 1999
Why has Violence been Taking Place Along ANC/UDM Divisions?
Presenter: Goodwill Ditlhage
21 May 1999
What If the IFP Loses the Administration of KwaZulu-Natal in the June Elections?
Presenter: Lazarus Kgalema
4 June 1999
Just Who Are the Barbarians? South African Attitudes to "Foreigners"
Presenter: Bronwyn Harris
8 June 1999
A Gun Free South Africa?
Presenter: Adele Kirsten
8 July 1999
Crime and Democracy in the USA
Presenter: Fran Buntman
6 August 1999
Crime and Violence in Greater Johannesburg
Presenters: Kindiza Ngubeni & Carla Commijs
1 October 1999
Research Ethics - A Utilitarian Approach
Presenter: Eddie Webster
Research Ethics - Guidelines and Procedures
Presenter: Brian McKendrick